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Specializing in the Lore of American Business 

Industry and the Professions. 






FOR 1861. 




" I labor for the good time coming, when sickness and disease, except congenital, or from acci- 
dent, will be regarded as the result of ignorance or animalism, and will degrade the individual, in 
the estimation of the good, as much as drunkenness now does. — Ibid. 


W. W. HALL, M.D 







Appetite, Instinct of, 138 

Alexander, James W, 17 7 

A Great Want, 233 

Air and Sunshine, 252 

Apples, 265 

Baths and Bathing, 49 

Bare Neck and Arms, 50 

Blackburn, Gideon, 223 

Brag, Thinking, 264 

Coal-Fires, 11 

Cities, Health of, 42, 19 

Crying Babies, 20 

Clerical Reading, 22 

Cold Feet, 13, 61, 20 

Chambers, Ventilated, 41 

Colds, How Taken, 149, 62 

Cooling Off Slowly, 64 

Consumption, Signs, 66 

Cured, 71 

Central Park, 83 

Croup, 189, 103 

Clergyman, Wrecked, 110 

Clock-Flowers, 128 

Common-Sense, 16*7 

Choosing a Minister, 209 

Coffee Drinking, 219 

Costiveness, 254 

Catarrhs, 257 

Commendatory, 267 

Cookery and Health, 285 

Death's Doings, 12 

Dyspepsia, 15 

Drinking, 17 

Doubtful Witness, 25 

Dangerous Curiosity, 47 

Diphtheria, 97 

Death's Avenues, 112 

" Weapons, 114 

Disease Prevented, 125 

Death-Traps, 129 

Daughters, Our, 133 

Debts, Pay Your, 186, 159 

Drifting, 225 

Daring To Do, 232 

Dollars and Ideas, 236 


Diet for Invalids, 259 

Damp Feet, (sad case,) 284 

Eating, 122, 246, 44, 16 

Exercise, A New, 130 

Eyesight, Failing, 243 

Education, 267 

Feet, 253, 48, 20, 13 

Fireplaces, Open, 38 

Farm and City Life, 42 

Flowers, 127 

" Faint, yet Pursuing," 228 

Fifteen Follies, 258 

Fruit, Packing, 268 

Gas, 24 

Great Salve, 24 

Greed of Gold 230 

Health and Disease, 5 

Hair, Beautiful, 19 

Healthful Observances, 151 

Hungry for Two Years, 165 

Human Hopes, 194 

Honesty Rewarded, 198 

Habit, 235 

Headache, 247 

Health's Essentials, 248 

Happiest Persons, 262 

Ineffable Pills, 25 

Instinct of Appetite, 138 

Jacob's Dream, 191 

Jewel in a Blouse, 229 

Leaden Water-Pipes, (Vol. 5, 165,).. 8 

Life Lost, How, 12 

Longevity, 62, 170, 29 

Laugh, Pill of, 115 

Late Suppers, 121 

Literature, Present, 195 

Living to Purpose, 223 

Marrying, 268, 107 

Marvels of Man, 131 

Mother, Faithful, 137 




Miasm, 201 

Mad Dogs, 217 

Moral Medicine, 245 

Newspapers, 18 

New- York Sights, 2V 

Norcom's, Dr., Case, 71 

National Health, 87 

Nelson, Dr. D., 153 

Night Air, 184 

Neuralgia, 250 

Nice Young Man, 260 

Odoriferous Feet, 13 

Open Fireplaces, 38 

Over-Eating, 44 

Old Age, Statistics, 170, 62 

Orchards, 158 

Preventing Disease, 135, 34 

Parks, 83 

Private Things, 251, 100 

Precautions, 150 

Presence of Mind, 152 

Paying Publishers, 186 

Pew System, 199 

Public Speaking, 202 

Pure Air, 220 

Premonitions, 249 

Piano Music, 267 

Pestilence and Plague, 284 

Reading, 22 

Recklessness, 46 

Rheumatism, 211 

Rail-Roading, 261 


Sleeping, 255, 37, 31 

Small-Pox, 32 

Smoking Tobacco, 119, 46 

Schools, 207, 238, 88 

Stimulants, 92 

Spring Suggestions, 94 

Suppers, Late, 121 

Skating, 120 

Secret Out, 122 

Science for Christianity, 132 

" Its Achievements, 141 

" Aiding Justice, 144 

Soldier-Health,, 173, 147 

Striking Sentiments, 192 

Sharpe, Ebenezer, 236 

Sick Headache, 247 

Shins, Cracking, 282 

Skating, 288 

Thermometers, 23 

Teeth, 209, 35 

Tobacco, 183, 46 

Throat- Ail, 51 

Trials of Life, 129 

Thinking Well, 196 

The Three P's, 218 

Taking Physic, 241 

Ventilation, 171, 41 

Wonderfully Made, 86 

Wife Search, 197 

Wonderful Woman, 215 

"Wanted," 224 

War, The 279 

Youth Warned, 223 


Our Legitimate Scope is almost boundless : for whatever begets pleasurable 
and harmless feelings, promotes Health ; and whatever induces 
disagreeable sensations, engenders Disease. 


Vol. VIII.] JANUARY, 1861. [No. 1. 


Two months ago, one of the very sweetest " teens" of the 
sunny South possessed herself of our book on Health and 
Disease, as she was about to return to her home of sunshine 
and of flowers, and writes of it to a New- York lady: " Dr. 
Hall's book was my constant companion on the steamer. I 
studied it all day, and slept with it under my pillow at night." 
A happy thing would it be for the daughters of our land, if 
such a book could replace the blood-and-murder newspaper, the 
trashy monthly, the infidel magazine, and the corrupting novel ; 
a book which does not deal in symptoms, which never advises 
a dose of medicine, and rides no hobby, but which seeks to 
show how disease is engendered, and how health may be main- 
tained, the happiness of being always well, and the calamity of 
being always sick. Instructions such as these are absolutely 
essential to the well-being of the young, many of whom spend 
a large portion of their time in fictitious reading, yet give not 
an hour in a day, a week, a month ! to the study of the pre- 
servation of that health which is the foundation and conserva- 
tor of personal beauty and social and domestic enjoyment. 
We earnestly invite every subscriber who has children, to pre- 
sent a copy of the book to each one of them, with the injunc- 
tion to read it once a year carefully and deliberately, for many 
a household is made childless prematurely, in consequence of 
ignorance of two or three general principles laid down therein 
with the greatest clearness. 

But how little did that sweet girl think while she was pen- 
ning her letter, that a portion of it would appear in print, and 
before the close of the year, would be found in a bound vol- 

6 hall's journal of health. 

ume, in the largest libraries, North and South, East and West, 
and that she was contributing her mite to the sum total of the 
enjoyment of many thousands of readers. Happy he who 
wins such a prize ; but he will have to fight for it, as it seems 
there is a cordon of black hearts ! around it, ready to resist the 
capture of " young missus," with all the desperation of a simple 
and pure affection ; for read a little further : " We did not get 
any sleep on the steamer, and retired immediately on our ar- 
rival home, but could not possibly get any repose, for as soon 
as the negroes heard that we had retired, they must all come 
to see us, and if they found us asleep, they would give us such a 
shaking and hugging, (some body would have liked to have been 
a nigger just then, for a spell any how,) that I was glad enough to 
get up and keep my face out of their reach, and receive all their 
demonstrations on my neck and arms. They would hold us 
out at arms' length, and comment quite amusingly on our ap- 
pearance. Cumseh and Corah were wild with delight — they did 
nothing but grin and run after us for two days." And then 
she goes on to distribute the presents among the little curly- 
heads. There is moral beauty in scenes like these; they re- 
mind us of the by-gones of our own sunnier childhood ; and 
one other that we often think of in these frigid climes, and 
which might bear repetition in every Northern family where 
there are servants. But how many Northern families take that 
interest in the soul's welfare of their hired help ? Does one 
family in ten do it ? or in one thousand ? We see grandmother 
now, with her jolly fat cheeks, united with puritanic determina- 
tion, seated in a chair, the Shorter Catechism in one hand and 
Watts' divine and moral songs in the other ; the little negroes 
standing around in a huge semicircle, all washed and clean, after 
breakfast ; the arms and hands of each making a pyramid, the 
apex of which, formed by the two fore-fingers of each hand, 
touched the " septum," the partition of the nostril, for they 
were going to " say their prayers." How their little black eyes 
twinkled ! A few were sedate ; some assumed a mock solemnity ; 
but the greater number gave too clear proof of their total de- 
pravity, in the sly twinkle, or " irrepressible conflict," not Grov. 
Seward's, but the vain battle between a solemn look and a titter. 
The solemns, however, almost always came out second best, and 
there was a general explosion and utter demoralization of 


the ranks ! and grandmother would let her hands fall down 
helplessly in her lap and sigh for their degeneracy. But like 
her grandson, she never gave up any thing, and would always 
" put 'em through" the curriculum. But she and many of them 
have long since passed away, and no doubt now occupy the 
same platform in heaven where the vain distinctions of time 
and human weakness are never known. 

But where have we wandered ? We must confess that we 
are powerless to "make the connection" between teaching lit- 
tle negroes to say their prayers and the legitimate objects of a 
Journal of Health, except it be in the direction that if every 
Christian family would strive to do its whole duty towards do- 
mestics, as did our grandmother, in taking a deep, sincere, and 
pious interest in their religious welfare, there would at once be 
swept from our households a very large share of the causes of 
disquietude, of fretfulness, and almost hourly irritation, found in 
unfaithful, incompetent and unprincipled servants, and which 
have so large a share, in the long run, in eating out that glad- 
ness of heart and joyousness of spirit, the absence of which is 
so fruitful of both bodily and mental maladies. But alacka- 
day ! we fear the times are so much out of joint now, that mul- 
titudes of intelligent households are all guiltless, not only of 
personal religious teaching of the servants, but of the children 
too, their time being taken up in reading " moral" magazines 
and books crammed full of " religious fictions," as a compromise 
on " Sunday reading" between the Bible and fashion-plate 
monthlies. Let each mother make a note of it, and put it 
down in parallel columns, how much time of each day for any 
week is expended in discussing and deciding the points as to 
the cost and style and tint of the various articles of dress, how 
much in "fixing" for "the party," for the dancing-school, the 
"receptions" and the "at-home" days, and then how much is 
devoted to loving teachings at the knee, about the vanities of 
time, the shortness of life, the certainty of death, and the means 
of preparation therefor. Then let another parallel column be 
made, let one state the sum total of efforts made to teach our 
children how to live for themselves, and in the other how to 
live for others. The benevolent live long, healthfully, happily, 
and in honor ; the selfish, the wicked, shall not live out half 
their days. 


The above was crowded out of the December number after it 
was already in type. That ignoble quality, worldly policy, 
would have given it, to the exclusion of any other article, as 
all subscriptions ended with that number, and nearly half our 
patrons live south of Mason and Dixon's line. It might have 
tempted some to renew, who, without it, would not. But we 
don't choose to live either by politics or policy ; both debase. 

LEADEN WATER-PIPES — It is a well-established fact 
that persons are constantly losing health and life by the poison 
introduced into their systems through the water brought to 
their dwellings by leaden pipes. The first and best precaution 
is to avoid using the first water drawn, either for drinking or 
cooking purposes. The longer the faucet has been unturned, 
the longer should the water be allowed to run to waste — say 
a minute after a night's disuse. It has recently been sug- 
gested by an influential daily paper, that to prevent a useless 
waste of water in New- York, water-meters should be attached 
to each building, as in the case of gas. This is a most mis- 
chievous suggestion, for then the desire to save expense would 
cause multitudes to run the risk of lead-poison. The supply of 
water should be as unrestricted as possible, especially in 
great cities and crowded dwellings. 

To poison the water, the lead must be decomposed ; this is 
done by whatever detains the water in the pipe ; not that the 
water itself decomposes the lead, but wherever water is detain- 
ed, there is a sediment, which sediment always contains decom- 
posable particles, such as bits of leaves, wood, animal, or other 
organic matter ; even inorganic substances undergo chemical 
decomposition, and acting on the lead cause corrosion or oxyge- 
nation. There are three great efficient precautions which ought 
to be taken in the' introduction of water into dwellings through 
leaden pipes. First, no particle of mortar or stone or other 
obstruction should be left in the pipe at the time of its being 
laid. Second, every possible care should be taken to avoid 
any indentation of the pipe, especially on its under portion. 
Third, never allow a short turn in the pipe, no approach to a 
right angle, but make a segment of as large a circle as possible. 
The nearer a straight line the better and safer by far. In fact a 
direct conduit is the only perfect safety, as long as lead is used. 


IMPROVING THE JOURNAL — If we had yielded to 
the thousand and one hints proffered " in fee," for the improve- 
ment of our Journal, it would probably have died of inanition 
years ago ; but from the very first we have made it a point to 
take nobody's advice, to make no attempt to please any one 
but our supreme self. But we do believe that we have the 
easiest-pleased set of subscribers in the world ; if any thing 
exceeds it, it is the partiality of our exchanges, exhibited in 
the fact, that at various times, every single article in a whole 
number has been copied by some one of them. We do not 
believe that the same thing can be said of any other monthly 
publication in the civilized world, where the whole was written 
by the editor. Sometimes, however, a subscriber suggests to us, 
in the most chary manner possible, another class of subjects, 
or the omission of some as not being particularly pertinent to 
health. The greatest unanimity, however, is in the direction of 
an inquiry as to the connection between the subject treated and 
health. On the reverse of the sheet on which we are writing, 
(those reverse sides of notes, letters, etc., have constituted our 
entire supply of writing-paper for the Journal since its com- 
mencement,) a venerated friend of three-score and ten remarks 
deprecatingly of our article on " Donation Parties : " " By 
the way, this subject, although treated by you in an interest- 
ing manner, does not fall within the scope of a Journal of 
Health." We might have inquired, Yankeely, if there was no 
" connection" between feeding ministers on sham and unusable 
toys, and moonshine, and starvation ! We once gave directions 
for " doing up " shirt-bosoms neatly. A doctor wanted to know 
the " connection." We did not think it worth while to impart 
the desired information at the time. He has since then sub- 
sided into invisibility. But there is a very close connection 
between cleanliness of any portion of our apparel and health. 
We have often thought of the criticism since, and it has led us 
to inquire whether it is not every one's duty to make an effort 
to appear as tidy as possible in the presence of others. The 
very contemplation of tidiness tends to produce an imitation 
of it, an ambition for at least an equal amount of it. Who 
shall not say that the sight of a very poor but tidy child, its 
clean and well-patched garments, does not on the instant send 
our thoughts to the home of its mother, with an irrepressible 

10 hall's jouknal of health. 

feeling of respect and sympathy for her ? "We have many a 
time seen the gentleman, in the " foxy," well -brushed hat, and 
the thread-bare coat, or neatly darned pantaloons, worn through 
at the knee. 

But our thoughts have gone further, and as this is a gossip- 
ing article, they may as well be recorded. Is it not better to 
hide our deformities on the street and in the drawing-rooms of 
our friends, and remove from our persons, or cover whatever 
there may be calculated to excite other than pleasurable feel- 
ings ? Is it not better to wear a beautiful set of false teeth, 
such as Allen of Bond street makes, than to appear with un- 
sightly snaggles or with toothless gums ; with an artificial limb, 
than with none at all ; with a handsome wig or comety cap, 
than a bald pate? We ourselves have an involuntary re- 
spect for any old man or woman who, through the infirmities 
of age and the sorrows of time, evidently labors for a tidy per- 
sonal appearance. It costs them labor, but they prefer it to 
lazy slovenliness. 

Once on a time, long, long ago, when we sometimes admitted 
articles not original, one of the Sparrowgrass Papers appeared 
in our pages. A much-respected and worthy lady friend wrote 
to know the "connection." We thought it was "imminent," 
direct, a perfect concatenation, for we knew of a case where it 
caused an unmentionable secession by reason of the vehement 
cachinnations caused thereby. So with pages 24 and 25. 

So, let it suffice once for all to say, that we do not want to be 
always writing about sickness, disease, and death ; about doses, 
and signs, and symptoms ; for actually, the true mode of bring- 
ing on a hygienal millennium, for banishing disease from the 
world as far as may be, is to begin at a point far back, when as 
yet there is no disease, and do what may be done to inculcate 
whatever may foster and encourage purity of heart, integrity 
of character, industry, economy and temperance in practical 
life ; and in every thing promoting cheerfulness, courage, hope- 
fulness and a lofty ambition to excel in the occupation or 
sphere in which the reader may be placed. Hence the un- 
wavering persistence we have shown in every number since 
the first, and in almost every page, on an average, in upholding 
the Sabbath-day, the Bible, our holy religion, its ministers 
and its friends ; and the hour we cease to do the same, may this 


hand write not another word forever; for in heaven all is 
purity and goodness, and in heaven alone is there no disease 
or suffering. 

MAKING COAL - FIRES. — Good hard coal is in square 
lumps, and breaks with a smooth, shining fracture. Bad coal 
has flat pieces of a dull color, as thick as the palm of the hand, 
and of greater or less size, which when burnt remain hard, 
heavy, and become whitish — hence called "bone." If a com- 
mon scuttle-ful of coal, about twenty -five pounds, yields, after 
the cinders are washed next morning, half a pound of white 
pieces, it is not good coal. 

The kindling-wood should not be over four inches long, and 
should not be spread out over the paper or the shavings which 
are to kindle it, but should be moderately compact, so as to 
concentrate the heat given out to as few pieces of coal as pos- 
sible, which pieces should not be larger than a walnut, nor much 
smaller, because a piece of coal must be heated through and 
through before it "catches fire;" hence, if the piece is large, 
the amount of wood used may not contain enough caloric to 
properly heat the coal, and the fire will go out, to the great dis- 
couragement of the servant, and the unreasonable wrath fulness 
of the served, making perhaps a "bad beginning," which is to 
cloud the whole day, impairing digestion, and exciting an ugly 
temper, the ungenial effects of which a whole family may be 
made to feel for the next twenty-four hours. 

The wood may be covered, just out of sight, with walnut, 
sized pieces of coal, and when these have become red, cover 
them over with larger pieces, to be added to thereafter, as may 
be necessary. 

If a coal-fire seems likely to go out, the most effectual way 
to complete the process is to riddle out the ashes, or to add 
more coal ; for the ashes retain some heat to send up to small 
pieces; but if larger or too numerous, there is not enough 
caloric to heat them through and through, which must precede 
their enkindling. Sometimes a coal-fire, where the coal is fresh 
and is almost kindled, is thoroughly lighted up by introducing 
between or just under the pieces, a few splinters of lighted 
wood in such a manner as to disturb the coal as little as pos- 

12 hall's jouknal of health. 

DEATH'S DOINGS IN ENGLAND.— Half of all who died 
in England and Wales during 1858, were under seventeen 
years of age. More than one hundred thousand died of dis- 
ease of the lungs. Consumption killed twenty-five thousand, 
Pneumonia killed more than consumption, and Bronchitis 
killed more than Pneumonia. The common name of the last- 
mentioned is " Inflammation of the lungs," and is usually fatal 
in a few days. In cases of recovery, it is painfully slow, some- 
times requiring weary years. It is always caused by the appli- 
cation of cold, and uniformly, in one of two ways, either by 
remaining in damp clothing, or in damp, cold rooms, until 
chilled through and through, or by standing or sitting still 
in the cold, after being a considerable time in a heated condi- 
tion, whether from exercise or warm rooms. An attack of 
pneumonia always alarms the experienced physician. By 
knowing its causes, and wisely avoiding them, multitudes of 
valuable lives would be saved every year. Let every reader 
treasure these facts in his memory. 

HOW LIFE IS LOST. — A man died the other day at the 
Belle vue Hospital, after being sick over two years. On open 
ing the chest, there was scarcely a single inch of sound lungs 
on one side ; the organ had broken down in one mass of cor- 
ruption, and the yellow matter of consumption was dipped out 
with a skull, the most convenient cup at hand. He had been 
working in the garden one summer's day, and feeling a little 
tired at noon, went round to the shady side of the house and 
sat down to rest. A little wind was blowing, which was so very 
grateful to him that he indulged himself in it for some min- 
utes, when he was taken with a chill, and never knew a well 
moment afterwards. 

Only two days ago, one of the sweetest possible pair of black 
eyes came to in quire, with all the shrinking and diffidence in- 
separable from the occasion, what we thought of the case of a 
young gentleman who had applied for advice within the week, 
stating as a reason, that they were engaged to be married. 

The young man in question had arisen one morning in early 
May, and dressed in very light clothing, but he was so much 
mistaken in the temperature of the weather, that he was soon 
chilled, without the means of changing his condition for some 


time, that is, lie felt chilly for several consecutive hours, and 
had been an invalid ever since. The disease had made such 
fearful progress, that two thirds of his lungs were useless to 
him ; and emaciation, night-sweats, harassing cough and swollen 
feet, made it useless to afford the encouragement of even pre- 
scribing for the case. 

These two cases involve the same principle — getting chilled ; 
one after exercise, the other by remaining cold for hours. 
Surely it is not hard to remember the lesson. Let every parent 
impress it on the mind of each child on the instant, and it may 
prevent the great calamity of dying childless, than which there 
are not many harder for the heart to bear ; indeed it often fails 
to bear them, and breaks under the burden. 

ODOKIFEROUS FEET. — You can smell some people a 
mile off — be the same more or less. That an odor issues from 
every person peculiar to himself, is proven by the fact that the 
dog can find his master although out of sight ; but this emana- 
tion from the body is so ethereal generally, that the human sense 
of smell can not distinguish it. In very rare instances the 
calamity may be inherited, or may arise from a scrofulous con- 
stitution. At the same time it is true, that in almost every case, 
bad-smelling feet, or person, arises from old perspiration in a 
decaying condition. There is no special odor to the perspira- 
tion from the hands. It is because they are constantly exposed 
to the air and are frequently washed and ventilated ; and so 
with the face. It is from the feet always covered ; from the 
arm -pits seldom washed; and from the groins always in a 
perspiring condition, that fetid odors come. The remedy then 
is the plentiful and frequent application of soap and hot water, 
twice a day, as long as needed. This may not avail sometimes ; 
especially with men, for many keep their boots on the whole 
day ; the perspiration of the feet condenses on them, decom- 
poses, and the gas given out is absorbed by the leather, and 
remains permanently. In such cases not only is the strictest 
personal cleanliness necessary, the toes and nails being very 
particularly attended to, but shoes should be worn to allow of a 
more free escape of gases ; they should be changed every day ; 
and when not on the feet, should be exposed to the out-door 
air, so as to have a most thorough ventilation. 

14 hall's jouknal of health. 

" Aqua Ammonia" (Hartshorn water) is used by some for 
the removal of unpleasant personal odors ; but it has one of its 
own scarcely more agreeable, and perhaps it acts only by having 
a stronger smell. The most efficient plan is attention to the 
strictest cleanliness and the use of shoes, as above, and if, in 
addition, a high state of general health is maintained by tem- 
perance and exercise out of doors several hours daily, the most 
inveterate fetors will seldom fail of removal. 

A QUEER SIGHT. — -Not long ago a man came into the hos- 
pital as doleful a looking object as one need to look at. There 
was a combination of expression in his countenance which was 
perfectly ludicrous. He was evidently in great pain, but he 
looked most particularly solemn, for he could not imagine what 
was the matter with himself. His arms were extended at an 
angle of about forty -five degrees, and hanging helplessly down- 
wards, as if there was something on his fingers which he was 
anxious to keep from his trowserloons. Both his arms were dis- 
located downwards at the shoulder, caused by his eating too 
much supper ! Now the blessing of eating nothing at all later 
than a one o'clock dinner is a "double and thribble one," at 
least to sedentary and otherwise inactive persons — namely, a 
night of luscious sleep, a glorious appetite for breakfast, and a 
sunny temper all day, to say nothing of exemption from horri- 
ble dreams, walking out of third-story windows, and ghostly 
nightmares. The man had eaten a late dinner of bacon and cab- 
bage, and being very tired, retired immediately to bed, but not 
to sound repose, for he dreamed that a whole regiment of hob- 
goblins was after him. He put forth almost superhuman efforts 
to escape, but at the very instant of their laying their claws on 
him, he made a tremendous leap upwards, with the result of 
the painful luxation just named. Those who eat heartily, late 
in the day, do not always escape so easily, for naturally turning 
on their backs, the weight of what they have eaten steadily 
presses on the great blood-vessels of the body near the back- 
bone, arrests the flow of blood, dams it up in the brain until 
effusion takes place, that is, apoplexy, and is instant death. 
Such are the cases where persons are found dead in their beds 
in the morning, with the accompanying remark : "He seemed 
as well yesterday as he ever was in his life." 



Dyspepsia is the inability of the stomach to prepare from the food eaten the nourishment requi- 
site to sustain the body, and to supply it with pure blood, which, in its impure, unnatural condi- 
tion, is sent to every fiber of the system ; hence there is not a square inch of the body which is 
not liable to be affected with uneasiness or actual pain, and that portion will suffer most which 
has been previously weakened, or diseased, or injured in any way. Hence among a dozen dys- 
peptics, no two will have the same predominant symptoms, either in nature or locality ; and a8 
these persons differ further in age, sex, temperament, constitution, occupation, and habits of mind 
and body, it is the hight of absurdity to treat any two dyspeptics precisely alike ; hence the 
failure to cure in many curable cases. 

Dyspeptics of high mental power and of a bilious temperament, are subject to sick-headache ; 
those who are fat and phlegmatic, have constipation and cold feet ; while the thin and nervous 
have horrible neuralgies, which make of life a continued martyrdom, or they are abandoned to 
forebodings so gloomy, and even fearful sometimes, as to eat out all the joy of life, and make 
death a longed-for event. Some dyspeptics are wonderfully forgetful ; others have such an irri- 
tability of temper as to render companionship with them, even for a few hours, painful, while 
there is such a remarkable incapacity of mental concentration, of fixedness of purpose, that it is 
impossible to secure any connected effort for recovery. 

There are some general principles of cure applicable to all, and which will seldom fail of high 

1. The entire body should be washed once a week with soap, hot water, and a stiff brush. 

2. Wear woolen next the skin the year round, during the daytime only. 

3. By means of ripe fruits and berries, coarse bread, and other coarse food, keep the bowels 
acting freely once in every twenty-four hours. 

4 Under all circumstances, keep the feet always clean, dry, and warm. 

5. It is most indispensable to have the fullest plenty of sound, regular, connected, and refresh 
ing sleep in a clean, light, well-aired chamber, with windows facing the sun. 

6. Spend two or three hours of every forenoon, and one or two of every afternoon, rain or 
shine, in the open air, in some form of interesting, exhilarating, and unwearying exercise — walk- 
ing, with a cheering and entertaining companion is the very best. 

7. Eat at regular times, and always slowly. 

8. That food is best for each which is most relished, and is followed by the least discomfort. 
What may have benefited or injured one, is no rule for another. This eighth item is of universal 

9. Take but a teacupful of any kind of drink at one meal, and let that be hot. 

10. Confine yourself to coarse bread of corn, rye, or wheat — to ripe, fresh, perfect fruits and 
berries, in their natural state — and to fresh lean meats, broiled or roasted, as meat is easier of 
digestion than vegetables. Milk, gravies, pastries, heavy hot bread, farinas, starches, and greasy 
food in general, aggravate dyspepsia by their constipating tendencies. 

11. It is better to eat at regular times as often as hungry, but so little at once, as to occasion no 
discomfort whatever. 

12. Constantly aim to divert the mind from the bodily condition, in pleasant ways ; this is half 
he cure in many case3. 



Before a man becomes hungry, watchful nature has calculated, in her 
way, how much nutriment the body needs, and provides as much of a 
liquid substance as will be necessary to prepare from the food which may 
be eaten, that amount of sustenance which the system may require. When 
this is stored up, and all is ready, the sensation of hunger commences, and 
increases with the steadily increasing amount of the digesting material 
just referred to, and the very instant the firs tmouthful of food is swallowed, 
this "gastric juice" is poured out into the stomach through a thousand 
sluices • but no more has been prepared than was necessary, for Nature 
does nothing in vain ; so that if a single mouthful more of food has -"been 
swallowed than the untempted or unstimulated appetite would have called 
for, there is no gastric juice for its solution, and it remains but to fret and 
worry and irritate for hours together. If the amount eaten is much in 
excess, the stomach, as if in utter discouragement at the magnitude of its 
task, ceases its attempts at digestion, and forthwith commences the process 
of ejecting the unnatural load by means of nausea and vomiting in some 
cases ; in others, it remains for an hour or more like a weight, a hard round 
ball, or a lump of lead, an uneasy heaviness ; then it begins to "sour," that 
is, to decompose, to rot, and the disgusting gas or liquid comes up into the 
throat, causing more or less of a scalding sensation from the pit of the 
stomach to the throat ; this is called " heartburn." At length, the 
half-rotted mixture is forced out of the mouth by the outraged stomach 
with that horrible odor and taste with which every glutton is familiar. In 
some cases the stenchy mass is passed out of the stomach downwards, 
causing, in its progress, a gush of lftniid from all parts of the intestinal 
canal, to wash it, with a flood, out of the system ; this is the " Diarrhea " 
which surprises the gourmand at midnight or in the early morning hours, 
when a late or over-hearty meal has been eaten. When sufficient food has 
been taken for the amount of gastric juice supplied, hunger ceases, and 
every mouthful swallowed after that, no gastric juice having been prepared 
for its dissolution, remains without any healthful change, inflaming, and 
irritating, and exhausting the stomach by its efforts to get rid of it, and 
this is the first step towards forming " dyspepsia, 1 ' which becomes more 
and more deeply fixed by every repeated outrage, until at length it remains 
a life-time worry to the mind, filling it with horrible imaginings, and a 
wearing wasting torture to the body, until it passes into the grave. 

The moral of the article is, that the man who " forces" his food, he who 
eats without an inclination, and he who strives by tonics, or bitters, or wine, 
or other alcoholic liquors, to " get up" an appetite, is a sinner against body 
and soul — a virtual suicide ! 

Thirty-two Health Tracts are sent post-paid for Thirteen Cents. 



Man is the only animal that drinks without being thirsty, swallowing whole 
quarts of water when Nature does not call for it, with the alleged view of 
tk washing out " the system. When persons are thirsty, that thirst should be fully 
assuaged with moderately cool water, drank (in summer time or under great bodily 
heat or fatigue) very leisurely, but not within half an hour of eating a regular 
meal. Eminent physiologists agree that drinking at meals dilutes the gastric 
juice, diminishes its solvent power, and retards digestion, especially if what is 
drank is cold. Persons in vigorous health, and who work or exercise a great 
part of every day in the open air, may drink a glass of water, or a single cup of 
weak coffee or tea, at each meal, and live to a good old age. But it is very cer- 
tain that sedentary persons and invalids can not go beyond that habitually, with 
impunity. The wisdom of such consists in drinking nothing at all at the regular 
meals beyond a swallow or two at a time of some hot drink of a mild and nutri- 
tious character. Feeble persons will be benefited by hot drinks, because they 
warm up the body, excite the circulation, and thus promote digestion, if taken 
while eating, and not exceeding a cupful. 

Cold water ought never to be drank within half an hour of eating ; for the 
colder it is, the more instantly does it arrest digestion, not only by diluting the 
gastric juice, but by reducing its temperature, which is near one hundred degrees. 
Ice-water is something over thirty-two degrees, and, when swallowed, mixes with 
the gastric juice, and lowers its temperature, not to be elevated until heat enough 
has been withdrawn from the general system ; and that draft must be made until 
the hundred degrees of warmth are attained : but some persons have so little 
vitality, that the body exhausts itself in its instinctive efforts to help the stomach, 
from which its life and strength come ; and the person rises from the table with a 
cold chill running down the back or over the whole body. Sometimes these 
drafts upon the body for warmth to the stomach are so sudden and great, that 
they can not be met, and instantaneous death is the result. Many a person has 
dropped dead at the pump or at the* spring; such a result is more certain if, in 
addition to the person being very warm at the time of drinking, there is also 
great bodily fatigue. A French general recently fell dead from drinking cold 
water on reaching the top of a mountain over-heated and exhausted in the effort 
of bringing up his battalions with promptitude. Under all circumstances of heat 
or fatigue, the glass of water should be grasped in the hand, held half a minute, 
then, taking not over two swallows, rest a quarter of a minute ; then two swallows 
more, and so on, until the thirst is nearly assuaged. It will seldom happen that 
a person is inclined to take over half a dozen swallows thus. 

No case is remembered in the practice of a quarter of a century, where malt 
liquors, wines, brandies, or any alcoholic drinks whatever, have ever had a perma- 
nent good effect in improving the digestion. Apparent advantages sometimes 
result, but they are transient or deceptive. If there is no appetite, it is because 
Nature has provided no gastric juice ; and that is the product of Nature, not of 
alcohol. If there is appetite but no digestive power, liquor no more supplies that 
power than would the lash give strength to an exhausted donkey. If torture 
does arouse the sinking beast, it is only that it shall fall a little later into a still 
greater exhaustion from which there is no recovery; so with the use of liquor and 
tobacco as whetters of the appetite, when at length the desire for the accustomed 
stimulus ceases, and the man " sickens ;" there is no longer a relish for the (Irani 
and the chew, and life fades apace, either in a stupor from which there is no 
awaking, or by wasting and uncontrollable diarrhea. 


The following list includes some of the principal newspapers of more than mere local interest, which 
are regularly received as exchanges. The price and place of publication is of more importance and use 
to publishers and people than ever so good a "notice." The community forms its estimate of the 
value of a periodical more from the character of the pieces copied from it than from the commendations 
of the papers, which commendations are too frequently the result of partialities rather than of convictions, 
and the public have found this out. We frequently receive letters stating that the writers have for years 
been wanting to subscribe for " Hall's Journal of Health," but never could learn from their papers the 
price and place of publication. Hence, to do a real service to our brethren of the press, we make the 
following list, and will reproduce it from time to time. To our subscribers, one and all, we say, patron- 
ize your own local paper first ; and if you can spare any more money, then go further from home. 
" Custom to whom custom is due" is a good general principle. Your local paper brings more or les3 
business to your town or State, and it is your duty to make some return. 
American Presbyterian, Philadelphia— $2. 
American Railway Times, Boston— $2. 
American Railway Review, New- York— $2. 
Banner of the Cross, Philadelphia, Pa. — Episcopalian — $2. 
Baptist, Mount Lebanon, La. — $2. 

Banner of the Covenant, Philadelphia, Pa. — $2 — Religious. 
Commercial Advertiser, Honolula, Sandwich Islands — $2. 
Central Presbyterian, Richmond, Va.— $2. 

Christian Intelligencer, New-York — Dutch Reformed— 103 Fulton Street. 
Christian Inquirer, 111 Broadway, New- York — $2 — Unitarian. 
Courier and Inquirer, New-York — $2 — Secular— J. Watson Webb, Editor. 
Catholic Herald, Philadelphia— $2. 
Congregationalist, Boston— $2. 

Congregational Journal, Concord, N. H.— $2. 

Christian Advocate, Baltimore— $2— Methodist. 

Christian Intelligencer, Richmond, Va.— $2. 

Christian Times, Chicago, 111. — $2— Baptist. 

Christian Observer, Philadelphia — $2— Presbyterian. 

Eagle, Poughkeepsie, N. Y.— $2. 

Evangelist, 5 Beekman Street, New-York— $2 — Presbyterian. 

Examiner, New-York — 115 Nassau Street — $2 — Baptist. 

Evening Post, Weekly — $2 — New-York, corner of Nassau and Liberty Streets. 

Farmers' Advocate, Chicago, 111.— $1.50. 

Friend, Honolula, Sandwich Islands— $1. 

German Reformed Messenger, Chambersburgh, Pa.— 2. 

Home Journal— 107 Fulton Street, New-York— $2— Morris & Willis, Editors. 

Household Journal, 20 N. William Street— $1.50. 

Herald of Progress, 274 Canal Street, New-¥ork, A. J. Davis, Editor — Spiritual. 

Independent, 5 Beekman Street, New-York — $2 — Congregational. 

Lutheran Standard, Columbus, O.— $2. 

Lutheran, Philadelphia, Pa.— $2. 

Lutheran Observer, Baltimore, Md.— $2. 

Life Illustrated, 308 Broadway, New-York— $2— Fowler & Weils. 

Michigan Farmer, Detroit— $2. 

Methodist, 7 Beekman Street, New-York— $2. 

Miners' Journal, Pottsville, Pa.— $2. 

Missouri Baptist, St. Louis— $2. 

New- York Chronicle, 41 Park Row, New-York— $2— Baptist. 

Worth-Carolina Presbyterian, Fayetteville, N. C— $2. 

New-England Farmer, Boston, Mass.— $2. 

Olive Branch, Boston, Mass. — $2. 

Presbyter, Cincinnati, O.— $2. 

Presbyterian, Philadelphia, Pa.— $2.50. 

Presbyterian Expositor, Chicago, 111.— $2— N. L. Rice, D.D., Editor 

Presbyterian Herald, Louisville, Ky.— $2— W. W. Hill, D.D., Editor 

Presbyterian Banner, Pittsburgh— $2. 

Pacific, San Francisco, California— $5 — Presbyterian. 

Presbyterian of our Union, St. Louis, Mo.— $2. 

Religious Telescope, Dayton, O.— $2. 

Religious Herald, Richmond, Va.— $2— Baptist. 

Recorder, Boston, Mass.— $2— Congregational. 


HEALTH OF CITIES. — Estimating New- York to contain 
a million of people, and London two millions and a half, five 
hundred and fifty dying every week on an average in New- 
York and twelve hundred and twenty -five in London, the mor- 
tality of the two great commercial centers of the Old and the 
New World is j list the same. But there is no city in the civil- 
ized world so admirably adapted for health as New- York, 
bounded as it is on two of its three sides by large rivers, while 
its topical formation is sach that it has an almost perfect drain 
from its longitudinal center to the rivers. A proper attention 
to two things would make it exceed any great city in healthful- 
ness. First, a more perfect system of street-cleaning. Second, 
a better class of dwellings for the poor, combining perfect ven- 
tilation and cleanliness. 

BEAUTIFUL HAIR — Finds worshipers the world over. 
When it is abundant and tastefully adjusted, it " sets off" the 
face of beauty, and may be made to soften even a deformity. 
Its arrangement exhibits the taste of the wearer, and it may be 
made more ornamental than the richest jewel ever dug from 
Golconda's mines. But it is a jewel not found in the casket of 
one woman in a thousand. The hair should be cultivated from 
infancy, by keeping the head clean and cool night and day ; it 
should be worn as short as a boy's until the thirteenth year is 
completed ; a comb, or a pin, or a tie should not be allowed for 
an hour, nor a "parting" nor a braid; nothing should ever 
touch it but a tortoise or fine rubber-comb and pure soft water ; 
it should never be allowed to bear more than its own weight, 
nor detained from its natural direction ; if any thing, it should 
be supported unstrained. Yentilation and cleanliness, from 
infancy to budding womanhood, are essential to having hair 
that is thick, long, luxuriant, permanent, and glistening with life. 
Fashion, all blind and remorseless as she is but too often, is 
for once philosophical and wise in introducing nets to hold the 
hair of girls at the neck behind. 

The pernicious metallic hair-pins have " killed " the hair of 
our wives and daughters, whose entire stock in trade, that is 
their own, scarcely equals in size a common hickory-nut. It has 
been cut by the harsh hair-pin, pulled from its roots by braiding 
and tying, and actually rotted at its origin by an imbedded mass 


of grease, dust, and dandruff, stopping up every pore, prevent- 
ing exhalation, confining the heat, and setting up a permanent 
and destructive inflammation about every bulb. A clean scalp 
and pure soft water are the best pomatums in the world for 
man or woman, boy or girl, young or old. 

COLD FEET. — It is impossible to have vigorous health if 
the feet are habitually cold ; no amount of external covering 
can keep them warm. Wearing pepper and other irritants in 
the stockings, is generally inefficient, is always hurtful in its 
tendencies, and never accomplishes a permanent radical good. 
One of the most uniformly efficient means of keeping the feet 
warm is to wash them in water at least as cold as the atmo- 
sphere of the room, night and morning ; let it be done within a 
minute in very cold weather, then wipe and rub them rapidly 
and thoroughly with a very coarse towel, dress, and when 
practicable, take a walk, or dry them by the fire, rubbing 
them well with the hands. 

In addition, let half an inch of curled hair be basted to ? 
piece of cloth and slipped in the stocking, the hair touching 
the soles of the feet to titillate the skin, and thus aid in drawing 
the blood thither to warm them. The hair conducts the mois- 
ture from the feet to the woolen cloth, and thus keeps them dry. 
These hair-soles should be placed before the fire at night, so 
as to be thoroughly dried by the morning. Cork-soles absorb 
moisture from the shoe and the feet also, and require several 
days to be thoroughly dried. India-rubbers confine the damp- 
ness about the feet, hence they should be promptly removed as 
soon as the wearer ceases walking, nor should they be used 
except in muddy, slushy weather. 

CRYING BABIES. — A "Crying-Baby" can be bought any 
day on Broadway for a "quarter;" many a poor, tired fellow 
would " clear out" his stock in that line at a much " lower fig- 
ure," if you could come across him about daylight any morning. 
With a view to abate this crying nuisance, which exists in so 
many households, a portion of our book on " Sleep" is devoted 
to a detail of a plan by which, in every case, if there is no 
actual disease, children, even infants, without an atom of physic, 
can be made to sleep all night habitually, without a single 

GAS-Y. 21 

squeak; and how, also, to avoid the "colic," which makes the 
little responsibilities squirm around and squall away, as if a 
young boa-constrictor were experimenting on every bone in the 
body, sending all sleep to the antipodes, and "raising a muss" 

GAS— Y.— That fine lecturer, the missionary Fletcher, states 
that monkeys exhibited for a few days or nights in rooms light- 
ed by gas, or warmed by coal-fires, will inevitably die in a very 
short time. This fact has been observed in Philadelphia and 
at the Jardin des Plantes at Paris. Dr. Arnott reported of the 
Zoological Collection in London, a loss of fifty monkeys in about 
a month, from a like exposure, and an imperfect ventilation. 

The ceilings of our dwellings are darkened, not so much by 
coal-fires or furnace-heat, as by the gas-lights ; not necessarily, 
but from ignorance or inattention. Many persons, especially 
servants, in lighting a gas-burner, first turn the faucet or screw 
its full distance, and then apply the flame. Between the two 
acts, a considerable amount of unburnt gas escapes ; and being 
light, it reaches the ceiling instantly in its carbonic or coaly 
state, and makes its dingy impress. Again, it is generally sup- 
posed that the more completely the gas is turned on, the more 
light will be given out. This is not so, except towards day- 
light, when the pressure on the gas-reservoirs is very much re- 
duced. In the early part of the evening, the pressure is so 
great, that the gas escapes faster than it is burned, known by 
the rushing noise it makes. If the key is turned square, even 
if an indistinct singing is heard by putting the ear near the 
burner, it is gas escaping unburnecl. Such is the case, too, when 
the flame is spire-like, or jagged in sharp points. The more even 
the line of light is, the more perfectly is the gas consumed. 
Many persons who are too stupid to be reached by an appeal 
to the health, vail jump with the utmost alacrity at the jingle 
of a dollar. Such are informed, then, that unburned gas not 
only kills men as well as monkeys, but it will inevitably darken 
and dinge their costly frescoes ; and they had better turn the 
attention of their families and servants to the philosophical 
management of their gas-lights. 

We heartily* commend to every family, Lewis' New Gym- 
nastics, published monthly, in Boston, 20 Essex street, at $1. 

22 hall's journal of health. 

CLERICAL READING. -To have a full appreciation of the 
statement about to be made, it is necessary to premise that we 
attend public worship where there has been no regular minister 
for twenty months, having different speakers, averaging almost 
one a week. We sit in a pew immediately in front of the pul- 
pit, and are, perhaps, more regularly present than any other 
male attendant. Our custom is to read the chapter with the 
officiate. The locality is on Fifth Avenue, New- York. The 
congregation is perhaps inferior to none in our country in size, 
culture, liberality, and wealth, representing a capital last year 
of about fifty millions of dollars. For these reasons it may be 
inferred that a more educated class of men have been invited to 
officiate from time to time, and that we are a competent ob- 
server. It is perhaps safe to say, that in these twenty weeks, 
about fifty different men have preached for us. Out of these 
fifty, only two have succeeded in reading a chapter in the Bible 
with accuracy. All but the two have made from two to ten 
mistakes in reading a single chapter, mainly in omissions and 
interpolations ; next, transpositions ; third, in the indiscrimi- 
nate use of the singular and plural numbers, and the addition of 
words of from one to three syllables. This statement is made 
to draw attention to the physiology of reading. To read cor- 
rectly, and with the greatest ease to himself and edification of 
others, a man should be in good health, should have a clear 
brain, so as to understand thoroughly what he is reading, and 
the mind should be absorbed in the subject. If the stomach 
has been overloaded, if a hearty meal has just been eaten, or if 
there is any mental perturbation, any anxiety, any affectation, 
any straining for effect, there will be failures more or less fre- 
quent. Let our clerical readers, then, do all that is possible to 
enable them to go into the sacred desk, to perform the high and 
most responsible duties connected with their office, with pre- 
sence of mind, with a due sense of their accountability, and 
with a most perfect abnegation of self. Let the whole soul be 
absorbed in the subject of the occasion, and let the service be 
preceded by a very moderate meal of plain food, drinking abso- 
lutely nothing but half a glass of cold water, even if that, at 
the said meal ; for if much of any liquid is taken, it produces 
an uncomfortable distension of the stomach, causing a feeling 
of fullness and oppression, compelling the mind away from the 
subject and the occasion to such ignoble things as acidities, 


belchings, and — gas ! It is most respectfully suggested that our 
Lenoxes, Stuarts, and McCormicks, out of their princely libe- 
ralities, found a " Beading Professorship" in some of our more 
prominent theological seminaries. Only think of it ! it takes 
twenty-five educated clergymen to read a chapter in the Bible 
verbatim et literatim ! 

THEBMOMETERS.— Most persons know that sudden changes 
of weather endanger the health, and not unfrequently occasion 
the loss of valuable lives. These sudden and great changes 
often take place during the night. But it requires a day or 
two for the cold to get into the house, with the result that a 
person gets up, dresses, and gets into the street, before he dis- 
covers that it is fifteen, twenty, or thirty degrees (or even more) 
colder than it was the day previous ; but before he has arrived 
at the knowledge of this fact, he has been chilled, or has started 
on a journe}", or has got so far from home that a change of 
clothing is very inconvenient, if not almost impracticable. Frank- 
lin, Abbott Lawrence, Eachel the tragedienne, and other emi- 
nent personages, lost their lives by dressing for a temperature, 
or exposing themselves to a degree of coldness in the atmo- 
sphere, of which they were not conscious. 

It is said of the Duke of Wellington, that he had every vari- 
ety of garment ; that his servant dare not bring any one of them 
to him, until he had gone himself to the window, hoisted it, 
and by the protrusion of his immense long nose out into the 
atmosphere, had calculated with this new feeler, the state of the 
weather, and the coat adapted to it. That he had such a nose 
we can testify, having seen it on the outside of Windsor Castle 1 
on the occasion of Louis Philippe's visit there to her present 
Majesty. As to the variety of clothing, we speak from hearing. 
At all events, the Duke lived a long time, and the habit refer- 
red to was a wise one, by whomsoever practiced. The lesson is 
this : Judicious attention to the state of the thermometer, at 
least every morning, would answer a wise purpose, by acquaint- 
ing us with the state of the weather out of doors, thus-enabling 
us to dress in reference to it. Every family who can possibly 
afford it, should have a thermometer, of easy access in the lower 
hall, in each sitting-room, and a large one, with a red column, at 
the most northern exposure practicable, outside, in a situation 
easily accessible to every member of the family, without raising 
the window or opening the door. This would enable the ser- 


vants to know of a morning how much of a tire to build. 
Fowler & Wells keep a good supply of these articles at 308 
Broadway, New- York, at all prices, from half a dollar upwards, 
and will forward them safely to any address if the money 
accompanies the order. Those to be placed out of doors should 
be wholly of metal and glass. The round ones, dial-plate, with 
pointers, having a Fahrenheit and Keaumur's scale, are prefer- 
able on some accounts. Patented by Y. Beaumont, 175 Center 
street, New- York. This notice is volunteered wholly for the 
convenience of our subscribers, good fellowship towards the par- 
ties named being thrown in ; for we must sometimes help one 
another without fee or reward. He who can't do that is a per- 
fect nobody. A million such would not make the ninth part 
of a tailor, and, " they say," it takes nine of them to make a man. 

RETROSPECTIVE — It is not our purpose to dye our- 
selves or our readers with indigo this opening month of another 
year. Blue reminiscences are, for the most part, unremunera- 
tive. A hearty, whole-souled, wide-mouthed laugh is incom- 
parably more healthful; it enlivens the circulation, mollifies 
the heart, and wakes us up to newness of life. The retro- 
spect we have in view is the turning back to the days when 
our Journal was young, and glancing at some of its perform- 
ances. Among other things, it introduced to its patrons, then 
a little band, the most wonderful medicines — " Patent " of course 
— and described " to our hand" by some abler pen. "Wonder 
if it now "lies silent in the grave?" If so, here's a thought to 
thy memory, genial heart, with a hope that a purer and heaven- 
lier gladness plays upon your face " on the other side." 


Dear Doctor : I will be one hundred and seven ty-nVe years 
old next October. For ninety -four years I have been an invalid, 
unable to move except when stirred with a lever. But a year 
age last Thursday, I heard of the Granicular Syrup. I bought 
a bottle, smelt of the cork, and found myself a new man. I 
can now run twelve and a half miles an hour, and throw 
nineteen double somersets without stopping. 

P. S. — A little of your Alicumstoutum Salve applied to a 
wooden leg, reduced a compound fracture in nineteen minutes, 
and is now covering the limb with a fresh cuticle of white gum 
rjine bark. Sawny GIreen'un. 


THE INEFFABLE PILLS — I, John Lubberlee, was sup- 
posed to be in the last stage of consumption in the year 
eighteen hundred and forty-eight, suffering at the same time 
under a severe attack of rheumatism, liver complaint, plumbago, 
gravel, dropsy and cholera-morbus. Simultaneously, also, I 
took the yellow-fever and small pox. The latter assuming the 
chronic form of scrofula, completely destroyed my lungs, liver, 
spinal marrow, nervous system, and the entire contents of my 
cranium. I got so low, that I did not know my brother-in-law 
when he came to borrow some money. For three months I 
swallowed nothing but twenty boxes of the "Ineffable Pills," 
which effected an immedate cure in two weeks. Sworn and 
subscribed to, etc. 

P. S. N. B — My late Uncle Bacchus Pottinger, was afflicted 
so long with the gout, contracted by living too much on bears' 
meat and alligators' eggs, that life became a burden to him. 
He took only four boxes of the " Ineffables," and life was a 
burden to him no longer. G-ulliver Sancho Panza. 

But not to deal too much in pills we will make an extract 
from the Brief-Book of a Lawyer about 

A DOUBTFUL WITNESS — Professional engagements re- 
quired the writer's presence in a circuit court which was then 
in session in one of the villages of a midland county of the 
" Empire State ;" and during the term an incident occurred, 
which may be interesting, if not useful to those legal gentle- 
men who are partial to the study of the " laws of evidence." 
The case tried was one in which a question arose as to personal 
property, claimed to have been sold some time previously under 
an execution, and the plaintiff in the case called a witness to 
establish the fact of the sale. The following " evidence " was 
elicited on the cross-examination of the witness : 

Question by Counsel " Sir, you say you attended the sale on 
the execution spoken of. Did you keep the minutes of that 
sale ?" 

Witness. " Don't know, sir, but I did ; don't recollect whether 
I kept the minutes, or the sheriff, or nobody ; I think it was one 
of us." 

Counsel " Well, sir, will you tell me what articles were sold 
at the execution ?" 

26 hall's journal of health. 

[Here the witness hesitated, not willing to commit himself 
bj going into particulars, until the patience of the counsel be- 
came exhausted, and he pressed a special interrogatory.] 

Counsel. "Did you on that occasion sell a threshing-ma- 

Witness. "Yes, I think we did." 

Counsel. "I wish you to be positive. Are you sure of it?" 

Witness. " Can't say I am sure of it ; and when I come to 
think of it, I don't know as we did ; think we didn't." 

Counsel. " Will you swear, then, that you did not sell one ?" 

Witness. "No, sir; don't think I would; for I can't say 
whether we did or didn't." 

Counsel. " Did you sell a horse-power?" 

Witness. " Horse-power ?" 

Counsel. " Yes, horse-power ?" 

Witness. " Horse-power ! Well, it seems to me we did. And 
it seems to me we didn't. I don't know as I can recollect 
whether I remember there was any horse-power there ; and if 
there wasn't any there, I can't say whether we sold it or not, 
but I don't think we did ; though it may be, perhaps, that we 
did after all. It's some time ago, and I don't like to say cer- 

Counsel. " Well, perhaps you can tell me this : did you sell 
a fanning-mill ?" 

Witness. "Yes, sir, we sold a fanning-mill. I guess I am 
sure of that." 

Counsel. " Well, you swear to that, do you ? that one thing, 
though I don't see it on the list." 

Witness. " Why, I may be mistaken about it ; perhaps I am. 
It may be it was some body else's fanning-mill at some other 
time ; not sure." 

Counsel, (to the Court.) " I should like to know, may it please 
the Court, what this witness does know, and what he is sure of." 

Witness, (to Counsel.) " Well, sir, I know one thing that I'm 
sure of ; and that is, that on that sale we sold either a threshing- 
machine, or a horse-power, or a fanning-mill, or one, or all, or 
neither of them, but don't know which." 

If the reader wants more of the same sort let him search 
and see in the past volumes. Buy a set, sir ? 


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Our Legitimate Scope is almost boundless : for whatever begets pleasurable 
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disagreeable sensations, engenders Disease. 


Vol. VIII.] FEBRUARY, 1861. [No. 2. 


Max is like a well-adjusted and well-made machine, which, 
if worked steadily, will last a long time, but if moved by fits 
and starts, and badly cared for, will soon be jolted to pieces. 
Thus it is that equanimity of mind and steady bodily habits are 
each promotive of long life ; and, when combined, will not only 
enable the possessor to live within sight of his century, but do 
it in enjoyable health of body, and a pleasurable and hilarious 
mental activity. Surely such an old age is worth laboring for ; 
and that it is attained by whole classes of persons who make 
moderation their life-long habit, is susceptible of undeniable 

During the year eighteen hundred and sixty, twenty-four 
British peers died at an average age of three-score years and ten. 
During the same time, the ages of twenty -four members of the 
Society of Friends, whose deaths were recorded in the Friend, 
published in Philadelphia, averaged eighty-eight and a half 
years. Fifty lives in the same year averaged eighty -five years. 
The last census shows that five times as many negro slaves, in 
the South, reach a hundred years, as do whites. Now, through 
Quaker, and peer, and slave, one trait of mind is overshadowing — 
it is complete deliverance from the fear of physical want. The 
peer knows that he is provided for. It is a part of the slave's 
nature, from life-long habit, to lean on the master for support ; 
hence, wearing anxiety for to-morrow's bread for himself and 
his children, is the very least of all his troubles. While the 
Friend, by a habitual reliance on Providence, and his own con- 
sistent efforts for support, grows into the faith firm as the rock 


of ages : " The Lord is my Shepherd, I shall not want." Beau- 
tiful truth, priceless beyond the diadems and crowns of kings ! 
r The peer drinks wine, dines heartily and late, retiring not 
until the small hours of the morning come ; he leaves his cham- 
ber at ten or noon. But whatever of ill is found in habits like 
these is more than counteracted by the abiding and calming 
conviction that he is amply provided for to the end of his days. 
He is not dunned to death for money ; he is not irritated by 
the cheateries of men, and their equivocations and procrastina- 
tions of payment of rents ; nor, indeed, is his heart saddened 
by the knowledge of the grinding economies and painful strain- 
ings, which even worthy tenants have but too often to encoun- 
ter, to make up their quarterly payments ; his agents shoulder 
all these disagreeables. In addition, he will not allow himself 
to be driven to exposures to rain and storm, or snow, or melt- 
ing sun. He allows no emergency to make him almost work 
his life out of him, to gain a certain end half an hour sooner, as 
we impulsive and impatient Americans do. In fact, an English 
peer considers hurry a disgrace, as altogether unbecoming his 
station ; he prides himself on his equanimity. 

The slave's highest ambition is to have a plenty to eat, and a 
warm place to sleep in ; and knowing that it is his master's busi- 
ness to provide these things, he has no consuming cares, and 
he, too, can boast of an equanimity to which his master is an 
absolute and a life-long stranger. The slave's equanimity is pas- 
sive, arising from the want of ambition ; the peer's from pride ; 
the Quaker's from a holy, calming, and abiding trust in God, and 
a spotless integrity. All three — peer, Quaker, slave — have ex- 
emption from worldly care — from eating, wearing harassments. 
Not that Friends have nothing to annoy, but that they have a 
principle within which subdues annoyances, or a faith that 
molds them into valuable lessons. An English peer has a 
dignity which keeps him in the higher regions where storms do 
not come. The slave, like the child, lives in a happy uncon- 
sciousness of anxieties, and, like the child also, has such a 
buoyancy of nature, that a tear has hardly time to clear itself 
before the smile comes to chase it away. A child will play ; 
a slave will sing. Equanimity of mind, then, is the great catho- 
licon of humanity. Let all who would have length of days, 
whatever may be their station in life, strive for an equable frame 


of mind, for an implicit reliance that temperance, integrity, in- 
dustry, resignation, and godliness, not only "have the promise 
of the life that now is, but of that which is to come." 

SLEEPING POSITION. — The food passes from the stom- 
ach at the right side, hence its passage is facilitated by going to 
sleep on the right side. ' Water and other fluids flow equably on 
a level, and it requires less power to propel them on a level, 
than upwards. The heart propels the blood to every part of 
the body at each successive beat, and it is easy to see that if the 
body is in a horizontal position the blood will be sent to the vari- 
ous parts of the system with greater ease, with less expenditure 
of power, and more perfectly than could possibly be done if one 
portion of the body were elevated above a horizontal line. On 
the other hand, if one portion of the body is too low, the blood 
does not return as readily as it is carried thither ; hence, there 
is an accumulation and distention, and pain soon follows. If a 
person goes to sleep with the head but a very little lower than 
the body, he will either soon waken up, or will die with apo- 
plexy before the morning, simply because the blood could not 
get back from the brain as fast as it was carried to it. If a per- 
son lays himself down on a level floor for sleep, a portion of the 
head, at least, is lower than the heart, and discomfort is soon in- 
duced ; hence, very properly, the world over, the head is ele- 
vated during sleep. The savage uses a log of wood or a bunch 
of leaves ; the civilized a pillow ; and if this pillow is too thick, 
raising the head too high, there is not blood enough carried to 
the brain, and as the brain is nourished, renewed, and invigora- 
ted by the nutriment it receives from the blood during sleep, it 
is not fed sufficiently, and the result is unquiet sleep during the 
night, and a waking up in weariness, without refreshment, to 
be followed by a day of drowsiness, discomfort, and general in- 
activity of both mind and body. The healthful mean is a pil- 
low, which by the pressure of the head keeps it about four 
inches above the level of the bed or mattress ; nor should the 
pillow be so soft as to allow the head to be buried in it, and 
excite perspiration, endangering ear-ache or cold in the head, on 
turning over. The pillow should be hard enough to prevent 
the head sinking more than about three inches. 


SMALL-POX.—" Poc" is an old English word, meaning a 
pouch, pocket, or bag. "Pocs," means more than one, is its 
plural, and for convenience is spelled Pox, from the many little 
pits or pouches made in the skin by this disease. The Latin 
name is " variola/' which means a pimple. A person who had 
the small-pox milked a cow, and the pox appeared on her 
teats ; this cow was milked by a girl, when the pox appeared 
on her hands, but she did not seem to mind it. A good many 
other milkers had the same appearances, but all went about 
their business as if nothing was the matter with them. 

Nearly a hundred years ago, a young man was in a drug- 
store near Bristol, England, when a dairy-maid called for some 
advice. Small-pox was prevailing at the time, and she was 
asked by the young clerk if she was not afraid of catching it ? 
She replied : "I can't take it, because I've had the cow-pox." 
In an instant the thought flitted across the mind of the youth, 
if small-pox was communicated to a cow by man, and the cow 
could in turn communicate it back to a man, but with the dif- 
ference that when thus re-communicated, it was not only 
divested of its horrors, but fortified the person against taking the 
small-pox, as seemed to have been an impression which had 
grown up among the milkmaids, then it might be the case that 
cow-pox could be given to a man artificially, by taking matter 
from the poc of a cow and introducing it into the system of a 
man, just as small-pox was given to man artificially, by matter 
from a poc on a man. This idea was at first vague and unfix- 
ed in words, but when in the practice of years, young Jenner 
(for this was the apothecary's boy) observed that he always fail- 
ed to give small-pox by inoculation to the milkmaids who had 
taken the cow-pox, he determined to try the experiment of 
vaccination, that is, giving cow-pox to a man by the matter 
from a cow, and thus rendering him insusceptible of the ter- 
rible small-pox from any amount of exposure. This experi- 
ment was successfully made on his eldest son, in November, 
1789. But it was not until May, 1796, that a decisive experi- 
ment was made to ascertain if the matter from a person having 
cow-pox would give cow-pox to a human being. James Phipps, 
aged eight years, was vaccinated with matter taken from the 
hands of Sarah Nelmes. He passed through the disorder in a 
manner perfectly satisfactory, and in July following, all efforts 


made to give him small-pox by inoculation with small-pox 
matter, failed to take effect. So that in 1796, vaccination as a 
preventive of small-pox was demonstrated ; and at a very op- 
portune time, too ; for three quarters of a million of persons 
were perishing with small-pox every year. In Prussia alone, 
forty thousand persons died of small-pox annually. After vac- 
cination was introduced, only three thousand small-pox deaths 
took place in one year ; while Sweden, Denmark, and Germany, 
where vaccination was systematically performed on the whole 
population, remained absolutely free from small-pox for twenty 
years, when the people, having grown remiss in the perform- 
ance of vaccination, scattering cases of small-pox began to ap^ 
pear again. So great was the boon to the world considered, 
that the British Parliament, in 1802, gave Jenner fifty thou- 
sand dollars, and in 1807 voted him a hundred thousand dol- 
lars more. Jenner died at his native place, in great honor, in 
1823, in his seventy-fifth year. 

The matter of small-pox impregnates the air immediately 
around the person or bedding of the patient ; and any un vac- 
cinated individual, or one who has not had the small-pox, who 
comes within ten feet of such person or the bedding, is very 
sure to be attacked with small-pox, and to have the pimples 
appear within a fortnight. 

In some cases vaccination wears out, and ceases to be a pro- 
tection against small-pox, and exposure to it gives varioloid. 

The longer a person remains free from small-pox after vac- 
cination, the more severe the attack will be, if it is taken at all. 

Those vaccinated in infancy are most liable to have varioloid 
between the ages of sixteen and twenty-five. This' being so, 
a most important practical inference is to be drawn, that the 
occurrence of puberty in some way diminishes the power of 
vaccination against infection ; hence it becomes the imperative 
duty of every parent to have the child vaccinated on entering 
the fifteenth year. If it does not take, no harm has been 
done ; if it does take, the chances of an odious and fearful dis- 
ease have been with great certainty removed. This re- vaccina- 
tion should be repeated at twenty -five, most especially if that 
at fifteen did not take. 

In order to fix upon the reader's mind a strong and clear idea 
of the value and necessity of re-vaccination, a single fact will be 



stated. The Prussian Government, more than any other, en- 
forces vaccination and re-vaccination. In 1837, of forty-seven 
thousand soldiers re-vaccinated, the full effect took place in 
twenty-one thousand ; and of these last, although the small-pox 
prevailed all over Prussia that year, not one single soldier 
took it. 

Ee- vaccination should be intrusted to the family physician, 
who should be sacredly enjoined to procure the matter from 
the arm of one whom he knows himself to be the healthy child 
of healthy parents, so as to avoid, as far as possible, the intro- 
duction of hateful diseases into the constitution of the re- vac- 
cinated. Every parent should place this article where it may 
be frequently seen. 

PKEVENTABLE SOCIETY.-That philanthropic and able 
lecturer, Dr. E. Y. Bobbins, says that a society was formed in 
England several years ago, under the patronage of the titled 
persons of the realm — Lords, Ladies, Eeverends, Dukes, Duch- 
esses, and others — the object of which was to prevent the child- 
ren of the poor from getting sick. This is a wise, civic econo- 
my. A pair of good shoes, a thick woolen under-shirt, a few 
dollars expended in mending a leaky roof, or to supply an abun- 
dance of pure water to a household, would many a time be the 
means of warding off sickness from individuals and even whole 
families, otherwise doomed to weary years of invalidism, with 
the attendant expenses which have to be supplied from chari- 
table funds. 

" Doctor, I will give you all I possess, if you can save my 
last and only child," is not an unfrequent appeal in our office. 
In multitudes of such cases, one sentence of information, one 
moment's rational reflection, one hour's time, would have once 
averted a malady which now no human agency can alleviate, 
let alone cure. A blasted, blighted life, an age of remediless 
suffering, of untold agony, might be prevented in multitudes of 
cases, by impressing one single lesson on the subject of damp 
stockings, checked perspiration, cooling off too quickly after 
exercise, standing still a moment in a raw wind while in a heat- 
ed condition from physical exertion, sleeping in damp sheets, 
resisting the calls of nature, going to bed immediately after a 
hearty supper, taking a bath immediately after dinner, sleeping 


in a small, close room. A well -learned lesson on any single 
one of these points would save many from wasting sickness 
and premature death. Does one parent in a dozen give one 
such lesson ? 

THE TEETH.— Natural teeth, clean, sound and perfect, are 
essential to the comeliness of any human face. Defective teeth 
mar the handsomest features, and cause us to turn away our 
gaze with a kind of disgust from a countenance otherwise fault- 
lessly beautiful. Sound teeth not only add to the comfort and 
personel appearance, but contribute largely to the health of all, 
hence special and scrupulous attention should be paid to them 
daily, from early childhood, from the time when the first per- 
manent tooth makes its appearance, about the sixth year. 

Whenever it is practicable, every tooth in a child's head 
should be minutely examined by a careful, conscientious, and 
skillful dentist every few months ; and the great importance of 
special attention to their cleanliness, the avoidance of cold and 
hot drinks — of the use of any "picks" harder than wood or 
quills, and of all dentifrices prepared by unknown hands, should 
be impressed upon the minds of the young with great assiduity. 

Harm has been done by propagating the notion that sugar 
is injurious to the teeth, by diverting attention from real causes 
of destruction or decay. The eating of any amount of pure 
sugar can not injure the teeth directly, because it has no residue, 
it is wholly dissolved and passes into the. stomach. 

But let it be remembered that the practice of eating sugars or 
candies or any other sweetmeats largely, will inevitably cause 
a disorder of the stomach and generate gases there, which will 
speedily undermine the health of the teeth. 

By insisting too much on the fact that sugars and candies de- 
stroy the teeth, an impression will grow that if these are mainly 
avoided, the person so doing will have good teeth, and this leads 
the mind away from the necessity of keeping the mouth clean and 
the stomach healthful. If these things are well done, and the 
teeth are kept plugged in a finished style, teeth naturally or 
hereditarily " poor," may be kept in a good state of preserva- 
tion for many years. 

All forms of dyspepsia have a direct tendency to destroy the 
teeth. Whatever causes acidity ©f the stomach, is ruinous to 

36 hall's journal of- health. 

the teeth. A tablespoon of the purest syrup of loaf-sugar, taken 
three times a day before meals, will destroy the tone of the 
healthiest stomach in a very short time. And when it is re- 
membered how many patent medicines are made up in the form 
of syrups and sweet lozenges, and how common the use of them 
has become, it need not be wondered at that every second or 
third person met on the street knows the meaning of " sour 
stomach " or dyspepsia. It has been shown that if a sound tooth 
be steeped in syrup for some days, it becomes a soft, pulpy 
mass. That does not prove that syrup is injurious to the teeth, 
because it was a dead tooth ; and further, such a steeping of a 
live tooth is impossible. The gastric juice is innocuous to a 
living stomach, but at the very moment of death, that same 
gastric juice begins to eat up the stomach. So it is inconclusive 
to reason from the living to the dead, or vice versa. 

It is urged by many that calomel is a most deadly agent to 
the teeth, and yet if a sound tooth is soaked for weeks together 
in a solution of calomel, no apparent effect whatever is produced 
on it. 

So far from sugars and pure candies injuring the teeth or the 
health, they would, if used wisely and in moderation, as sole 
desserts, be actual preventives of both ; especially if alternated, 
as desserts, with fruits and berries in their natural, raw, ripe, 
fresh, perfect state, by banishing from our tables the pestiferous 
pie, the leaden pudding, and pastries and cakes of every name, 
which, as desserts, always tempt to excesses which lay the 
foundation for diseases which torture for a lifetime, or bring 
speedily to the grave. 

Let the spirit of this article be distinctly understood. Pure 
sugars and candies do not injure the teeth, except indirectly, 
by their injudicious use in exciting acidity of stomach or dys- 
pepsia, as will any other kind of food, or drink, or beverage, if 
extravagantly used. 

At seasons of the year when fruits and berries may not be 
had, ripe, fresh, and perfect, as desserts, pure sugars and candies 
may be used as such in their stead to great advantage, because 
they are healthful, being warming, nutritious, and agreeable ; 
hence, as a table article, they are very valuable, while the almost 
universal love of them shows that they were intended to be 
eaten. If a child is not allowed to eat any thing containing 


sugar it will sicken and die in a very short time. Children need 
the carbon, the fuel contained in sugar to keep them warm ; 
without it they would perish from cold ; hence the love of sweet 
things is an instinct, implanted by the kind and wise Maker 
of us all for the child's preservation. There are a parcel of 
stupid creatures in the world whose sole stock in trade of brains 
and logic amounts to this, that " whatever is good is unhealthy.'' 
It is not advised that children should be allowed to eat sugar 
and candy whenever they want it ; but that as a dessert, after 
each regular meal, the use of pure sugars and candies would 
benefit and not injure. 

SLEEPING ROOMS. — The air which passes out of the 
lungs is wholly innutritious. If re-breathed without any ad- 
mixture of other air, it would induce instant suffocation. It 
contains a large amount of carbonic acid gas. This gas is con- 
densed by cold, and falls to the floor ; heat carries it to the ceil- 
ing ; hence the practical fact, that in warm weather, those who 
sleep on the floor, breathe the purest air ; while in very cold 
weather, the higher one sleeps above the floor, the better is the 
atmosphere. Hence, in a warm room, sleep as near the floor as 
possible ; in a cold room, the higher the bed is, the better. A 
striking illustration of one branch of the statement is found 
in Dr. Hall's new book on Sleep. When the jail-fever was 
raging in England, it was the custom to hand the food and 
water to the prisoners through a hole in the floor above them. 
A case is mentioned where the jailer and his wife died in one 
night, in consequence of the effluvia of the prisoners' cells be- 
low ; while the prisoners themselves continued to live, showing 
conclusively the concentrated malignity of the air at the ceil- 
ing, as compared with that on the floor. The same principle 
has an illustration in the narration in the same pages, of the 
terrible incidents in connection with the " Black Hole of Cal- 
cutta," where it was speedily noticed that relief was given by 
sitting down on the floor. From these statements, it is clear, 
that it is better to have a fire in the fireplace in a close room 
in winter than to have no fire ; and for two philosophical rea- 
sons — the fire rarefies the carbonic acid gas, and compels it to 
seek the ceiling ; besides, it creates a draft up the chimney, 
thus causing cold air to come in more copiously through the 


crevices of the room ; the inevitable effect of which is, a more 
copious supply of fresh air, and a more rapid change of air. 
Another incidental benefit from having a fire in the fireplace of 
a close room in winter is, that less bed-clothing is needed ; hence 
the body is less smothered and sweltered ; less oppressed by its 
own emanations,, which are necessarily kept in more or less im- 
mediate contact with it, as the bed-clothing is heavier. When it 
is not convenient to build a fire in the fireplace, a good substi- 
tute is had in a large lamp, or jet of burning gas, brought into 
the fireplace by a flexible tube. These suggestions merit spe- 
cial reflection, as there seems to be a very prevalent opinion 
that cold air is necessarily pure, and that warm is a synonym 
of impurity. 

OPEN FIREPLACES. — One of the most important physical 
elements of cheerfulness in domestic life has been removed, by 
the banishment of the old-fashioned open fireplaces from our 
dwellings. The excuse for this has been, up to this time, that 
wood was too costly ; but, the introduction of Andrews & 
Dixon's patent for burning any kind of coal on a level with the 
floor, and in fireplaces as large and commodious as those for- 
merly used in parlors for burning wood, inaugurates a new 
method of house-warming ; and when the public gets to under- 
stand it fully, it is believed that no man of intelligence who 
owns the house he lives in, would consent to be without the 
Low-Down Grate ; because, without consuming any more fuel, 
for the amount of heat given out into the room, than an ordi- 
nary grate, the labor and trouble and care which attend the 
keeping up of a wood-fire on a cold day is got rid of; for when 
the fire is kindled in the morning, it needs no further attention 
until mid-day, when more coal is added, which lasts until a late 
hour in the night, without the use of poker or tongs during the 
whole time. This is our own office experience, now going on 
two years, the ashes being conducted into the cellar, thus get- 
ting rid of the dust and trouble of removal every morning. A 
fire in a Low-Down Grate in the now dark and doleful New- 
York parlor, would be more ornamental, and would more wake 
up to lifelike and enlightened and genial conversation than the 
costliest painting, the most beautiful piece of statuary, or the 
most elegant vase of unseasonable flowers. At the close of a 


dreary winter's day, when the sullen cold increases with increas- 
ing darkness, and the fitful wind rattles the falling sleet against 
the window-panes or the lattice, a few lumps of Liverpool or 
cannel coal put on the broad bed of glowing anthracite in our 
Low-Down Grate, brings every child into our study ; and the 
smaller ones, especially, sit down on the floor around the hearth, 
and amuse themselves indefinitely, as to time, in watching the 
clear, dancing flames, while the exclamation often escapes them : 
"How cozy!" We ourselves know of but one thing better — 
the pine-knot fire of our younger years in the distant South, 
with its delightful aroma ! But even this is not wanting in 
some Southern homes ; for shipments of the Low-Down Grate 
have already been made to every State in the South, where the 
pine-knots can be burned in perfection ; for when once lighted 
on this grate, they will continue to burn until entirely consumed, 
giving out all that time the luscious piney odor into the room, 
while the whole of the smoke is rapidly carried off in another 

It should be noted that when the ashes are not conveyed 
away into the cellar, but are received into an ash-box, the grate 
is elevated some three or four inches, and a poker and blower 
are needed. The Low-Down Grate is adjusted to the common 
fireplace, or can be put in the place of the ordinary grate in 
half a day, at a total expense of thirty or forty dollars, to last 
for a lifetime. 

In reference to this same subject of open fires against stoves 
and furnaces, Lewis' New Gymnastics says : "In the whole range 
of possible topics bearing upon human health, none is more im* 
portant! For does it not seriously concern the character of 
that vital air which we take into our lungs eighteen times every 
minute ? In our climate it is doubtful if any other physiolo- 
gical question is so momentous as this: How shall we secure 
'pure air within our houses? 

"Open Fikeplaces. — In fitting up a house, an open fire 
is number one among house blessings I No other should precede 
it. If it were at all convenient, it should be a wood-fire, with a 
large open fireplace. Oh! how it fills the family circle with com- 
fort, satisfaction, and sociability ! To keep up the draft, how the 
entire air of the room is momentarily changed ! No matter how 
full the room may be, the air can never smell close — the car- 


bonic acid, and other excretions of the animal body, can never 
accumulate ! Strange the people will not have this delightful sun 
in their very houses, at any cost or sacrifice ! Go without silks, 
go without broadcloth, go without carpets, go without finery 
of all kinds, and have this excellent purifier and diffuser of joy 
in every house. Who would not go miles to visit an old-fash- 
ioned log-house, with its great roaring fire ? In whose childish 
reminiscences is not that cracking, rushing fire the noblest and 
most beautiful of memories ? 

"And pray, now, why not have it all back again? If a 
small part of the money we spend in various foolish customs 
were given to the re'introduction of this good old-fashioned 
blessing, how much healthier and happier we all should be ! 

"Open Coal-G-bates. — Next to an open wood-fire, the open 
coal-grate, with a good draft, is the best means of warming and 
ventilating. And if, with a good draft, the coal used be bitu- 
minous, it is certainly a very excellent fire. 

" Stoves and Furnaces. — If in the shutter of a dark room 
you open a small aperture, and look in the jet of light as it 
streams through the room, you will discover that the air is full 
of floating moats. The air of our houses is always crowded 
with these. In their ordinary condition, they do not poison the 
respiratory apparatus and the blood, but it has been proved by 
some of the first scientific observers that when they are exposed 
to contact with a heated stove or furnace, they do poison the 
man. Millions of these particles, which have been thus burnt, 
come from the stove, and are sent up from the furnace to poison 
our lungs and blood. 

" Make as many holes in the walls as you please, the air is 
dull, stagnant, and will give you the headache. 

" But some one may say, ' The stove has a draft, too.' Yes, 
that is true, but the amount of air which thus passes out of the 
room, when compared with the amount of heat emitted, is al- 
most absolutely nothing. 

"I am always sorry when I hear the furnace business is pros- 
pering. There never ought to be another one put into a dwell- 

"The strong tendency to nervous disease which has shown 
itself in this country, within the last quarter of a century, may 
in considerable part be charged against stoves and furnaces. 


"Most thoughtfully and conscientiously do I believe that 
consumption would be greatly lessened if these stoves and fur- 
naces were all thrown overboard. And in this I but echo the 
voice of the wise in my profession." 

Although many persons have called at our office, at 42 Ir- 
ving Place, New-York, to see the operation of our Low-Down 
Grate, we still give the invitation to " Come and see," any cold 
day, only do not come later than eight p.m., for at nine we are 
in bed. 

As to the manner in which the Low -Down Grate has been 
received, the reader may have some idea in the knowledge that 
almost every educated physician in Philadelphia, where these 
grates are made, has one or more of them in his house. They 
have been ordered from Canada, and from almost every State 
in the Union. One gentleman, from Mississippi, having used 
one or more of the Low-Down Grates for several years, was so 
much pleased with their working, in burning wood, and in their 
adaptation to a Southern climate, that in building one of the 
finest private mansions in the South he ordered nineteen of 
these grates, six of which being plated with silver, cost one hun- 
dred and forty dollars each. In burning wood-fires in open 
fireplaces, it is pretty much the business of one person to keep 
up a couple of fires in cold weather, while our grate needs no 
attention whatever from the time of kindling in the morning 
until retiring for the night, except to lay on a little more coal 
about midday, requiring no poker nor the removal of ashes dur- 
ing the whole day. 

VENTILATING CHAMBERS.— When it is considered that 
pure air is essential to the purification of the blood, and that 
the food we eat never becomes nutriment until it meets with 
the air in the lungs, and when it is furthermore remembered 
that a full third of our entire existence is passed in our sleeping 
apartments, it must be clear to the commonest understanding 
that the difference between breathing a pure and impure air 
while we are asleep is literally incalculable as to the effects 
upon our happiness and well-being. How an impure air is 
caused and how it may be avoided are plainly treated of in our 
new book on Sleep, including, as it does, the general subjects 
of sleeping, ventilation, the planning and warming of houses, 
etc., etc. 

42 hall's journal of health. 

FARMERS AND CITIZENS. — An extended series of ob- 
servations seems to have warranted two conclusions, both ad- 
verse to commonly received opinions : 

First. There are more persons in lunatic asylums from the 
country than from the town. 

Second. The average of human life is greater in the largest 
cities, than in the country adjoining ; yet farmers eat plain, fresh 
food, take abundant exercise, retire early, and get up by day- 
light, breathing the pure out-door air for at least half their 
existence. On the other hand, citizens retire late, rise late, 
eat food and fruits one, two, or a dozen days' old ; are in- 
doors three fourths if not nine tenths of their time, breathing 
an air vitiated by furnace-heat and a variety of other causes, 
and take comparatively little exercise. 

It is practically useful to note some of the general reasons 
which may very rationally be considered as explanatory of 
such results. 

The universal tendency of concentration of thought upon 
one subject is to monomania, madness ; this is so palpable a 
fact that argument is not necessary. When, therefore, the sub- 
jects of thought are few in number, this same tendency exists. 
The weather, the crops, the market, is the idol trinity of most 
farmers ; in a wide sense, they think, talk, dream about nothing 
else with any special interest ; all besides is secondary, and if 
by any novelty the mind is compelled out of its wonted track, 
it soon relapses into the old tread-mill circle, into the same rut 
of ages gone. In great cities this destructive concentration is 
almost an impossibility ; the morning papers, the prices cur- 
rent, the stock-markets, the accidents, the wars of nations, the 
exhibitions of curious and stirring things, keep the mind on the 
look-out ; in fact, almost too active ; there is scarcely enough 
time for needed rest. The day begins with running over the 
state of the world, as exhibited in the newspaper. From nine 
until four the whole mind is absorbed in matters of business ; 
from that until near midnight, there is a comparative abandon 
to dinner, to social ties, to giving or receiving visits from ac- 
quaintances, friends, and kindred, in going to the concert, the 
lecture, the opera, to evening parties, or other sources of agree- 
able diversions or profitable intercommunions. 

The farmer, glorying in his health and strength, thinks his 


constitution impregnable ; scouts at method and system and 
precaution, considering them as nothing but doctors' whims 
and old women's notions. He believes in eating hearty suppers 
and late ; he has done it all his life, and is not dead yet, and re- 
solves so to continue until the end of the chapter, when some 
morning the news goes round, "Died last night" of apoplexy, 
cholera-morbus, cramp colic, or the like. At other times 
bilious fever carries him from health to the grave in ten days, 
in consequence of going to sleep in the entry or on the front- 
stoop after a hard day's work; or he brings on some other 
malady by damp feet, bad cookery, neglecting the calls of na- 
ture, or deliberately postponing them. The citizen, on the con- 
trary, has more or less informed himself on these matters, both 
by reading and observation ; he is compelled to pay deference 
to nature's laws ; he knows that their infraction is attended with 
certain penalties, and .his better judgment leads him to estimate 
properly the value of a wise course of life ; while all the time 
he is relieved from the necessity of encountering great exposure 
to heat and cold, of excessive and exhausting physical efforts, 
which accidents and the hurry of the seasons impose on those 
who cultivate the soil. 

Farmers will become healthier in body and in mind, in pro- 
portion as agricultural papers are taken, for several reasons : 
these publications uniformly contain a large amount of unex- 
ceptionable family reading, as to health, temperance, and sound 
morals ; they will also gradually waken up the mind of farming 
people to experiments, to what is often sneeringly styled 
"scientific farming." Every day the helter-skelter mode of 
agriculture is becoming less and less remunerative ; every day 
it is becoming more and more necessary to study the laws of 
vegetable growth, the habitudes and needs of plants and grains 
and trees ; and in proportion as this is done, and the analysis 
of soils becomes an indispensable pre-requisite, there will be a 
world of novelty and light to break in upon the farming mind to 
interest, electrify, and enrich. The time will come when to at- 
tempt the. successful management of a farm, large or small, 
without some considerable practical knowledge of chemistry 
and botany and geology, will be considered the extreme of 
Quixotism. Meanwhile, let farmers and farmers' wives, with 
their children, bear in mind that to diminish the chances of a 


dyspeptic or bilious madness, or a premature death from acute 
disease, they should practice habits of personal cleanliness and 
bodily regularity ; should eat only at regular hours, not oftener 
than thrice a day, and never between meals, swallowing not an 
atom after sundown; eat always slowly and with great de- 
liberation ; take nothing for the last meal of the day beyond 
some cold bread and butter and a single cup of water or warm 
drink, so as to throw the main meal to breakfast or dinner, thus 
having all the exercise of the day to " grind it up," to convert 
it into healthful nutriment. Avoid damp clothing and cold or 
wet feet ; keep out of even the slightest draught of air after all 
forms of exercise ; and all the while practice, as to the body, 
regularity, temperance, and self-denial ; while, as to the mind, 
cultivate a cheerful spirit, a courteous temper, and a loving heart. 
The great general idea is this, that as between farmers and 
citizens of the largest cities, the chances are in favor of the lat- 
ter as to length of life and mental integrity ; that less bodily 
exercise and more mental activity bring better results in the 
long run than more exercise and less mental activities ; that 
what tends to waken up and divert the attention, is quite as in- 
dispensable to our well-being as bodily activities ; that Bar- 
numizing (keeping us waked up to new things and strange) is 
an institution for health, as well as the gymnasium and the 
Central Park. 

OVER- EATING.—" I am the captive of appetite. I ani 
hungry all the time, and get up from the table hungry." Thus 
writes a public man of unusual promise. A great name once 
said : " I have been hungry for two years." He had a malady 
which threatened death, if he ever over-ate, yet he had the 
force of will to avoid excesses for a lifetime. His name and 
his works will live in the memory of the good for ages to come. 
To avoid over-eating requires moral courage ; it takes a man to 
do it ; cowards and babies fail every day. An incessant feeling 
of hunger is a great torment ; it is the sign of dyspepsia. A 
dyspeptic lives on thorns. If he does not satisfy his appetite, 
there is a ceaseless longing to eat ; if he does eat as much as he 
wants, he either spits it up by piece-meal in the course of hours, 
or suffers a variety of aches and ails which make of life a bur- 
den, and utterly unfit him for enjoyment, or the proper dis- 


charge of business or of duty. The very first step towards the 
cure of any case of dyspepsia, is the heroic resistance to the calls 
of the stomach. The rule, in almost all cases, is to eat but little, 
eat often, eat regularly, and to be in active exercise in the open 
air for as many hours of each day as possible ; the more the 
better. The very essence of dyspepsia is, that the stomach is 
too weak to manage the food introduced into it ; it can not con- 
vert it into nutriment. The work of the stomach has been 
compared to a kind of churning operation ; it carries the food 
round and round, as a spoon carries bits of ice in a glass of 
water, when they are to be melted. Now if the stomach is too 
weak to push them around, they settle, remain at rest, collect 
at one point, and we speak of it as a " load," as being " heavy 
as lead." To carry out the comparison so as to convey the de- 
sired idea, at the expense of a literal scientific view of the case, 
the stomach might be able to carry a little food, an ounce, 
around its walls, when it could not carry a full meal of two 
pounds ; it may carry around a few ounces of plain, nourishing 
food, and digest it, dissolve it in an hour or two, when it would 
fail to do the same in five hours, by a hearty meaL A faithful 
servant recovering from a long sickness may be able to do a 
little work, and do it properly ; but if too much is given, it is 
either not done at all, or not done well. By giving a little at a 
time, and giving opportunity for rest, an ability is gradually 
acquired to do more and more. 

The general rules for dyspeptics are, eat what you crave, but 
only so much as will not afterwards give the slightest discomfort 
whatever, and gradually feel the way along to take more and 
more. The easiest way to avoid eating too much, is to have, 
at specified times, that amount of food sent to your room, 
which observation has shown to be proper for you. If this 
plan is persevered in, the feeling of gnawing hunger will gra- 
dually disappear, and will only be present when the time for 
eating comes. Generally speaking, in our own observation, 
the best bread for a dyspeptic is pilot bread, or ship-biscuit, 
having nothing in them but flour and water, or the crust of 
cold wheat or light bread, in either case softened with hot wa- 
ter ; fresh meat, rare done, and cut up as fine as a pea, is more 
easily digested and converted into nutriment and strength than 
any vegetable whatever. Ship-biscuit, fresh meat, and abun- 


dant out-door work will cure almost any dyspeptic, if the use 
of these is persevered in according to the principles laid down. 
But as not one in ten thousand has the moral courage to prac- 
tice the self-denial, and to do the work suggested, this article 
perhaps might as well have not been written, except that now 
and then a hero and a philosopher might see it. 

"GOING IT."— The perfectly reckless manner in which 
human health and hopes and life itself are trifled with, finds a 
powerful illustration in the narration of a banker, given with 
all the directness, succinctness, and matter-of-fact way of a 
thoroughly business man : 

"It was my habit to smoke what was equivalent to a dozen 
segars a day. I also drank a good deal, and for the five years 
preceding my sickness, I had been much confined to business, 
scarcely having any exercise, also slept at place of business, 
where the air was very bad. Add to these the fact that I did 
not know any thing about taking care of myself." 

It was with the hope that parents would be glad to supply 
their children with a Journal of Health like this, in order to 
give them in time the very information which would have 
saved the banker long years of illness, with all the sufferings, 
anxieties, and vain labors for health which have followed in the 
train. And yet it is very certain, that not one parent in any 
hundred on an average, who reads this article, will spend a dol- 
lar for this or any similar publication for a son at college, or a 
daughter at a boarding-school, or will devote one hour in a 
month towards instructing their children at home, as to the 
means of maintaining health or of avoiding disease. And yet, 
when health is lost, these very same parents, looking on the 
flower early and surely fading away into the grave, will freely 
spend hundreds and thousands of dollars, will eagerly under- 
take painful journeys by land, and encounter the perils of 
ocean navigation for thousands and thousands of miles, for the 
bare chance of a little improvement, and the phantom-like hope 
of an eventual restoration. It certainly is not desirable to fill 
the minds of the young with symptoms and remedies. Such is 
not the object of this or publications like it, but to show, in 
every variety of way, how diseases are engendered, and how, by 
a trifling care and a little wise attention, to avoid them. May the 


day soon come when it will be considered a better "start in 
the world," to enter upon the great theater of human life at 
"twenty -one," with a good constitution in a high state of 
preservation, than to " begin business " with a large capital and 
no " physique," no bodily vigor to carry it on with energy, 
activity and life. 

A DANGEROUS CURIOSITY— It is the most natural 
thing in the world, when you have gone to bed, to get up, run 
to the window, hoist it and look out at an alarm of fire or any 
unusual noise or clamor going on outside. A lady was roused 
from her sleep by a cry of " Fire ;" her chamber was as bright 
almost as day when she opened her eyes. She went to the 
window, and soon saw that it was her husband's cotton factory. 
She felt on the instant a shock at the pit of the stomach ; the 
result was a painful disease which troubled her for the remain- 
der of her life, a period of nearly fifteen years. 

A young lady just budding into womanhood was called by 
the sound of midnight music to the window, and in her undress 
leaned her arm on the cold sill; the next day she had an 
attack of inflammation of the lungs which nearly killed her. 
She eventually recovered, only to be the victim of a life-long 
asthma, the horrible suffering from the oft-repeated attacks of 
which, during now these twenty years, is the painful penalty, 
to be paid over and over again as long as life lasts. 

A letter just received from a successful banker, who has been 
an invalid for five years, every now and then spitting blood by 
the pint, with a harassing cough which makes every night and 
morning a purgatory, states that the immediate cause of all his 
sufferings, and the final blasting of life's prospects, was his get- 
ting up on a cool night, to look out of his chamber- window, his 
body being in a perspiration at the time. That sturdy old 
Trojan, Dr. Johnson, used to say that "mankind did not so 
much require instructing as reminding ;" hence the present re- 
minder, that it is dangerous for people to be poking their night- 
caps out of window after night-fall. Another mischievous 
habit in the same direction, may have pertinent mention here : 
standing m the street doorway in cold weather, while the door 
itself is open, in taking leave of visitors. The cold air from 
without rushes into the dwelling, causing a draught, which 

48 hall's jouenal of health. 

cliills the whole body almost instantly. It is a hundred times 
safer to close the door and stand without, bare-headed.' Many 
a tedious case of sickness and suffering has been occasioned, and 
even life itself has been lost, by an exposure, apparently so 
trifling. May our readers remember these things, and teach 
them to their children on the instant. 

THE FEET IN WINTER.— Sometimes in washing the feet 
in warm water, a great deal of scurf or whitish soft substance 
may be scraped from the soles ; this is dead skin, dried perspir- 
ation, and other accumulations, all resulting from a want of 
personal cleanliness. These accumulations occur most in win- 
ter, when washing the feet is neither as convenient nor agree- 
able as in summer-time. Many persons suffer from cold feet, 
simply from a neglect to keep them clean. Few suffer thus in 
summer-time, one reason for which is "that the skin is moist, the 
pores afe open, a free evaporation takes place, and the blood is 
invited to the surface. In winter the skin is dry, harsh and 
cold. To keep them constantly warm and comfortable, is in- 
dispensable to good health ; and to do this, the surface must be 
brought to the condition of summer ; that is, must be soft and 
somewhat moist, instead of being harsh and dry. This may be 
soon brought about by soaking the feet in warm water for half 
an hour at a time daily, using most freely a very stiff brush, 
with good soap. After the skin has become soft and smooth, a 
good washing with soap and warm water twice a week during 
cold weather, will greatly contribute to a healthful condition of 
the feet as well as to personal comfort. If the feet are kept un- 
exceptionably clean, and are nevertheless inclined to be dry, 
considerable benefit will be derived by rubbing into the soles 
every morning a little sweet oil, twenty or thirty drops to each 
sole, with the palm of the hand, patiently and well, the object 
being to secure by artificial means, that softness and moistness 
which is known to favor evaporation and to invite thither the 
flow of blood. If in addition, the feet were placed in cold 
water regularly every morning (when not unwell) not over two 
inches deep, and remaining in not over half a minute in cold 
weather, then rubbed briskly dry with a coarse cloth, next with 
the hands, all followed by a brisk walk or stamping for a minute 
or two, or until they begin to feel comfortably warm after the 


cold bath, an improvement in the condition of the feet would 
be secured in a reasonably short time, which would largely com- 
pensate for the trouble taken. 

BATHS AND BATHING.— A cold bath is 75° and under; 
temperate, 75° to 85° ; tepid, 85° to 95° ; warm, 95° to 100°; 
hot, 100° and over. 

The temperature of the body in health is ninety-eight de- 
grees Fahrenheit. For purposes of cleansing the skin, a hot 
bath is the most efficient, but it should be indulged in only oc- 
casionally, and for a very few minutes at a time, as it rapidly 
exhausts the physical powers. It opens the pores of the skin 
and increases the activity of the circulation for the moment, 
but if followed by an instantaneous cold shower-bath, an in- 
vigorating effect is produced. A hot bath excites, a warm bath 
soothes and tranquillizes; it makes the pulse slower, and causes 
more equable breathing. 

A vapor-bath is of steam instead of water, and is applied in- 
side as well as out ; its first effect is a feeling of oppression, but 
soon perspiration is induced, and delightful sensations ensue. 
To prevent taking cold, the person should pass from the steam- 
chamber into a tepid bath for a single moment, then wipe dry 
briskly, dress and walk. 

No kind of bath ought to be taken within an hour before a 
regular meal, nor sooner than four hours after ; sudden death 
has often resulted from inattention to the latter. The best time 
for bathing is immediately after rising in the morning, as then 
there is greater power of reaction, without which there is no 
invigoration, no benefit. 

The sponge-bath is the application of water to the surface of 
the body by means of a sponge. When persons are feeble, one 
portion of the body should undergo the process at a time, then 
quickly wiped and dried, and covered, before another is ex- 
posed. There are few persons indeed who would not be greatly 
benefited by the following procedure every morning, winter 
and summer : Wash the hands first in a small amount of water 
with soap, for if but little is used, a teacupful, it is warmed by 
the hands, and thus becomes more cleansing, without the 
trouble of preparing warm water ; then rinse them well ; after- 
wards wash the face in a large basin of cold water just drawn 
or brought into the room, for all cold water becomes filthy in 

50 hall's journal of health. 

an hour or two if kept standing in a sitting or sleeping 
apartment. After the face has been washed plentifully, throw 
the water up to the elbows, then a little higher at every dash 
with the hand, until the arms, neck, throat, behind the ears, 
arm-pits, and upper portion of the chest have been deluged 
with water ; next (except women with long hair) wash the 
whole scalp abundantly, rubbiug the water into and about the 
roots of the hair with the ends of the fingers ; then wipe with 
a towel, absorbing as much of the dampness from the hair as 
possible with an extra dry cloth, and dress, leaving the arrange- 
ment of the hair to the last, so as to give it an opportunity of 
drying somewhat ; for if it is wringing wet, it will not dress 
well, and besides will keep the head cold by its evaporation. 
In dressing the hair after such a washing of the head, the comb 
should be passed through it in the gentlest manner, so as to 
make no strain upon the roots, nor break any hair in disen- 
gaging the tangles. The hair thus dressed in the morning 
will remain so the whole day, or, if not, can easily be re-dressed, 
with the advantage of perfect cleanliness, which can not be said 
of the filthy practice of using hair-oils. 

BARE NECK AND ARMS.— There is, perhaps, not an 
eminent physician in any system of practice, who will not de- 
clare, with a distinguished medical practitioner, now deceased : 
" I believe, that during the twenty-six years I have followed 
my profession in this city, twenty thousand children have been 
carried to the cemeteries, a sacrifice to the absurd custom of 
exposing their arms naked." 

THE JOURNAL'S PROSPERITY. — We forgot to ask our 
subscribers at the close of the year to renew their subscriptions, 
and nearly every one of our exchanges failed to make any men- 
tion of the fact that it was a very good time for any of their 
subscribers who wanted to live a hundred years to order that 
very useful publication, Hall's Journal of Health, pub- 
lished at 42 Irving Place, New- York City, for only one dollar 
a year. But in spite of these omissions and the difficulties of 
the times, and another fact that we made no promises of the 
great things we were going to do, nor offered pictures as big as 
a barn-door, and as beautiful, as extra inducements, our sub- 
scription-list this first week in January is nearly four times as 
great as at the same time of any year since our commencement. 
We do not know of one delinquent subscriber for 1860, nor will 
there be for 1861. Crediting demoralizes those credited, and 
bankrupts worthy publishers in multitudes of cases. 


VOL. 8.] MARCH, 1861. [NO. 3, 


I have endeavored in all my writings to substitute this name 
for Laryngitis, or Clergymen's Sore Throat ; it is shorter, more 
comprehensive, more correct, and has the advantage of being 
plain English. It is a disease which every mother ought to 
understand, 'for in the shape of croup, it puts her child in the 
grave in a few hours. Every person who loves to sing, should 
know its nature, for it destroys the voice. Every lawyer, 
every clergyman, every politician ought to make it their study, 
for it robs them of their capital in trade, and often lays them 
on the shelf for life. In short, it should be generally under- 
stood at least as to its symptoms, for it is very often the fore- 
runner of consumption, that hated name. 

There are two forms of throat-ail — the rapid and the slow. 
By rapid throat-ail, the great and good Washington perished 
prematurely, in a few hours' illness. By the slow kind, many 
public men are deprived of their means of usefulness, and of 
support, and have to spend their remaining days in struggling 
for a scant subsistence, or in following some new trade in their 
old age. 

I write for the people, and think it sufficient for the general 
good, to acquaint my readers with merely the symptoms and 
the causes of what is called " Theoat-Ail," par excellence, the 
kind which lasts for weeks and months, and years, ending in 
disablement of voice, and finally death by consumption. 

Throat-Ail is like a fire, the sooner you know of its exist- 
ence the better ; and like a fire too which seldom goes out of 
itself ; so throat-ail seldom indeed gets well of itself, but bur- 
rows and deepens, until it undermines the constitution, wastes 
away the health, and strength, and flesh, and finally fastening 
itself in the lungs, completes the wreck and ruin of the whole 

52 HalVs Journal of Health. 

The first symptoms of Throat- Ail, or Chronic Laryngitis, or 
Clergymen's Sore Throat, are usually a frequent hemming and 
hacking, in order to clear the voice or throat; this is slight and 
seldom at first, and may not be noticed for weeks ; but then, 
it is so decided, that it forces itself upon the attention, either 
by its frequency, or by the force required to clear the throat 
sufficiently to speak with distinctness. After a while, it re- 
quires such an effort to enunciate plainly, that the patient for 
the first time becomes aware of a certain feeling of tiredness 
about the throat or neck ; most generally it is a dull hurting ; 
or he finds there is a kind of lumpish feeling in the throat, and 
he attempts to swallow it away, and it does seem to go down, 
but it does not stay down, and he swallows again, and soon he 
finds himself swallowing all the time ; occasionally there is a 
different cause for swallowing, the throat appears to be dry, 
and swallowing for a time seems to moisten it ; finally the 
swallowing is almost incessant, especially if the mind is 
directed to it. For a time, nothing is brought away ; gradually 
a little pearly or whitish or cottony like phlegm is brought 
up, and the patient becomes hoarse. In the progress of things 
this phlegm becomes dryish, and so tough, that it clings to the 
inside of the throat, and can only be dislodged by a decided 
effort at clearing, with a dipping forward of the head. The 
voice next becomes husky ; at last a positive cough is neces- 
sary to dislodge the phlegm, and consumption soon follows. 

The symptoms detailed are present in the history of every 
case I have known. Accompanying these, there are occa- 
sional additional symptoms. A kind of pain, sharp or hurting, 
runs up the side of the neck towards the ear. Some complain 
of a burning feeling now and then at the little hollow at the 
bottom of the neck ; or up and down the breast bone in the 
centre, or at the pit of the stomach. These burning sensations 
are not felt continuously in any case, but at certain times 
during the day. 

A very common symptom is a depression of spirits, alto- 
gether greater than the actual feeling of discomfort warrants. 
In the progress of the disease, the feet become cold ; there is 
a bad taste in the mouth of mornings ; occasional headache ; 
the bowels do not act daily, or if they do, what is passed is 
hard or bally ; the patient is easily chilled ; " the slightest 

Symptoms of Throat- Ail. 53 

thing in the world" gives him a cold, and " a cold always 
makes the throat worse." The food either sonrs on the stom- 
ach, or remains there like a weight for hours at a time ; the 
appetite becomes impaired, or it is so voracious, that " I can 
eat almost any thing" and " yet hungry all the time." The 
patient begins to lose flesh and strength ; and does not swal- 
low as easily as he used to ; at length he cannot swallow at 
all ; in the effort, even water comes back through the nose 
and the man dies of starvation. 

Header, if you have incipient symptoms of throat-ail, do not 
be a fool and go to some old woman, or Indian Doctor, or 
some officious and all-knowing granny, and waste time and 
perhaps life in experimenting on red pepper tea, or the soup 
made by Shakespeare's witches, or the Alicumstouton Salve, 
named at page 147 of the Journal for 1854. Do not go to 
swallowing brandy, or the still more murderous lozenges of 
the shops ; for brandy may not certainly kill any man, lozenges 
will. But go at once to a regularly educated physician, who 
is, as I think, necessarily a gentleman; he will not pro- 
mise to cure you in a week, or in a month, or in a century; 
he will promise you just nothing at all ; he takes it for 
granted that you understand that he feels it his duty and his 
interest to do for you the best he can, and he will do it. Do 
not tell him that if he cures you, there are a few more of the 
same sort left in your neighborhood who will also come. Do 
not promise him an extra fee if he is successful in your case ; 
for it will only make him feel that you are as green as you 
suppose him to be. Do not come the pathetic over him, that 
you have six wives living and dead, and nineteen children, 
and you hope he will do the best he can for you, for the — 
smallest price possible. In calling upon such a physician, you 
have only two things to do ; tell your symptoms, and follow 
his advice implicitly and well ; his reputation and his bread 
depend on his success : you can appeal to no higher motives. 
And always remember, that it is impossible for such a physi- 
cian to say to you, " no cure no pay." Is a man to spend 
weary hours and anxious days and sleepless nights in trying to 
save your life, and to be paid nothing, unless he succeeds, 
especially when you have spent all your money on patent 

54 Hall's Journal of Health. 

medicines and advertising certif yers ; shame on the man who 
could make such a proposition. 


I cannot here state them all, nor at length, only the princi- 
ple ones, and them succinctly. 

I have now these many years confined my attention rigidly 
and exclusively to throat and lung diseases. I think I was 
the first physician in the United States to do so, as rigidly. I 
know not that there is any one besides myself in this country, 
who dismisses every case as invariably, in which the air passages 
are not involved. I make this statement for the purpose of 
enabling the reader to place the deserved estimate at the 
assertion I am going to make, to wit : 

Three cases out of every four coming to me for throat-ail, 
have it as the result of improper eating and drinMng. 

Such a large proportion of cases of throat-ail originating in 
the stomach, I found my remaining remarks on this general 

How can the Stomach make the Throat Sore f 

A stroke against the elbow is felt at the fingers' end. When 
your foot is asleep, from sitting on a hard edge of wood for 
some time, the cause is at the point of pressure, and yet it 
tingles in the toes a yard off. A good knock on the head 
" makes the fire fly" at the eyes. 

The condition of the throat is affected by the condition of 
the stomach, because a certain nerve branches off, one part of 
that nerve goes to the stomach, the other fork goes to the 
throat. The nerves are like the telegraphic wires, touch them 
at one end, and an effect is produced at the other. So if the 
nerves which supply the stomach are disordered, those in the 
throat are liable to become so too. Most of us have heard of 
i4 heartburn" some have felt it; it is a burning sensation, some- 
times felt at the point familiarly called the pit of the stomach, 
and sometimes in persons who use their voice much, this same 
burning is felt at the little hollow at the bottom of the throat 
and the region of Adam's apple, and that is the spot where 
throat-ail is located. 

I wish here to arrest the attention ol clergymen, singers, 
teachers, and public speakers to this interesting inquiry. 

Causes of Throat- Ail. 55 

If sour stomach, or dyspepsia, as physicians term it, causes 
burning or other sensations in the throat of clergymen and 
other persons who use their voice much, why does not sour 
stomach affect the throats of all, as the same nerve supplies 
branches to both throat and stomach ? This is the reason : a 
slight stomach derangement does not affect the throat per- 
ceptibly, if the voice organs are in a strong, active, healthful 
condition, because they have vigor to repel disease. It is a 
law of the human frame, that an ailment is apt to make itself 
felt next, or most decidedly in that particular part of the body 
which at the time is weakest in the performance of its func- 
tions, and as the voice organs are often in a lax or debilitated 
condition from frequent or unusual voice efforts, or injudi- 
cious conduct after voice effort, as stated at length in the 
Journal for 1854, page 39, and are at length made permanently 
feeble by these repeated uses and indiscretions, so being the 
next weakest part, disease flies there ; thus it is too, that when 
such persons take cold, the throat being the weak part, feels 
it promptly. 

A proper use of the voice strengthens the throat, and gives 
it a capability of resisting disease, just as a judicious use of 
any other muscles of the body increase their strength and 
health. But improper use, as just stated, by weakening, ren- 
ders them more susceptible of disease of any kind, and spe- 
cially of the stomach, in consequence of the nervous connec- 
tion before described. 

An injury done to any part of the body may be resisted, or 
if not, may be repaired by the curative energies of nature ; 
but if these injuries are frequently repeated, the strength of 
nature is exhausted in endeavoring to make repairs, then she 
remains prostrate and powerless, and disease has unbridled 

When in any given case, a man is in a condition to have his 
throat affected by the state of his stomach, violence is offered 
the throat at each meal, three times a day, in time these 
effects last longer, until the effect of one meal reaches to 
another, and the throat is more or less ailing all the time. 

But to follow up the case, how is it that persons have sour 
stomach or heartburn ? 

All understand that what is sweet cider to-day, is sou 1 * to- 

o6 HalVs Journal of Health. 

morrow ; we look at it and find it in constant motion, it is 
" working" fermenting. When food is taken into a healthy 
and well acting stomach, it is in a short time digested^ that is, 
converted into a kind of liquid, no lumps or any thing of the 
sort in it, just as when you place a great many bits of ice and 
snow in a glass of water, the mass soon becomes all fluid alike. 
The food is made into this one fluid substance by the .action 
of the stomach and what pertains to it. But the amount of 
food which the stomach can thus turn into a liquid form, is 
limited, just as if you put a certain amount of ice lumps in a 
glass of water, that water will melt them, but if you put in 
too many, none of them are wholly melted, and it remains a 
mixture of water, spears of ice, and solid ice. "When then, 
more food is taken into the stomach at any one time than it 
can convert into a homogenous fluid, it remains in lumps more 
or less, and it is said to be undigested^ and begins immediately 
to ferment, to become sour and produces in the stomach the 
same sensation that swallowing vinegar causes in the throat, a 

We see then, that sour stomach is caused by eating more 
than the stomach can digest. But how are we to tell how 
much the stomach can digest? In the same manner precisely 
as each one may ascertain to a quarter of an hour how much 
sleep he needs as explained in the Journal for 1854, page 88. 
Observe nature. The brutes are regulated in all these things 
by instinct, to us the nobler reason is given, and it must be 
our guide. We must observe and judge. 

What one man eats or drinks in quality or quantity is no 
guide for any other man, any more than the amount of labor 
one can perform, is the criterion for another. Each man must 
for himself bring his own observation and judgment to bear 
on the question, How much must I eat? The general rule is, 
Do not eat so much, as to cause any unpleasant sensation after- 

If you at any time take a meal, and afterwards within an 
hour or two' feel uncomfortably, then what you have eaten, 
does not agree icith you j you have eaten, either in quantity 
or quality what your stomach cannot digest. Nine times out 
of ten, it is the quantity and not the quality, which does the 

Two Grand Mistakes. 57 

When persons have been ailing some time, almost every 
thing they eat or drink, sours on the stomach, even a cup of 
tea or a glass of cold water, or toasted bread, gives sourness, 
or weight, or oppression, or some other ill feeling ; in time, the 
throat begins to feel tired, dry, or to burn, or smart, or is 
clogged up a little and we are all the time clearing it away ; 
this is " Dyspeptic Throat-Ail" or Clergymen's Sore Throat. 
But why was such a name given to it ? Because to a certain 
extent it is a comparatively new disease ; we read little or 
nothing of it in the old books, a new disease as much then, as 
cholera is a new disease. It was perhaps first noticed to attack 
clergymen for two reasons : the injudicious use of the voice, as 
noticed in the article on Air and Exercise for February, 185i ; 
and from increased notoriety over a common patient, for 
when the minister is ailing the whole town and adjoining 
country soon kno,w it ; but I am now come to the point of 
exposing one of the two grand mistakes of modern times in 
reference to health. I will name them both here, although I 
will at present discuss but one. The first mistake is about 
injuring one's health by hard study, and the other is that a 
minister has become disabled by his "arduous labors /" these 
two things are simply pious frauds, the former committed 
generally by young students, the latter by young clergymen, 
securing for them a kind of sympathy considered to belong to 
martyrs. Two things I know : the first is, I never injured my 
health by hard study ; the nearest I came to it was in ruining 
my eyes by studying the miserable edition of Scrivilleis' 
Lexicon, " a long time ago," till twelve o'clock at night, the 
days having been spent in writing poetry and pathetic epistles 
to a schoolmate. I received sympathy instead of the switch, 
just as nine young gentlemen out of ten in the college, the 
university, and the lecture room are complimented, when 
their health gives way, with the appellation of a hard student. 
I never knew a man, young or old, to injure himself by hard 
study. It is a mistake. In some future number I may tell 
how said mistake originates. 

The other of the two grand mistakes before alluded to, 
I propose to discuss is this, " Clergymen's sore throat is 
wrongfully set down to the score of ' arduous labors /' " Let 
the observant reader reflect a moment on a little fact which 

58 HalVs Journal of Health. 

may not have as yet formed itself in words, but which upon 
mention will bring with it»a " realizing sense" of its truthful- 

Away out in the wild woods of the West, where I " was 
raised," the people are a type of Gotham and Fifth Avenue, 
the only difference being, as Wadsworth told us one Sunday 
not long since in one of his grand efforts, the greater or less 
exaggeration of any given characteristic — well; away out 
there, where the folks are, as Eastern people believe, a kind 
of half and half mixture of the civilized and the savage, spe- 
cially the latter, people love their minister, they love him 
affectionately as David did Jonathan, and if he does not come 
to see them often, their feelings are hurt. But if he comes 
and does not eat with them, " it is no see at all," it is not con- 
sidered a visit. He must not only come, but " come often." 
As it is their minister, they honestly think ijiat nothing they 
can put on the table is too good for him, consequently the 
modern Martha " dishes up" every thing she thinks good, and 
every thing " her man" thinks is good, and every thing the 
guest is supposed or known to like, and the result is a conglo- 
meration of every thing under the sun — suppose it a " supper," 
as is generally the case ; they do not take a dish of tea out 
West, they u eat supper," the third and last meal of the day. 
Well, look in on that Kentucky supper, there is coffee and 
tea to begin with, and hot biscuit, and corn bread and wheat 
bread, and boiled chicken, and a mackerel, and chipped beef, 
and ham and eggs, with a pitcher of pure milk, and honey and 
molasses, and all the different kind of preserves ever thought 
of, besides buttermilk and "pie" and cider and baked apples 
— that is a Western supper, reader, and the minister is ex- 
pected to take a bit of every thing there ; they would be 
almost affronted if he did not. If he did not make a dash at 
^he whole category, they would say he was proud, and there 
his influence would end. He knows it, and feels in a sense 
compelled to eat more than he wants, certainly more than he 
needs, and more than he would eat, if there was not variety to 
tempt. We have the same thing here in New York, although 
in a more refined shape, instead of such " suppers" at " sun- 
down," we have regular dinners at ten o'clock at night, and 
having to wait several hours longer than usual, there is such a 

An Instructive Warning to Clergymen. 59 

ravenous appetite, that an amount is eaten very far beyond 
the needs of the system, keeping the stomach laboring for 
hours after, to relieve itself of the unwonted burden. Such 
occurrences frequently taking place, will inevitably induce 
dyspeptic habits, and all their long catalogues of ill. Our 
ministers are feasted too much. 

Another cause of dyspepsia in ministers, is eating too soon 
after preaching. For two or three hours the tide of nervous 
energy has been setting in strongly towards the brain, and it 
cannot be suddenly turned towards the stomach ; but the men- 
tal effort has occasioned a feeling of faintness or debility about 
the stomach, and a morbid appetite ; and if food is taken at 
all largely, there is not the nervous energy there requisite to 
effect its digestion jgiPfor the brain will be running over the 
discourse ; you may bring the mind back to the eating for a 
moment, but before you are aware of it, it will be laboring at 
the discourse again ; every public speaker knows this, and the 
food lies there like a weight or a lump for hours. 

The same result is produced in a less decided form by stu 
dying out a sermon. The mind becomes absorbed, the an 
nouncement for dinner is made, you are unprepared for it, it 
is rather unwelcome, you do not feel hungry, for the brain is 
at work, not the stomach ; however, as it is meal time/ you go 
down, but the mind is in your " study," and you eat because 
it is dinner time, and not because you have an appetite — the 
principal cause of the most aggravated forms of dyspeptic dis- 
ease — eating without an appetite, one of the most suicidal of 
all domestic practices ; eating simply because it is eating 
time, rather than by waiting until the appetite comes, give the 
trouble to prepare another meal. Every student should leave 
his books at least half an hour before a meal, and spend that 
half hour in a leisure walk in the open air, or in agreeable 
conversation on the piazza, or in the garden. 


In illustration of the principles stated, I will record here a fact. 

A very eminent D.D. within a year has given up the 
charge of his congregation from a complaint in the throat: 
his parishioners, in parting with him, presented him with a 
farm, and now he is lecturing over the country, and nothing 



60 IlaWs Journal of Health, 

is heard about his throat complaint, except when he leaves his 
wife at home ; when that is the case, he is laid up instanter. 
As long as she is at his side to watch over what he eats as to 
quality and amount, he keeps well ; when he transgresses, the 
food sours on the stomach, the throat burns, gets clogged up, 
he is hoarse and useless. 

I have extended this article beyond my calculation, but its 
importance cannot be over estimated, for I consider it a statis- 
tical fact, that three out of f out of all the clergy who a/re pre- 
maturely set aside as unavailable workers, are thus set aside in 
consequence of errors in diet ; errors to a certain extent inse- 
parable from their present connection with society, in the 
manner I have stated. 

Throat-ail then being generally located in the stomach — 
what is the use of gargling the throat with acids and metallic 
preparations, which destroy the teeth ? and what is the use of 
swabbing out the throat with nitrate of silver, when the source 
of the disease is elsewhere. It does I know sometimes give 
relief, but it is not permanent, it cannot be, for it is merely 
covering a black spot on the wall with whitewash ; the spot is 
not seen, but it is there still ; but unlike the black spot, which 
is statu quo, the disease, though covered, is burrowing and 
spreading still. If again, the disease is really in the stomach, 
it is a useless waste of time, it is unphilosophical, to tell a 
clergyman who has throat-ail, that he must abandon preaching ; 
because the voice muscles must be treated like any other 
muscle of the body which is debilitated, their energies must 
be invited back by judicious forms of exercise, just as in re- 
covering from a fever, we increase our strength, by exercising 
carefully and gradually, and safely increasing that exercise. 

Besides, if the minister gives up his congregation, he gives 
up his bread, and he not only has leisure to brood over and 
thus aggravate his ailment, but also to worry himself as to 
some mode of obtaining subsistence in a manner not incon- 
sistent with his former calling. Hence, the indispensable 
means of curing an ordinary case of clergymen's sore throat 
are to keep the patient at work, modifying the forms of voic . 
exercise according to the needs and habits of each case, ant 
the regulation of the digestive functions by a proper adapta- 
tion of food as to quantity and quality to the needs of the 

Cold Feet Causing Throat- Ail. • 61 


Often produce a burning sensation, in the throat, which if 
allowed to continue in operation, ultimately undermines the 
health ; the reason is, less blood being in the feet than is 
natural, there is an extra amount at the other end of the body ; 
can any thing be more absurd than to clip off a man's palate, 
whack out his tonsils, and " burn out his throat," for such an 
ailment ; can that send warmth to the feet ? can we purify the 
fountain, by purifying the stream ? When will men learn to 
think for themselves ? 

My experience is, Throat-Ail is not to be radically and per- 
manently cured in any case, except by rectifying first, and then 
building up the general health of the system, and that requires 
time, determination, and systematic habits of rational life. 
Who thinks differently, and acts up to his belief, will find 
himself just as miserably deceived, as that unfortunate class 
of theologians, who assert "It is no matter what a man 
believes, if he is sincere in his belief." Is not such a logician a 
" sincere" fool ? Clergyman's Sore Throat is better cured, as a 
general rule, in the continuation of ministerial duty. My 
ordinary advice is, Preach every day and Sunday too, rather 
than once a week. These fitful efforts are often a main cause 
of Throat- Ail ; just as a man who travels ten miles a foot on 
Sunday, and on other days none at all, will be wearied every 
Sunday night ; whereas, were he to walk five or six or eight 
miles every day, rain or shine, he would perform ten or twelve 
on the Sabbath, without appreciable fatigue. Men of u The 
Cloth," why don't you think for yourselves? Sometimes I 
think I am not altogether a drone in creation, because there 
are excellent men now, in different parts of the country, whom 
I have never seen, who, having abandoned preaching, applied 
to me for advice, and on being urged to resume pastoral 
charges immediately, as a means of cure, have done so, and 
have steadily recovered, and are now bearing " the burden 
and heat of the day." So that I am every Sabbath preaching 
by proxy, to many a listening multitude. It is not politic to 
say here how many I have killed off, or to inquire if those 
referred to might not have recovered without doing any thing. 
They came and were cured as antecedent and sequent, not 
necessarily as cause and effect. 

62 HalVs Journal of Health. 

Statistics of Old Age. — The census of 1854 shows us that 
the oldest person then living in the United States was 140. 
This person was an Indian woman, residing in North Carolina. 
En the same State was an Indian aged 125 ; a negro woman, 
111; two black slaves, 110 each; one mulatto male, 120; 
and several white males and females from 106 to 114. In the 
parish of Lafayette, La., was a female, black, aged 120. In 
several of the States there were found persons, white and 
black, aged from 110 to 115. There were in the United 
States, in 1850, 2,555 persons over 100 years. This shows 
that about one person in 9,000 will be likely to live to that 
age. There are now about 20,000 persons in the United States 
who were living when the Declaration of Independence w T as 
signed in 1776. They must necessarily be nearly 80 years old 
now, in order to have lived at that time. The French census 
of 1851, shows only 102 persons over 100 years old ; though 
their total population was near 36,000,000. Old age is there- 
fore attained among us much more frequently than in France. 


Not by tumbling into the river and draggling home wet as 
a drowned rat ; not by being pitched into the mud, or spilled 
out in the snow in sleighing time ; not by walking for hours 
over shoe-top in mud ; not by soaking in the rain without an 
umbrella ; not by scrubbing the floor until the un-nameable 
sticks to you like a wet rag ; not by hoeing potatoes until you 
are in a lather of sweat ; not by trying to head a pig in mid- 
winter, and induce him to run the other way, for he won't do 
any such thing ; not by steaming over the wash-tub ; not by 
essaying to teach Biddy to make mince pies for Christmas, 
when you don't know how yourself, and then worrying your- 
self into a perspiration because the pies stuck to the pan, and 
came out in a muss, forgetting *that pie-pans, like people, are 
rather the better for a little greasing, alias soft soap ; these are 
not the things which give people colds ; and yet people are 
all the time telling us how they " caught their death by expo- 
sure." Horace Greeley once said, " O for a leisure week to 
i-ead books." Horace was green then — some say, he is now — 

Row People Tatte Cold. 63 

but I rather giasss not ; he is great, specially on people " of 
the color of black," as our three year old once described a born 
African. Greeley hasn't derived his greatness from books, 
and now he is older, perhaps he don't sigh for a week of 
leisure to read books, at least I don't. All the leisure I want 
is to think and play with the children ; Bob and our new little 
Alice, for example. Books don't feed me, as of yore. Sure I 
must be getting old or hard to please ; books, somehow or 
other, don't seem to me to meet the wants of the age, they are 
written too much with a view to make a sensation or money, 
and consequently nine out of ten fail to do either ; the only 
result being to elucidate their authors into obscurity. Some- 
how or other, the mind wanders. I have to start on a journey 
of eight hundred miles to-morrow night and back, and the 
inexorable printer wants copy, and I must come back to colds ; 
and speaking of the emptiness of books, I was wondering if 
" in the whole course of my life," I had ever seen defined in 
clear decisive phrase, in any book, " the place where and the 
time when" a man -takes a cold. Pat, when asked one wintry 
day, what he would take to climb up the court-house steeple 
and remain there, said, "I would take a cold, yer honor." 
Sawney, who stood by, said he would take a dollar. That is 
about the nearest description I have seen in print as to the 
locality best adapted for taking a cold, but that was g falsity, 
not a fact. The seeds of a million deaths of the beautiful, the 
honored and the good, will be sown this year by indifference 
to the statement I am going to make in reference to the time 
and manner of taking colds. I will not now perplex the 
reader with a disquisition on the physiology of colds, but will 
simply bring to mind what any reader will recognize as an old 
but forgotten acquaintance. 

The time for taking cold, is after your exercise / the place 
is in your own house, or office, or counting-room. 

It is not the act of exercise which gives the cold, but it is 
the getting cool too quick after exercising. For example, you 
walk very fast to get to the railroad station, or to the ferry, or 
to catch an omnibus, or to make time for an appointment ; 
your mind being ahead of you, the body makes an over effort 
to keep up with it, and when you get to the desired spot, you 
raise your hat and find yourself in a perspiration ; you tak<3 a 

64 HalVs Journal of Health. 

seat, and feeling quite comfortable as to temperature, you 
begin to talk with, a friend, or if a ISTew Yorker, to read a 
newspaper, and before you are aware of it, you experience a 
sensation of chilliness, and the thing is done / you look around 
to see where the cold comes, and find a window open near 
you, or a door, or that you have taken a seat at the forward 
part of the car, and it moving against the wind, a strong draft 
fs made through the crevices. Or may be you met a friend 
at a street corner, who wanted a loan, and was quite compli- 
mentary, almost loving ; you did not like to be rude in the 
delivery of the two-lettered monosyllable, and while you were 
contriving to be truthful, polite, and safe, all at the same 
time, on comes the chilly feeling from a raw wind at the 
street corner, or the slosh of mud and water in which, for the 
first time, you noticed yourself standing. 

Young ladies take their colds in grandly dark parlors, 
unused and unfired for a week ; warm enough were thej 
almost too warm in the gay, sun-shiny street without, and tha. 
parlor felt comfortably cool at first, but the last curl of the 
visited would not dangle satisfactorily, and while compelling 
it (young ladies now a-days' making it a point of principle not 
to be thwarted in any thing, not even in wedding rich Tom to 
please the old folks, when they love poor Dick, and intend to 
please themselves), while conquering that beautiful but unruly 
curl, the visiter makes an unexpected meeting with a chill 
which calls her to the grave. 

I cannot give further space to illustrations to arrest the 
attention of the careless, but will reiterate the principle for 
the thoughtful and observant : 


After any kind of exercise, do not stand a moment at a 
street corner, for any body or any thing ; nor at an open door 
or window. When you have been exercising in any way 
whatever, winter or summer, go home at once, or to some 
sheltered place ; and however warm the room may seem to 
be, do not at once pull off your hat and cloak, but wait awhile, 
rpv: o five minutes or more, and lay aside one at a time ; thus 
acting, a cold is impossible. Notice a moment: when you 
return from a brisk walk and enter a warm room, raise your 

Recipe for the Colds. ^ 

hat, and the forehead will be moist ; let the hat remain a few 
moments and feel the forehead again, and it will be dry, 
showing that the room is actually cooler than your body, and 
that with your out-door clothing on, you have cooled off full 
soon. Among the severest colds I have known men to take, 
were the result of sitting down to a meal in a cool room, after 
a walk ; or being engaged in writing, have let the fire go out, 
and their first admonition of it was that creeping chilliness 
which is the ordinary forerunner of a severe cold. Persons 
have often lost their lives by writing or reading in a room 
where there was no fire, although the weather outside was 
rather uncomfortable. Sleeping in rooms long unused, has 
destroyed the life of many a visitor and friend. Our splendid 
parlors, and our nice "spare rooms," help to enrich many a 
doctor. The cold sepulchral parlors of New York, from May 
until November, bring disease, not only to visitors, but to the 
visited ; for coming in from domestic occupations, or from the 
hurry of dressing, the heat of the body is higher than natural, 
and having no cloak or hat on in going in to meet a visitor, 
and having in addition but little vitality, in consequence of the 
very sedentary nature of town life, there is but very little 
capability of resistance, and a chill and cold is the result. 

But how to cure a cold promptly ? that is a question of life 
and death to multitudes. There are two methods of universal 
application : 1st, obtain a bottle of cough mixture, or a lot of 
cough candy, any kind will do ; in a day or two you will feel 
better, and in high spirits; you will be charmed with the 
promptness of the medicine ; make a mule of yourself, by 
.giving your certificate of the valuable remedy, and in due 
course of time, another certificate will be made for your 
admission, foot foremost, into " Greenwood." 

The other remedy is, consult a respectable resident physician. 


A quick, pulse and a snort breath, continuing for weeks to- 
gether, is the great alarm bell of forming consumption ; if these 
symptoms are attended with a gradual falling off in flesh, in the 
course of months, there is no rational ground for doubt, al- 
though the hack of a cough may never have been heard. Under 
such circumstances, there ought not to be an hour's delay, in 
taking competent medical advice. 

The vast mass of consumptives die, not far from the ages of 
twenty-five ; and this, in connection with another fact, that con- 
sumption is several years in running its course, suggests one of 
the most important practical conclusions yet announced, to wit: 

In the large majority of cases, the seeds of consumption are 
sown between the ages of sixteen and twenty one years, when 
the steadily excited pulse and the easily accelerated breathing, 
may be readily detected by an intelligent and observant parent, 
and should be regarded as the knell of death, if not arrested, 
and yet it is easily, and uniformly done, for the Spirometer 
will demonstrate the early danger, and the educated physician 
will be at no loss to mark out the remedy. 

The quick pulse and short breath go together; rather " easily 
put out of breath" is the more common and appropriate expres- 
sion. Ordinarily, persons breathe once, while the pulse beats 
four times ; this is an approximative average, a general result. 
A person in health breathes seventeen times in a minute, and 
during that time, the pulse numbers sixty eight strokes. A per- 
son decidedly consumptive, breathes from twenty to twenty-four 
times in a minute, the pulse being proportionably rapid. A 
man whose pulse is among the nineties, with a breathing which 

Halts Journal of Health. 67 

corresponds, lasting for weeks, may with great uniformity be 
pronounced to have unmistaken consumption. And even here, 
the permanent arrest of the disease is quite a probable thing, 
if men could only be induced to act wisely, promptly, and ener- 
getically. Bat unfortunately such is not the case; nine out of 
ten are led away with the hope that it may be something else, 
that it is only Bronchitis, and this is confirmed in their own 
judgment by two facts, they have no pain in the breast, and 
they triumphantly strike upon it with their whole force, as a 
demonstration of the soundness of the lungs; and this other 
feeling, equally fallacious comes to their aid, the prominent 
trouble is a mere tickling at the bottom of the neck, at the little 
hollow there. They should remember that no Bronchia are 
there, it is the Windpipe. Bronchitis is situated in the branches 
of the windpipe, and it begins to divide into branches below 
that spot. That little hollow place is the telegraphic station, as 
well for the distant lungs as the Bronchia. * The news comes 
from afar ; that is the point of enunciation only. It is the news 
of mischief in the lungs, that something is there which requires 
removal, which is working harm and may breed death ; and it 
does breed death. That very tickling at the little hollow, ex- 
citing cough for months together, is the forerunner of consump* 
tion in perhaps, at a moderate calculation, four times out of 
five. If a person could be amused at such a serious symptom r 
the physician would be, at the very indifferent, unconcerned air 
and tone and gesture with which the patient often announces 
this symptom, " Doctor, I have Bronchitis, I believe, a trifling 
little tickling at the bottom of the throat here ; I wish you 
would give me something to take it away. I'm not sick at all, 
I feel as well as I ever did in my life, all except this kind of 
itching here." Upon a closs cross questioning, a large amount 
of undiscovered truth will be elicited in almost every instance, 
of symptoms dated many months and even years before. If 
then, a patient for himself, or for his child, has any apprehension 
of the disease, let the family physician be requested to notice 
the pulse with care and accuracy, at different hours of the day, 
not within half an hour of active exercise, or within two hours 
after a regular meal, and if the invariable report be preternat- 
ural excitement, there is ground for alarm, in proportion to the 
intensity of that excitement. 

$3 Impure Blood. 

It has been seen how invariably the derangement of pulse 
and breathing go together, showing that the cause is one, and 
the locality the same, the Lungs. As the heart is always pump- 
ing its blood into the lungs, to present it to the action of 
the air, in order to render it fit for vital purposes, the faster 
the pumps work, the faster must the lungs work. But what 
makes the heart work faster ? The blood in it is more impure 
than natural, that is, more thick, it does not flow with ease, it 
is sluggish, each motion of the heart does not get rid of its 
proper quantity, and it must work faster or drown ; as the re- 
fractory poor in the workhouse, who are unwilling to work, and 
are placed in a large tank or tub, into which water is pumped, 
and they have the alternative of pumping with another pump, 
or drowning. This thickened nature of the blood makes itself 
felt in the lungs, in the same way as in the heart, with the addi- 
tional effect of the formation of tubercles, and these taking up 
more room in theTungs, leave less room for the requisite amount 
of air, the person must breathe faster and consequently shorter, 
the result being to aggravate the difficulty. Thus it is that con- 
sumption does not get well of itself, like many other diseases, 
any more than a fire will go out of itself, until it has left the 
building in ashes, unless for the want of one of two things — a 
want of burning material or an artifical barrier. But in con- 
sumption, there is material, as long as there is a body ; and how 
it is destroyed, until nothing is left but skin and bone, we need 
no information ! The only remedy then, is the artificial barrier. 
What is it? 

But before replication is made to that inquiry, it is practically 
useful to go another step more remote in our inquiries in the 
way of a reminder. What makes the blood thus preternaturally 
impure in the heart, so as to lay the foundation for such vast 
destruction? This is answered in preceding pages, beginning 
at p. 168, vol. 2, where it is shown that the fundamental origin 
of impure, consumption-originating blood is, imperfect nutrition 
and the habitual breathings of a still atmosphere in-doors. And 
let it be painted before the mind's eye in living light, that either 
of these causes can alone certainly originate consumption, 
however wholly and completely the other may be absent. That 
all our care as to our food will not save us from consumption, rf 
w<e habitually breathe, a confined air. Nor will an active out 

HalVs Journal of Health. 69 

door life save us from consumption or other fatal disease, if we 
live upon improper food, or habitually eat more of the best food 
in the world, than the digestive functions can turn into pure 
nutrient blood material. 

Here then, we are brought square up to the important inquiry, 
the prevention, the permanent arrest, or lasting cure of con- 
sumption. It is found 

11 Lsr the Food we eat — In the Air we Breathe." 

A perfect digestion of wholesome nutritious food, and a 
habitual breathing of out door air, under circumstances of proper 
bodily activity, is competent to cure consumption, from its first 
beginnings to its last stages, that is, the stage of actual decay 
of the lungs. 

But as very few, in the latter stages, possess the energy requi- 
site to secure the amount of out-door activity, necessary to the 
proper digestion of substantial food, we must go back to a point 
where we can secure the intelligence of the parent, acting au- 
thoritatively over the child. There must be Light and Force. 
There is power in concentration. And it is of interest to in- 
quire, to which of the two causes of blood impurity, is the origin 
of consumption most attributable ? Then, by directing most of 
our energies to that one principal cause, we may act more effi- 
ciently. A stream of water puts out a fire, if played on one 
spot, but may be wholly unavailing, if thrown over the whole 

The consummating act of Creative Power was to make man. 
The consummating act of Infinite Beneficence, is his preser- 
vation. We evidently were made to people the globe ; wher- 
ever we live, w r e must subsist. Thus we find that the stomach 
makes out of all things, one thing, a fluid mass, which does not 
materially vary in color, consistency or nature, whatever we 
may eat. So that in a modified sense, we can, in health, derive 
nutriment from almost any thing we can swallow, from the lion 
to the worm ; from the eagle to the insect ; from the tree bud 
to its root, whether leaf or fruit, or bark or wood. Hence then, 
we come to an important practical fact : In consumption a man 
may eat almost any thing, if judicious as to quanity. Thus 
it is, that uniformly, we have, in our own practice, as 
a general rule, given the broad direction: Eat what you 

70 Necessity of Pure Air. 

LIKE, and which is not followed by any uncomfortable feeling 
within an hour or two afterwards. 

It is a truth which should be kept sight of in all human 
maladies, that great Nature is our safest and wisest Teacher, 
and with an almost unerring instinct creates in us a desire for 
that kind of food which contains in it those elements which the 
body most needs at the time. An instructive illustration, occur- 
ring within a few years, may not be out of place at this point, 
as serving to impress an important truth on the mind : 

A girl fell down a flight of stairs, receiving an injury from 
which it was thought she would not recover. But with the ex- 
ception of hearing and sight, she did recover. For some weeks 
her appetite called for nothing but raisins and candy, then for 
several months nothing but apples were eaten. At a later 
period, she commenced eating maple buds, since which time she 
has nearly regained her former health, and at the end of three 
years, her sight and hearing were restored. 

We knew a child, twelve months old, abandoned to die by 
several of the most skilful physicians of New York, from teeth- 
ing and attendant summer complaint. As a last resort, it was 
sent to the sea shore in a two hours journey ; on arriving there 
in a cold raw afternoon of August, the only attainable thing 
that seemed at all suitable, was a bowl of boiled milk, which 
she took ravenously, and would take nothing else for a week, 
improving from the first hour, and at end of a year is among 
the heartiest and most rugged of children. And to make the 
prescription more impressive, having nature still on our side 
we say to those under our care : 

Let no man's appetite be a guide for your stomach ; but only 
eat what you crave, even if it be a piece of pound cake o*r sole 
leather ; eat it in great moderation first, so as to be on the safe 
side, and gradually increase the quantity. On the other hand, 
never swallow an atom which you do not crave, for nothing 
nor nobody. A pig would not so violate nature. It should 
strike us as one of the most reasonable of inferences, that the 
stomach would most easily digest that which it most eagerly 
craved. There are morbid and unnatural cravings, but these 
are exceptions. We are speaking as to general rules, here and 
elsewhere in this volume, and it will help the reader to a more 
truthful appreciation of the principles advocated in these pages, 
jf this distinction is kept clearly in view. 

Halt's Journal of Health. 71 

If then in the two great points of digestion and out door 
activities, the former may be, to a considerable extent lost sight 
of, as being, under a wise arrangement of providence, able to 
take care of itself, we naturally throw our whole attention to 
the other and only one great remedial means in consumptive 
disease, which is — 

Out Door Activities. 
Any train of argument may look beautifully conclusive until 
a missing or unbelonging link is discovered ; the removal of 
the latter or the replacement of the former, makes sad havoc 
sometimes, of splendid theories. But when facts coincide with 
theories in the management of consumption, there is a triumph 
for science well worthy of being recorded. And we are led to 
the inquiry : 

Do out door Activities Cure Consumption? 

If in answering this important question, we gave cases com- 
ing under our own management, they might be questioned as to 
their authenticity, by reason of our personal interest in the 
same. So we will first give a history or two from undoubted 
medical authority. 

Edentown, K C, February, 1830. 
Dr. Physic, Philadelphia — Dear Sir : 

In the month of April, 1812, after having been extremely 
reduced by an attack of bilious fever, I was seized with a 
cough, which continued, with great obstinacy and severity, 
until the month of November, when decided symptoms of 
Phthisis (consumption) began to make their appearance. I had 
every evening an exacerbation (recurrence) of fever, preceded 
by chilliness, and succeeded by copious perspiration. My cough 
began to be less painful, but was attended with an expectoration 
of mucus, mixed with pus, (yellow matter.) Before this com- 
plaint came on me, I had accepted a surgeon's commission in 
the army, and' was stationed at Tarborough, about seventy-five 
miles from this place. In the month of December the part of 
the regiment which had been recruited, then having been order- 
ed to Salisbury, it became my duty to repair to that place. 

,( Accordingly, about the middle of the month, in the situation 
I have described, I set out on my journe*y. 

" In two days I reached Raleigh, without having experienced 

72 Necessity of Pure Air. 

any material change in the symptoms of my complaint. During 
my stay in Ealeigh, the disease increased every day, so that I 
was obliged to remain there nearly a week, at the expiration of 
which time I had almost determined to retrace my steps, return 
home, and take my station among the forlorn and despairing 
victims of this unrelenting malady. 

" But reflecting deeply on my situation, and recollecting that 
scarce a patient in a thousand had been known to recover from 
the disease after having been confined to bed by it, I was re- 
solved to resume my journey, and to reach the place of destina- 
tion or perish on the road. It will be impossible for me ever 
to forget the effort I had to make in pursuing this resolution. 
On a cold and blustering morning about the 20th of December, 
weak and emaciated, having been literally drenched in perspi- 
ration the night before, I ascended my gig and proceeded on 
my journey. The first part of my ride, this day, was exces- 
sively irksome and fatiguing. Every hovel and hamlet on the 
road seemed to invite me to rest, and to dissuade me from the 
prosecution of my. undertaking.- Often and anxiously did I 
wish that my disease had been of such a nature as to allow me 
to indulge in the inclination I felt, to desist from motion. But 
I continued my ride for three hours, when I found it necessary 
to stop for a little refreshment. While dinner was preparing, I 
lay down on a bed to rest. It was, perhaps, an imprudent act. 
Never was a bed so sweet to the wayworn and exhausted tra- 
veller, as was this to me. I lay on it for an hour, wrapped, as 
it were, in elysium. When summoned to dinner, though sleep 
was fast stealing on me, and inviting me to be still, I arose and 
attended, and after having made a very moderate meal of very 
common country food, I resumed my ride, and at night, about 
half past six o'clock, arrived at Hillsborough, which is distant 
about 36 miles from Ealeigh. The inn to which I had been re- 
commended was unusually crowded, and I had to accept of a 
room that was out of repair, the window-sashes rattling in their 
casements, and the wind passing through the sashes in several 
places. In such a chamber, at such a season, and in the situation 
already described, was I quartered for the night. To my sur- 
prise, however, I had a better night's rest than I had had for 
several weeks, and legs perspiration, and coughed less than 
I had for a month before. 

HaWs Journal of Health. 73 

li In the morning, considerably refreshed, I proceeded on my 
journey, and travelled in a foggy misty atmosphere fall 40 
miles ; the next day about 35, and on the 4th day about 12 
o'clock, I arrived at Salisbury. On my arrival, I heard it men- 
tioned as a matter of astonishment, that a man in my situation 
should think of travelling in the cold arid inclement season of 
winter ; much more astonishing that I should venture to ap- 
proach, the mountains at such, a period. But I had taken my 
resolution, and was determined never to relinquish it while I 
had power to w^lk or ride. The regiment to which I was at- 
tached, was encmnped about four miles from the town of Salis- 
bury. To this place I tasked myself to ride twice every day, a 
duty I regularly performed in the coldest weather until I left the 

" Early in January the officer in command received orders to 
repair with his regiment to Canada. While preparations were 
making for that purpose, believing that such a climate would be 
too severe for me, and that I must of course soon cease to be 
useful to the Government, I addressed a letter to the Secretary 
of War, soliciting permission to retire from the army. This re- 
quest was promptly and kindly granted to me. In February, 
1813, I commenced the practice of my profession again in this 
place, and continued to attend to the most laborious duties of it 
at all times of the day and night, in rain, hail, snow, storms, and 
sunshine, whenever I was called on, for eighteen months. 

"At the end of that time, I had lost my hectic fever, night- 
sweats, purulent expectoration, and my cough had nearly left 
me ; my chest had recovered its capacity of free and easy ex- 
pansion, and the ulcers in my lungs had entirely healed. Many 
who read the foregoing statement, will no doubt be curious to 
know what medical means were used as auxiliaries in the cure 
of this very alarming state of disease. It would not be in my 
power to satisfy curiosity on this point were it a matter of any 
importance, which I conceive is not the case, the complaint hav 
trig been cured bg hardy, invigorating exercise, continued without 
interruption in every variety of temperature and weather. 

" That palliatives of different kinds were resorted to at various 
periods, must at once be supposed, but I do not consider it a mat- 
ter of consequence to name them, as they were such, as would 
readily suggest themselves to physicians of every grade of skill 

74- Important Advice. 

or intellect, and never produced more than a temporary allevi- 
ation of symptoms. Perhaps it may be material to state, I never 
used opium in any form whatever, and that I never incautiously 
wasted the resources of my constitution by depletory, or debil- 
itating means. When symptoms of high arterial excitement 
occurred, which would sometimes be the case, it was my prac- 
tice to abstain from strong, high-seasoned food, from all fer- 
mented and spirituous liquors, and from active exercise until 
they subsided. By this negative mode of management I gen- 
erally-succeeded in removing inflammation wMiout materially 
impairing the energies of my system; and oir the increase of 
the purulent discharge, subsequent to such inflammatory ap- 
pearances, I betook myself again to my exercise, and ate and 
drank everything I wanted. I always found that the incon- 
venience produced by a full meal, yielded very soon to horse 
exercise, and that I generally coughed less while riding than 
at any other time. The hectic paroxysm was generally inter- 
rupted, and sometimes cut short by a. hard ride, and often, 
very often, during the existence of my disease, have I checked 
the exhausting flood of perspiration, and renewed my strength 
and spirits, by turning out of bed at midnight and riding a 
dozen miles or more ; many a time, too, have I left my bed in 
the early part of the night, wayworn with coughing, restless- 
ness and sweating, for the purpose of visiting a patient, and 
after having rode an hour or two, returned home and slept 
quietly and refreshingly for the remainder of the night. 

u Another thing which I remarked in the course of my ex 
perience in the disease was, that some of the most profitable 
rides I ever took were made in the coldest and most inclement 
weather, (air dense and plenty of oxygen for assimilation,) and 
that scarcely in any situation did I return from a long and 
toilsome ride, without receiving a sensible amendment in all 
my pulmonary complaints. In short, sir, were I asked to state 
in a few words the remedy which rescued me, 1 should say it 
was a life of hardy exercise and of unremitting toil, activity, and 
exposure. With pectorial medicines, or those articles or com- 
positions denominated expectorants, I seldom meddled in my 
own case ; without opium, which from a constitutional pecu- 
liarity, I have not been able to take for many years, I found 
them too debilitating ; and with it, had I been able to use the 

HaWs Journal of Health. 75 

article, I should not have been disposed to take them, lest their 
effect in disposing to rest and inactivity might have operated 
against the course I had prescribed for myself, and from which 
I expected relief. 

" It remains for me to mention another agent which I think 
excited a very curative influence upon my disease, and that is 
singing. In first using this remedy it was my custom to sing 
in a low tone, and not long at a time, so as not to occasion 
much pulmonary effort. But by degrees I became able to 
sing in the most elevated tones, and for hours together, al- 
lowing myself only such intervals of rest as the lungs re- 
quired to obviate injurious fatigue. So long and so frequently 
did I repeat this act in the course of my disease, that the 
exercise of singing became so strongly associated, that as soon 
as I mounted my horse or ascended my chaise, I found myself 
humming a tune, and often in my lonely rides through the 
country, at late and unseasonable hours of the night, have I 
made the woods vocal with the most exhilarating music. Sing- 
ing seemed always to have the effect of clearing the bronchial 
passages, of opening the chest, and of giving a greater capacity 
of motion and expansion to the lungs. [The Doctor was killed 
oy accident, in 1850.] " Yours, etc., James Norcom." 

Dr. Norcrom mentions a case as having occurred in 1810, 
which in 1830, twenty years later, was wholly free from any 
disease of the lungs: All this patient did, was to ride ten miles 
a day, gradually increasing to twenty miles a day, and by a 
continuance of exercise, was eventually restored to perfect 
health. All the medicine this man took was tincture of digi- 
talis ; but as it is now generally acceded that this remedy is 
worthless in consumption, the cure must be attributed to the 
exercise, just as the following case as given by Dr. Stoke^, 
whom we have personally known at his own home in Dublin ; 
and whom we found to be, as is universally accorded by the 
profession, among the very foremost of living medical minds. 
The f*se was first reported in one of the British medical peri- 
odicals in 1854, and republished here in April of the succeed- 
ing year. 

u Some years ago I saw a gentleman who came to town labor- 
ing under all tha»mptoms of well-marked phthisis. The dis- 
ease had been ofiKveral months' standing, and the patient was 

76 Consumption Oared. 

a perfect picture of consumption. He had. a rapid pulse, hectic : , 
sweating, purulent expectoration, and the usual physical signs 
of tubercular deposit, and of a cavity under the right clavicle. 
I may also state, that the history of the disease was in accord- 
ance, in all particulars, with this opinion. I saw this patient in 
consultation with a gentleman of the highest station in the pro- 
fession, and we both agreed there was nothing to be done. This 
opinion was communicated to the patient's friends, and he was 
advised to return to the country. In about eighteen months 
afterwards, a tall and healthy-looking man, weighing at least 
twelve stone, entered my study with a very comical expression 
of countenance: "You don't know me, Doctor," he said. I 
apologised, pleading an inaptitude that belongs to me for recol- 
lecting faces. "I am," he said, "the person whom you and 

Dr. sent home to die last year. I am quite well, and I 

thought I would come and show myself to you." I examined 
him with great interest, and found every sign of disease had 
disappeared, except that there was a slight flattening under the 

" ' Tell me,' said I, ' what have you been doing V ' Oh ! ' he 
replied, ' I found out from the mistress what your opinion was, 
and I thought as I was to die I might as well enjoy myself 
while I lasted, and so I just went back to my old ways.' ' What 
was your old system of living ?' said I. ' Nothing particular,' he 
said, 'I just took what was going.' ' Did you take wine?' 'Not 
a drop,' he replied, ' but 1 had my glass of punch as usual.' ' Did 
you ever take more than one tumbler ?' 'Indeed I often did.' 
* How many : three or four ?' 'Ay, and more than that : I seldom 
went to bed under seven !' ' What was your exercise ?' ' Shoot- 
ing,' he said, * every day that I could get out.' ' And what kind 
of shooting?' 'Oh! I would not give a farthing for any kind 
of shooting but the one.' 'What is that?' ' Duck shooting.' 
1 But you must have often wetted your feet.' 'I was not very 
particular about the feet,' says he, ' for I had to stand up to my 
hips in the Shannon for four or five hours of a winter's oW fol- 
lowing the birds.' So, gentlemen, this patient spent his day 
standing in the river, and went to bed after drinking seven 
tumblers of punch every night ; and if ever a man had recovered 
from phthisis he had done so when I saw hm^on that occasion. 
Suppose now that he had been confined to arWqual temperature 

HalVs Journal of Health. 77 

and a regulated diet, and had been treated in all respects secun- 
dum artem, what would have been the result ? Any of you can 
answer the question. In point of fact, this very treatment had 
oeen adopted during the first three months of his illness, and his 
recovery may be fairly attributed to the tonic and undepressing 
treatment which he adopted for himself, and which his system 
so much required, to enable him to throw off the disease." 

In this case of Dr. Stokes, it should be remembered first, that 
he is one of the best judges of consumption in the British na- 
tion, and that he considered it hopeless of cure. We must 
also in this, as well as in the case given by Dr. Norcom, attri- 
bute the cure to the exercise in the open air, and not to potations 
of punch. We have had, in our own practice, a variety of cases 
similar to the above, and complete and permanent recovery took 
place without resort to digitalis, or whiskey, nor to an atom of 
nauseants or alcoholic preparations of any sort. It can not fail 
to strike the reader with peculiar power, that when under a 
certain variety of treatment a person recovers from a particular 
disease, but that in that treatment one element is always present 
largely under all circumstances, while as to the other elements 
there is great diversity as to combination, as well as to their very 
nature, we are obliged to conclude that restoration depends on 
the one large ever present element, and that the other elements, 
various in nature, quantity, and combination, are without 
any material efficiency. ' 

A. P., a lawyer poet of some renown, a native of New Eng- 
land, a sixth child. His parents had died of consumption, all 
his brothers and sisters as they approached the age of twenty- 
one, paled away and died of the same disease. No one of his 
neighbors looked for any different result as to him,, and begin- 
ning to grow feeble in his twentieth year, and being the last of 
his family, with dear associations around the home of his child- 
hood, he, in utter recklessness, penetrated the forests of Arkan- 
sas, lived a hunter's life, camped out for weeks and months 
together, and now, at the end of twenty years, and in perfect 
health, weighs over, at our last report, a hundred and seventy- 
five pounds. 

78 hall's journal of health. 

NOTICES. — Tlie Presbyterian Historical Almanac and AnwMh 
Remembrancer of the Church for 1861, volume 3, 8vo, 328 pages, 
by Joseph M. Wilson, 111 South-Tenth street, Philadelphia, is 
sent post-paid for $1.12. It contains an alphabetical list of all 
the ministers of the whole Presbyterian family, with post-office 
address, and a vast amount of most valuable historical and sta- 
tistical matter, exceedingly convenient and valuable, not only 
for clergymen, "but for educated Presbyterian families. As 
many clergymen can not spare the dollar conveniently, we will 
send it post-paid to any minister who will forward us three new 
subscriptions to Hall's Journal of Health, of one dollar 

The Chemist and Druggist, a monthly trade circular, 24 Bow 
Lane, Cannon street, West, London. Five shillings per annum, 
post free. Every druggist in the Union would find it to his 
interest to take this publication. 

MILK. -Prof. Keese, of Union Square, who is one of the best 
medical scholars in the United States, says, in a late issue, of 
the Rockland County and New- Jersey Milk Association, 146 East- 
Tenth street, near Broadway, New- York : "We have taken 
great interest in this movement, recommended and used the 
milk thus furnished, and many of our patients' children are 
thriving under that furnished by a single cow, and which is 
sold separately. If the Company continue to perform what 
they promise, their patronage may be indefinitely extended, and 
they will be public benefactors." We add our testimony to 
the same effect. 

LUTHER TUCKER AND SON, Albany, N. Y., have is- 
sued No. 7 of their Illustrated Annual Register and Almanac 
of Rural Affairs for 1861, for 25 cents, full of practical inform- 
ation for farmers, gardeners, horticulturists, vine-dressers, fruit- 
erers and poultry -raisers, and those laying out lawns, grounds 
and farms. 

Single numbers of Hall's Journal of Health may be 
had in Philadelphia of William P. Mo wry, Esq., Post- Office 
entrance. Odd numbers for 1860, which subscribers did not 
receive through the post-office, will be supplied without charge. 
||ggP Our book on " Sleep," with the Journal of Health 
and the Fireside Monthly for 1861, will be furnished for 
three dollars, or two dollars in addition to any present sub- 
scriber to the Journal of Health. The reception of this 
Journal Or the Fireside Monthly, after being ordered with 
the money, is evidence that the subscription was received. 


Home Monthly for 1861. 



Rev. WM. Mi THAYER, 

Mrs. H. E. G-. AREY, and Mrs. C. H. G-ILDERSLEEVE. 

the distinguished WRITER and ORATOR of Boston, will furnish a Series of 
Articles for YOUNG MEN ; 

Hire. Lmm w< mmmmm, 

the popular POET and AUTHORESS of Hartford, a Series on 


in which YOUNG LADIES will ftceive a large share of attention. 

Articles from more than ONE HUNDRED other writers, among whom are 

Bev. E. N. KIRK, D.D., Prof. JOSEPH HAVEN, D.D., 



Rev. R. B. NEALE, D.D., Rev. R. S. STORRS, D.D., 



EVANGELICAL, but not SECTARIAN, containing Sixty-four Pages of double 



for $2.£5, payable in. advance. 



11 Cornhill, Boston, Mass. 


SLEEP. By W. W. Hall, M.D. New- York : Published by 
the Author. 

The publications of Dr. Hall are known throughout the country, no less 
than in the Canadas and England. He is editor of Hall's Journal of 
Health, a monthly that is extensively transferred into the columns of news- 
papers and periodicals of the day. He is a physician in large practice ; is 
a man of wide observation and experience ; is intelligent and conscientious, 
and is exerting a great influence on the public mind in this country, in rela- 
tion to the improvement of the public health. His teachings are practical, 
and are conveyed in a language that can be understood by all. It is our 
deliberate conviction that he is doing more work in reforming the unhealth- 
ful habits and practices of the people than any other man in the country. 

His present work is a fit companion to those which have preceded it. It 
is chiefly devoted to the importance and necessity of sleeping in thoroughly 
pure air. In the language of the author, the " aim and end of the book is 
to show that as a means of high health, good blood, and a strong mind to 
old and young, sick or well, each one should have a single bed in a large, 
clean, light room, so as to pass all the hours of sleep in a pure fresh air, 
and that those who fail in this, will in the end fail in health and strength of 
limb and brain, and will die while yet their days are not all told." In pur- 
suance of this position, Dr. Hall proceeds to enlarge upon the great subject 
of Sleep, and shows beyond refutation that our#eeping-rooms are extremely 
imperfect in respect to ventilation and other essentials as to size, etc. It is 
properly argued that the apartment in which we spend on an average one 
third of our existence, should be one in which pure air is freely admitted. 

The adoption of Dr. Hall's teachings— and that they should be adopted 
we feel convinced — would bring about many changes in domestic life. The 
doctrine of single beds is philosophical, sanitary, common-senseful. "We 
are glad that a man whose words are authority, has taken this subject in 
hand ; and still more so that it has been treated in so thorough a manner. 
We cordially commend the work, which should go into every household in 
the land. — Boston Atlas and Bee of Dec. 28th. 

"Allow me to express my gratification at having read it. You advocate 
very important reforms, and which the people will be compelled to consider 
sooner or later ; the sooner the better. Of all the books you have written, 
none, as it seems to me, will do so much good in the end. I congratulate 
you sincerely on your success." P. 0. 

The above book, with Hall's Journal of Health, and also 
the Fireside Monthly for 1861, will be furnished for Three 


" SLEEP." By Dr. W. W. Hall. New-York. 314 pp. 

" Dr. Hall is the popular editor of Hall's Journal of Health, a magazine which 
deservedly occupies a prominent position, as a conservator of health and morals. 
He is author of several works, which, eminently popular in character, and thus 
appreciated by the masses, are destined to accomplish a large amount of good, in 
directing our much abused humanity in the ways of health ancnife. He is one of 
the few who receive their just reward in their own day, although it falls to their 
lot to oppose popular vices and follies. Dr. Hall evidently believes that the race is 
degenerating, and that all which hygienic reformers and teachers can do, will 
scarcely avert the impending calamities certain to result from violated law, yet he 
ceases not to give ' line upon line,' in order that people may not at least sin blindly. 

" * Sleep' is not a sufficiently comprehensive title for the work under notice, be- 
cause that subject forms but a portion of the matter of the book, which is written 
in the vigorous, common-sense style characterizing all of Dr. Hall's productions. 
In his preface the author states that the end and aim of his book is ' to show that 
as a means of high health, good blood, and a strong mind to old and young, sick 
or well, each one should have a single bed in a large, clean, light room, so as to 
pass all the hours of sleep in a pure, fresh air, and that those who fail in this will 
in the end fail in health and strength of limb and brain, and will die while yet 
their days are not all told.' 

" Ample quotations, from various sources, are made to sustain this true but 
strong position, and although the work lacks the methodic arrangement, which is 
naturally looked for, and which would really increase its value to the professional 
reader, yet it deserves a place in every family. Its teachings upon the several 
subjects of the volume are sound and reliable, and if heeded would save thousands 
of lives which are now sacrificed , through ignorance of, or inattention to, the laws 
which govern our physical being. 

" There are very few points in the book to which we would make any exception 
whatever, and these are delicate ones, which need the powerful probing and earnest 
remediable applications which Dr. Hall so well understands how to apply. The se- 
cret vices and follies of youth need more heroic treatment than is here given 
them, and should not be regarded as ' natural ' in the least degree, nor to be over- 
come by the holy office of marriage. Let not our youth suppose that such a rem- 
edy will have any virtue, nor be encouraged to form an alliance, the product of 
which would necessarily be a curse to themselves and the world." — " Our World" 
for Feb. 1861. 

JOURNAL OF HEALTH for March, 1861. Throat- Ail. Remarkable 
Case of a Permanent Cure of undisputed Consumption without Medicine, by a Sur- 
geon in the United States Army. The earliest Signs of Consumption. How Peo- 
ple take Cold. Cold Feet 

THE FIRESIDE MONTHLY for 1861. The Bible. Health, Wealth 
and Religion. Do we ever forget? Aims of Life. Death not always Painful 
Sensations in Drowning. 

Godey's Lady's Book for March is one of the most instructive and most richly 
illustrated numbers yet issued. The Knickerbocker Magazine, New-York, $3 a 
year, is, under its new proprietorship, edited with an ability which fully meets the 
wants of the times. " Revelations of Wall-Street " is elegantly and powerfully 
written, and is of absorbing interest. We hope this old and favorite monthly will 
meet the patronage it merits. This number of the Journal op Health is a larger 
edition by one fourth than has ever yet been issued, thanks to a discerning public ! 
The April issue will contain practical articles on Diphtheria, Croup, etc. 


By DB. W. W. HAliIi, 42 Irving Place, New- York. 

pp., I2mo. $1.25. 


Air Deadly, 

** Breathing Bad, A 

11 Stint of, 

" Crowded Rooms, 

" Taints, 

" Noxious, 

V Bath, 

il Country, 

" Pure and Impure, 

" of Close Rooms, 

" of Chambers, 

w and Thought, 
Abodes of the Poor, 
Appetites Compared, 
Avoiding Temptation, 
Alcoholic Drinks, 
Andrews & Dixon's Grate, 
Black-Hole of Calcutta, 
Bodily Emanations, 
Bad Habits, 

Burying under Churches, 
Breath of Life, 
Black Blood, 
Crowding, Effects of, 
Canary Bird, 
Convulsions of Children, 
Capacity of Lungs, 
Charcoal Fumes, 
Chambers Vitiated, 
Consumption and Dust, 

u and Close Rooms, 

Children's Fits, 

11 Sleeping Together, 
Cottage and Hovel, 
Country Air, 
Chemical Affinities, 
Deadly Emanations, 

Doko Race, 

Dark Parlors, 
Electrical Influences, 

Franklin's Air-Bath, 
Force of Will, 
Fire on the Hearth, 
Furnaces, Andrews, 
Grotto del Cane, 
Griscom's Ventilation, 
Gas Burning, 
Howard, John, 
Human Effluvia, 
Hovels and Cottages, 
Health Invigorated, 
Hamilton's House-Plan, 
House — Warming, 

u Baker's Plan, 

Infant Convulsions, 

" Mortality, 

" Sleeping, 

u Feeding, 
Inherited Infirmities, 
Instinct and Reason, 
Important Considerations, 

Invisible Impurities, 
In-Door Life, 
Kitchen Ventilation, 
Lungs' Capacity, 

" Office of, 

*' Described, 
Londonderry Steamer, 
Light is Curative, 
Life and Blood, 
Low-Down Grate, 
Marriage a Safeguard, 

National Hotel Disease, 

Nursing at Night, 
Out-Door Life, 
Pontine Marches, 
Pure Chambers, 
Prison Horrors, 
Physiology, Books on, 
Papered Rooms, 
Pernicious Instruments, 
Plans for Houses, 
Poisonous Rooms, 
Roominess and Health, 
Reason and Instinct, 
Ruined Youth, 
Second Naps, 

Sunlight a Ventilator, 
Sun for Children, 
Sleeping Together, 
with the Old, 

" with Consumptives, 

" Different Temperaments, 

" Children, 

« Soundly, 
Tenement Houses, 
Thames Tunnel, 
Town and Country, 
The Proposition Proven, 
Ventilation of Court Rooms, 
" Randall's Island, 

'* Griscom's, 

u Stables, 

" Kitchens, 

" Longevity and, 

" School-Rooms, 

u Chambers, 

" Sick-Rooms, 

Vitiated Rooms. 


Our Legitimate Scope is almost boundless : for whatever begets pleasurable 
and harmless feelings, promotes Health ; and whatever induces 
disagreeable sensations, engenders Disease. 


Vol. VIII.] APRIL, 1861. [No. 4. 


The Central Park of New- York City contains within the 
boundaries of Fifty-ninth and One hundred and tenth streets 
and Fifth and Eighth avenues, eight hundred and forty-four 
? (844) acres. The land cost live million seven hundred thou- 
sand dollars. Two million six hundred thousand dollars 
have been expended on its construction to January first, eigh- 
teen hundred and sixty-one. The contemplated additional 
expenditure is two millions of dollars. It will cost the in- 
terest of one hundred and fifty thousand dollars to keep it in 
order. The entire cost of the Central Park will, therefore, be 
very near ten and a half millions of dollars, or about twelve 
thousand five hundred dollars an acre. It was planned by 
Olmstead and Vaux, the former, Frederic Law Olmstead, being 


Total contents, Acres 844 

Gross cost of land, $5,700,000 

Expended in construction to Jan. 1st, 1861, . 2,600,000 
Additional expenditures contemplated, . . . 2,000,000 
Annual cost of maintenance, interest on, . . 150,000 

Total cost, $10,450,000 

The Central Park is two and a half miles long and half a 

mile wide. From the Battery to the nearest entrance is four 

miles and three quarters, Miles 4f 

The lake at summer level is 7 feet deep and contains Acres 20 

" winter level is 4 " for skating, 18 


The old Reservoir covers, acres, . . . . 36 

The new " " " 1 . . . . 106 

Average number of hands on Park for 1860, per day, 3000 

Largest number on any one day, . . . . 3666 

The Central Park in winter is used for driving, sleighing, and 
skating ; no more enlivening sight can be presented, than that 
of thousands of men and women, boys and girls, in variegated 
dress and costume, sporting themselves in every direction, 
while hundreds of carriages are passing and repassing, or are 
stationary on the banks of the lake, their occupants looking 
on with interest and delight, in proportion to the nearness of 
their connection with the skaters. 

In summer, the Park is not less inviting to riders on horse- 
back or in carriages, to promenaders and pedestrians of every 
grade. It will be the resort of the lover; of nurses with 
children ; of friend with friend. The old, the invalid, and the 
sad will go there to get a breath of pure air, to see the grass, 
the green leaves, and the flowers, and in melancholy musings 
to think of days departed ; while the young and healthy and 
happy-hearted will find their feelings in unison with all that is 
there to exhilarate and to gladden. 

It is to be hoped that row-boats will be placed on the lake, 
at a moderate charge by the hour, to give an agreeable and 
healthful exercise to all who need it, especially to the young, 
as a means of developing the chest and bringing out their mus- 
cular activity. 

There will be a five-mile foot-path for the lounger, the 
lover, and the contemplative ; a nineteen-mile carriage-drive 
over an easy graded and beautifully smooth turnpike, and a 
separate bridle-road of twenty miles, now up, now down, 
straight on, then winding around some projecting rock or 
miniature mountain, thus giving all invaluable opportunities 
for perfecting themselves in the most exhilarating and health- 
giving of the graces, riding on horseback. 

Arrangements are made by which persons may reach the 
Park in the city cars for five cents, and when there, saddle- 
horses can be had by the hour, thus giving to citizens at a mo- 
derate cost, the opportunity of daily horseback-riding, without 
the expense of keeping a horse, or the discomfort of having to 



ride for miles over rough, and dusty and crowded streets before 
the enjoyment of the country commences. 

It would be an admirable arrangement, if the school child- 
ren of the city could be turned out on the Park, every after- 
noon, to spend an hour or two in their plays and pastimes. 
They leave school at three in the afternoon ; by four o'clock 
they are through with their dinners, and on ■ an average, could 
reach the Park at four and a half, to remain an hour and a half 
or two hours. The healthful influences of such an arrange- 
ment would be incalculable. But from these chances of invig- 
orating the constitution and laying up a stock of health for 
years to come, they are remorselessly cut off, by the customs 
of all schools, public and private, of giving such lessons to be 
mastered from 3 P.M. until 9 next morning, as require the full 
interval ; and yet with inconceivable stupidity, parents and 
editors contemplate this enormity with perfect indifference, or 
(and more likely) are too much engaged in making money or 
discussing politics to give the subject of the health of their 
children any efficient consideration. 



Value in 1856. 







































































Bowling Green, 

City Hall Park, 


Five Points, 

Hudson Square, 

Washington Square, 

Tompkins Square, 

Abingdon Square, 

Union Square, 

Stuyvesant Square, 

Granuercy Park, 

Madison Square, 

Bloomingdale Square, 

Hamilton Square, 

Observatory Place, 

Manhattan Square., 

Mount Morris, 

Central Park, 








86 hall's journal of health. 

parks of the world. 
London : Acres. 

Green Park, ....... 56 

St. James', . . . . . . . . ■ 87 

Kensington, ........ 227 

Little Park, . 300 

Eegent's, '. . .372 

'Hyde Park, 380 

Eichmond Park, . . 2250 

Windsor Park, 3500 

Total Parks in London, ..... 6172 

Magdeburg Park and Garden, '. . . . . 128 

Liverpool, Birkenhead, 180 

Berlin, Thiergarten, . . . ' . . . . 200 

Munich, Englischer Park and Garden, ..... 500 

Baltimore, Maryland, . . . . . 53$ 

Vienna, Prater, . 1500 

Dublin, Phoenix, . . . . . . . . 2000 

Paris : 

Bois de Boulogne, ....... 2158 

Versailles Garden, ...... 3000 

WONDERFULLY MADE.— The microscope discovers to us 
that the mold on bread and other provisions in damp, warm 
weather is a dense forest in miniature, and has its regular trees 
and trunks and branches, with their buds and leaves and flow- 
ers and fruit. It proves that the butterfly is covered with fea- 
thers so beautiful and gorgeous in their tints, that no painter 
can ever hope to equal them ; each hair is seen to be a hollow 
tube, and the softly -feeling skin is overlaid with scales like 
those of a fish ; so tiny are they, that a single grain of sand 
will cover dozens of them, and each scale in turn covers hun- 
dreds of pores, to protect their mouths from being plugged up 
by dust and dirt, and to shield them from disorganization by over- 
heat, or destructive chilliness by sudden blasts from the fierce 
cold of winter. The thinnest gauze of our stores, when thrown 
over the face, exposed to a keen and bitter wind, affords a de- 
gree of relief scarcely credible from so frail a material ; but a 


scale of the skin is of the nature of horn, and alike impervious 
to dust, and wind, and water ; and yet being firmly attached to 
the body at one edge only, the perspiration oozing out from un- 
der it, raises the free edge, and thus escapes from the body, loaded 
with its impurities and its wastes, to the average extent of two 
or three pounds a day. Laborers who do the blowing in glass- 
works lose by weight very near four pounds in a single hour ! 
the perspiration streaming through twenty-five hundred pores 
to each square inch of the human body ? or seven millions of 
pores in all, which, if joined together, would make a canal of 
twenty -eight miles in length. (See our book on Sleep.) If a 
fish is deprived of its scales, it will be chilled to death ; and 
reasoning analogically, and knowing too, that human skin- 
scales are dissolved by the alkali of the soap, a man may wash 
himself too much in soap and water, may actually wash away 
the scales of his body, leaving the pores so unprotected against 
heat and cold and obstructions, that death will inevitably en- 
sue: indeed, physiological research proves, that if a third of 
the skin is removed from the body by scalding or otherwise, a 
fatal termination is unavoidable. Observant persons know 
how soon the skin becomes pale, shriveled, and tender, even on 
the harder hands, if kept a great deal in common cold water. 
These are suggestive considerations for those who have been 
led by plausible ignorance to believe that continual water 
sloshings are indispensable to health and longevity. 

NATIONAL HEALTH would be promoted and the pulse 
of the country would fall rapidly towards its normal action by 
taking five hundred of the leading political demagogues, and 
an equal quantity of reckless, unprincipled, and time-serving 
editors ; then put one of each in a sack capable of holding 
four, sling them across mules, trot them off to Cincinnati, fill 
their pockets with corn, empty them out, tied hand and foot 
into a pork-lot, and let the pigs root them into the Ohio river, 
and there let them " macerate " and wriggle, until all the ini- 
quity is soaked and washed out of them. If the amount of foul 
debris is likely to swell the river above its banks, make a cre- 
vasse in the direction of Salt river, and let it debouch thence 
into the "bottomless pit " of the Mammoth Cave. 

hall's journal of health. 


Particularly those who go to public school. Of all the 
stupid creatures who walk this earth, they excel, who having 
the means to send their children to private school, and to con- 
trol their times of study, do yet allow them in these debilitat- 
ing spring months, to spend from six to eight hours in the 
putrefying air of an apartment, where a dozen and upwards 
are breathing each other's *breaths over and over again, and 
then allow them to come home with a load of books, a foot or 
two high, to be pored over for a greater part of the time until 
next morning. But there is one good thing connected with 
such a management, three out of four of such children will die 
before they will have a chance of perpetuating their enfeebled 
brains and bodies, to be a curse to themselves, or a charge 
upon the charities of society. 

We plead here for the little ones of that large class of more 
useful citizens who, working for a living, can not afford to 
pay two hundred dollars a year for each child sent to the pri- 
vate schools of this city, and who feel glad of the privilege of 
being able to send them, without cost for books or tuition, to 
our public schools, and which are as far superior, in New- York 
City, to the private schools, for all that is systematic, prompt, 
accurate, and thorough, as one can well imagine. We have 
had personal means of observation as to the patience, the fidel- 
ity, and conscientiousness of the teachers of New-York, es- 
pecially of those connected with the Twelfth and Twentieth 
street schools for girls. At the same time, we do occasionally 
feel, perhaps when in an indigo condition, or when some east 
wind is blowing, or the upper house is in a state of insubordi- 
nation, from sewing and patching and darning until past eleven 
the night before, that it admits of debate whether or not it 
would not be better to razee every public-school building to its 
foundation, provide all the young ladies who are teachers with 
good, thrifty, handsome husbands, and turn the children out to 
grass, literally, because an ignorant healthy young woman is 
worth more to the government and worth more to her husband 
when she gets one, than a cart-load of educated skeletons, or 
bags of bones, so thin and skinny, and tottering and frail, that 


literally a breath of air puts them off their feet, and sends them 
to bed. ' Young man, be advised while we think of it, if you 
want to be happy in married life ; if you want to experience 
to its full, the lusciousness of the wedded state, the snow-white 
table-spread, the cheerful hearth, the cozy fireside and the blest 
reunion of wife, children, and friends, three times a day around 
a well-spread board, take for a wife a healthy girl, who had a 
good mother, but could not write her name or read a line, nor 
had a dime for dower, in preference to a young woman who 
has graduated in music, in dancing, in grammar, philosophy • 
and French, an heiress though she be, and of a position envi- 
able enough, but after all has no physical health ; come to 
think of it, we will just mention parenthetically, even if she 
have as good health as the other, choose the poor girl, for the 
simple financial reason, that by the time you have raised a 
family of children, the rich girl will have spent upon herself 
and on her children, and on her style of living, and have 
allowed to go to waste, by not stooping to attend to the vulgar 
employment of seeing to her domestic affairs, her pantries, her 
bins, and her tea-chest, more than she ever brought from her 
father ; while the poor girl, of a good mother, will have saved 
as much, with a wealth of domestic enjoyment thrown in. These 
are beyond question, general truths ; but it is not likely that 
one young man in a hundred will properly appreciate them. 
It is our private opinion, that an " educated" wife, like an edu- 
cated negro, is in proportion unfitted for being happy in her 
place, unless the grace of Grod is predominant. This is a sen- 
timent of infinite practical moment. The more educated a 
woman is, the more unlikely is she to make a good wife, unless 
true religion pervades her whole character. There are excep- 
tions perhaps. This is not so far off the subject of public 
schools, as the reader may at first imagine ; for it corroborates 
the general idea, that it is better to forego education than to 
sacrifice the bodily health. 

The Hub of the Universe ordered some months ago, that no 
scholar in the public schools should have any lessons to learn 
out of school-hours. The New- York School Commissioners, 
made up in part of grocery-keepers, liquor-dealers, and igno- 
ramuses, thought to improve on this idea, and ordered that 
there should be no lessons out of school-hours beyond what 

90 hall's journal of health. 

could be learned in an hour. The moment we laid our eyes 
on the ordinance, we saw it was an abortion; and yet the 
editorial fraternity bounded off in a universal jubilation. Who 
was to be the judge of what a child can learn in an hour? 
The capacities of children vary, in a most extraordinary man- 
ner. The teacher is apt to estimate from what the best scho- 
lars can do, and inclines to the idea, that all could do as well as 
those at the head of the class, if they were not idle. But to a 
fact : we know a family which sends two daughters to a public 
school, within half a mile of Union Square ; they leave home 
at half-past eight, and return at half-past three, a duration of 
seven hours. By four o'clock, they have eaten their dinners, 
and instead of going out to play, they have lessons which can 
not be mastered thoroughly by sitting up until nine o'clock, 
and waking by six next morning. The lessons given on Fri- 
day afternoon are such, " because you have a good long holi- 
day," that they have had to give up the Sunday-school, and 
study a large portion of Sunday, in order to make a proper 
preparation for Monday morning. Of course there is no time 
for music-lessons, and, what some parents consider a great pri- 
vation, for dancing- school. It is certainly known that no child 
can become moderately well versed in piano music, unless put 
to it before ten years old. The consequence is, that the public- 
school children must either neglect their school-lessons or grow 
up ignorant of music, deprived of all the advantages of a well- 
conducted Sunday-school, and are taught practically the con- 
stant perversion of the proper uses of the Sabbath-day. This 
view of the case is not a whit short of horrible, and we vouch 
for the literal truth of every syllable here penned. But who 
cares for the children of poor people ? what business have they 
to be thumping on the piano, or jumping Jim Crow and "polking" 
about to the sound of the fiddle ? But why are children thus 
pushed from seven years of age to seventeen ? It is a good 
berth for a young lady to have a salary of from three to eight 
hundred dollars a year. She retains it by the showing she is 
able to make in bringing the children forward. The more a 
child can learn in the shortest time, the more capable is the 
teacher considered to be ; this, that teacher knows, and without 
intending to murder the children, but to bring them on rapidly, 
she overlooks the actual facts of the case, the brightness of the 


pile of five hundred dollars for ten months' work, throwing 
every thing else in the shade, reason, humanity, and life itself. 
From three to four different lessons are given out to the public- 
school children every afternoon, and if a single question is 
missed, it is considered a " failure," and a failure is a disgrace 
to be punished by being kept in a half or a whole hour after a 
murderous endurance of the preceding six. But nothing bet- 
ter could be expected from a company of grog-sellers, shoul- 
der-hitters, and bar-room loafers and politicians, such being the 
character of too many of the men who have a vote in the man- 
agement of the public schools of this city. In one of the 
wards at the last November election, a gentleman of high 
social position, of travel, and superior culture, a patron of 
education, did not receive three hundred votes out of fifteen 
hundred for a school office, an honorable "furriner" winning 
the race by all odds. While this is going on, the editors of 
this city, " civil and religious," have not a word for the abate- 
ment of nuisances so fearful, but are head and ears in political 
or sectarian controversies, stirring up the people to greater 
political differences and to greater sectarian animosities. This 
is " the progress" of the nineteenth century. On the other 
hand, parents are so immersed in money-getting, that they give 
no heed to these things. Death alone, brings them to their con- 
sciousness. " I see it now," said a retired merchant to us, not 
long ago as he gazed on the emaciated form of his dead daugh- 
ter, just graduated at eighteen, his only child ! alluding to her 
acknowledged over-application, in her ambition to maintain 
herself at the head of the class. 

" Father," said a bright-eyed little girl of twelve in our hear- 
ing to-day, " the girls in our class who miss most, study their 
lessons all the time from recess until next morning." There is 
fearful meaning in this, that in their efforts to master their les- 
sons in the exhausted condition of the brain in the afternoon, 
after a six hours' application, the mind fails to work, and an 
inextricable confusion of intellect prevents any clear concep- 
tion of one thing from another. Can any heart fail of sympathy 
for the willing but vain efforts to comprehend their studies ? 
No child should be allowed to take a book home from public 
school ; the teacher ought to be summarily dismissed who failed 
to make the child master the lesson to-day, in school-hours, 


which is to be recited to-morrow, and by half-past four, each 
child should be in the Central Park, breathing its pure air, 
drinking in its beauteous greens, loitering through its Ramble, 
rollicking along its Mall, or promenading its tortuous paths in 
search of some tiny flower of spring, or moss, or leaf, or bud- 
ding twig. 

Will the editors of this city take up the subject, or shall it 
still be that over half of all who die in New-York City, shall 
not reach their seventeenth year ! ! ! 

STIMULANTS.— Close observation and correct physiological 
research reach the same conclusion, that hearty eating and 
steady, hard work in the open air give the highest degree of 
bodily vigor, endurance, and lastingness. Such persons have 
a strong appetite and a rapid digestion, which speedily converts 
the food into nutriment, and the labor as rapidly works the old 
and useless particles out of the system ; hence, the newer a man 
is, the harder he works and the heartier he eats. But suppose, 
in addition, he drinks liquor largely. Its effect is to arrest the 
metamorphosis of the tissues, to keep longer in the body what 
ought to have been worked off; hence he soon becomes over- 
full ; his skin becomes distended, and he is always " tight !" (a 
very expressive phrase, that.) It is clear, then, that whatever 
arrests waste, arrests the change which ought to take place in 
corporeal particles, preparatory to their being conveyed away 
out of the system, and is unnatural and pernicious. 

A man who has a bottle of rum will survive his friend at sea 
or in a desert, simply because it is the nature of alcohol to ar- 
rest waste and decay, up to a certain point. 

So it is with a man who studies hard, who works the brain. 
Alcohol has an affinity for the brain. Within an hour after a 
glass of brandy is swallowed, more of it is found in a given 
quantity of brain than in any equal quantity of blood. This 
was demonstrated twenty years ago by Dr. Percy, so we rest 
here with a bare statement of the fact. Hence, a man with a 
glass of toddy will think longer, his brain will longer work 
with activity, than if he had none, up to a certain point, be- 
cause it arrests the metamorphosis of the tissues of the brain. 
Coffee and tea do the same thing, and so does tobacco. Thus 
it was that during the Irish famine, a dozen years ago, it was 


often made a subject of remark, that when an almost starving 
wretch chanced to get a little money, it was expended in tea or 
tobacco or spirits ; and when asked the reason, the same reply 
was made, "It went farther" than any thing else; it was con- 
centrated carbon, no bone, no husk, not an atom of waste. 

We saw the greatest intellect of this nation, on being called 
to make a speech in the old Jenny Lind Hall on Broadway, so 
drunk that he could scarcely articulate a distinct word ; the 
syllables ran into each other in sound ; and he had to hold him- 
self up by the corner of the table which opportunely stood by. 

It is reported of the greatest divine that ever trod on this 
continent, that he suddenly stopped in a sermon, raised his 
hand to his brow, and exclaiming, " God, as with a sponge, has 
blotted out my mind," burst into tears, and sat down. He had 
fallen into habits of drinking spirits. 

One of the best writers on doctrine in a most influential de- 
nomination, and some of whose productions are made standards 
in his church, was a drunken man, and died of the chronic 
diarrhea, which often ends a drunkard's life. 

These men were at times compelled to brain-work when it 
was not in working order, when it was tired, exhausted ; but 
some engagement, some inexorable necessity, as they thought, 
demanded the effort, and they found out in one way or another 
that a cup of tea or a glass of toddy enabled them to come up 
to the task, and thus the habit grew on them, until at last they 
found themselves under the necessity of " taking a drink" be- 
fore making a public address, and sometimes before its prepara- 
tion. But tea and alcohol are transient in their effects. Sup- 
pose a man has to be one of several speakers, and happens to 
miscalculate, on the length of the addresses which precede his, 
the inevitable result is, a disgraceful failure or a new potation ; 
but suppose he couldn't get it ! ! 

So that a cup of strong tea will enable a man to get more 
work out of his brain than would otherwise have been done. 
But this is expenditure before an income ; and for a while 
the evil day of bankruptcy of brain may be deferred, but its 
eventual coming is inevitable, and with it the ruin of the mind 
and of the man. The conclusion of the whole matter is, that 
the man who drinks a cup of tea or a glass of brandy to enable 
him the better to discharge any public service, is already on 

94 hall's journal of health. 

the high-road to dishonor and a drunkard's death. Young 
clergymen, politicians, lawyers, doctors, beware ! ! Greater 
than any of you can ever hope to be, have made shipwreck of 
soul, body, and estate on this very rock, and why may not you ? 
The reason of this infinitely inevitable result is, that stimulants 
arrest waste — this is their inherent, peculiar, distinctive, spe- 
cific quality ; this habitual arrest clogs up, and sooner or later 
the wheels of life stand still forever. 

SPRING SUGGESTIONS.— Do not take off your winter 
flannel sooner than the first of May, but then change to a thin- 
ner article of the same material. They are wisest and healthi- 
est who wear woolen flannel the whole year. Sailors wear it 
in all latitudes and all seasons. Arrange to have a fire kept up 
all day in the family room, however warm it may be out of 
doors, until the first of May ; and in the morning and evening 
daily until the first of June. The editor has lived in the most 
malarial region in the world perhaps, and when the thermome- 
ter was a hundred and twelve at noon, a fire was regularly kin- 
dled at sunrise and sunset in his office, and sat by. Disease, ma- 
lignant fever, and death reigned in every direction, and yet he 
had not a second's sickness. It is because a brisk fire not only 
creates a draft, and thus purifies a room, but so rarefies the 
deadly air that it is carried to the ceiling where it can not be 
breathed. The simple precaution of having a fire kindled in 
the family room at sunrise and sunset in late spring and early 
fall, is known by eminent names in the army and navy surgery 
to be the most efficient preventive of all forms of fever and 
ague, and spring and fall diseases ; in flat, wet, warm countries, 
it is almost a specific against those diseases. No man would be 
considered sane who should keep up as hot fires in his house as 
the spring advances as he did in mid- winter. Food is the fuel 
which keeps the human house — the body — warm ; hence, if as 
much is eaten in spring as in winter, we are kept too warm ; 
we burn up with fever ; we are oppressed ; we suffer from las- 
situde. All nature takes a new lease of life with spring but 
man. It is because he alone is unwise. The brute beasts, the 
cow, the horse, the ox ; these turn to a new diet and go out to 
grass, to crop every green thing ; they would never come to 
the stable or barnyard of choice to eat the " heating," " bind- 



ing " oats and corn on which thej luxuriated during the win- 
ter ; they eat watery food which is light and purifying. Not so 
with man ; he continues his meats and fats, his greases and his 
gravies, as at Christmas. Watchful nature takes away his ap- 
petite for these, and because he does not " relish " them as he 
did a few weeks before, he begins to conclude that something is 
the matter, and measuring the amount of his health by the 
amount he can send down his throat, he begins to stimulate the 
appetite, thinks he must use some tonic, readily assents to any 
suggestion which • includes bitters and whisky, especially the 
latter ; in addition, he puts more mustard, and pepper, and cat- 
sup on his meats, seasons every thing more heavily, until na- 
ture has been goaded so that she will bear no more, and yields 
to the fatal dysentery or bilious colic, or happily relieves her- 
self by a copious diarrhea. Does not every reader know tha* 
fever, and flux, and diarrhea are common ails of spring ? But 
you did not know one of the two chief causes, man's gluttony, as 
above described ! Tens of thousands of lives would be saved 
every spring, and an incalculable amount of human discomfort 
would be prevented, if early in March, or at most by the first 
of April, meat and grease and fried food of every description 
were banished from the table wholly, at least for breakfast and 
supper. If meat will be eaten for dinner, let it be lean ; use 
hominy and " samp " largely, have no fries, eat but little butter ; 
use eggs, celery, spinach, vinegar ; keep the body clean, spend 
every hour possible in the open air, snuffing in the spring ; 
but by every consideration of wisdom and of health, have 
a good fire to come to and sit by with all your garments on, 
for eight or ten minutes after all forms of exercise ; otherwise, 
you will wake up next morning as stiff as a bean-pole and as 
"sore " as if you had been pounded in a bag, to the effect of 
your exercise having done you more harm than good, and 
concluding that work don't agree with you, however beneficial it 
may be to others, you take no more for weeks and months. Man 
is certainly the biggest mule that ever was created. For the sake 
of giving some general idea as to how much sedentary persons 
should eat in spring, particularly those who are most of the 
time in-doors, it may be well to name the bill of fare. At 
breakfast, take a single cup of weak coffe 4 ^ or tea, some cold 
bread and butter, with one or two soft-boiled eggs, and nothing 

else. Twice a week a bit of ham or salt-fish, may be used in 
place of the eggs, but then no meat should be eaten for dinner 
that day. If there is no appetite for eggs or the salt meat, it 
is because nature needs nothing more than the bread and but- 
ter and the drink, and nature is wise. When there is not much 
inclination to eat, a baked or roasted potato, with a little salt 
and butter, is a good substitute for an egg or piece of ham. 
Substitutes for these again are found in a roasted apple or in 
stewed fruit or cranberry-sauce. Dinner, half a glass of cold 
water, cold bread and butter, and a piece of lean meat, of any 
sort, with baked or roasted potatoes, or some other vegetable ; as 
dessert, stewed fruits or berries of any sort, and nothing else. 
Supper, a single cup of weak tea, some cold stale bread and 
butter, and nothing else whatever ; any " relish," as it is called, 
whether in the shape of a bit of dried beef, or cold ham, or 
sauce, or preserves, or cake, is nothing less than an absolute 
curse. This is strong language ; but such things do give mil- 
lions of persons restless nights, uncomfortable awakenings, and 
succeeding days of un wellness in every degree, from simple 
fidgets to ennui, ill-nature, fretfulness, and the whole catalogue 
of little, mean, low traits of character, such" as snappishness, 
fault-finding, querulousness, glooms, and the like ; this is be- 
cause nature does not need food for supper, does not call for it ; 
and a plain tea-table, with nothing but bread and butter on it, 
repels us the moment we enter the room. The next thing is to 
have something which has more taste in it, which " relishes ;" 
in other words, which tempts nature to take what she would 
not otherwise have done ; and when once inveigled into the 
stomach, it must be got rid of; but no preparation has been 
made for it ; it is as unwelcome as the appearance of a friend at 
dinner on a washing-day. The result is, that what has been 
eaten is imperfectly digested, a bad blood is made of it, and 
this being mixed with the good blood of the system, renders 
the whole mass of blood in the body imperfect and impure ; 
and as the blood goes to every part of the system, there is not a 
square inch of it that is not ready for disease of some sort, those 
parts being most liable to attack which had suffered previous 
injury of any kind ; those who have weak brains, for example, 
become " softer " still, under the charitable name of " nervous- 


DIPHTHERIA is a Greek word signifying skin. Diphtherite, 
as the French call it, or Diphtheritis, means an inflammation of 
the skin, as the word " itis " at the end of the name of any part 
of the body, signifies inflammation, "flaming" of the part. 
But we have an outside skin and an inside skin, which latter is 
only a continuation of the former, and covers the internal por- 
tion of the body as the true skin covers the. outside; this in 
ternal skin is called the mucous membrane. Hence inflamma- 
tion of the mucous membrane of the eyelids, of the nose, of the 
bowels, or of the lungs, is as much diphtheria as the inflamma- 
tion of the throat or windpipe ; but in common speech, it is 
confined to a peculiar affection of the throat. A thin substance 
sometimes exudes from trees and hardens on the bark. Diph- 
theria is an exudation from the inner skin of the throat, the 
mucous membrane ; this appears in patches, which spread, and 
harden, and thicken, until the windpipe is perfectly closed, and 
death is inevitable ; closes as does the spout of a tea-kettle in 
limestone countries, by continual accretions. In croup, a less 
solid substance forms, a kind of phlegm, which is more or less 
tough, but not solid and compact ; it also closes the windpipe 
completely sometimes, and death ensues ; but it is not so lea,thery 
in its nature, and is not so difficult of removal. Diphtheria is 
the more dangerous also, because of the great debility which 
seizes the patient, and the tendency to destructive ulceration of 
the parts, a kind of rotting or mortification. The thing then 
which requires the most instant attention, is the softening of this 
exuding hardening substance ; and next, the prevention of con- 
tinued exudation ; doing something to dissolve and bring away 
the hardening exudation, and then to close the pores or little 
mouths of vessels which supply the fluid. 

The most efficient and unexceptionable method of softening, 
and dissolving, and loosening this hardening and dangerous 
exudation, is that devised by Dr. L. A. Sayre, a distinguished 
surgeon and physician of New-York City, who puts the patient 
in a small, close room, makes a flat-iron white hot, suspends it 
over a pail, pours water on it j ust fast enough to have every 
particle evaporated, and before it is cold enough to allow a drop 
of water to fall into the pail, it is replaced by another hot iron, 
thus keeping the room full of steam at a temperature of eighty 
degrees Fahrenheit, for several hours ; meanwhile the membrane 

98 hall's journal of health. 

softens, becomes more liquid, and is cast off; but all this time 
the patient's strength must be kept up by the most nourishing 
yet the mildest articles of food, as beef-tea, soup, jellies, ice- 
cream, etc., allowing bits of ice to melt in the mouth as long as 
agreeable. Meanwhile, the interior of the fauces, throat, larynx, 
etc., as far dov/n as can be reached, should be painted with a 
camel's hair pencil, or soft mop dipped in a solution of twenty 
to forty grains of nitrate of silver, dissolved in one ounce, that 
is, two tablespoons of pure water ; repeat this painting as often 
as is necessary to unclog the throat. Where the patient is old 
enough to use a gargle, employ a tablespoon of powdered alum 
in a quart of water ; Prof. Meredith Eeese, of this city, prefers 
a gargle of two ounces of honey mixed with one ounce each of 
tincture of capsicum and tincture of myrrh. These are the un- 
medicinal means to be employed by the family, until a physi- 
cian arrives, when the case should be placed implicitly in his 
hands, especially as convalescence is painfully slow and preca- 
rious. The terms diphtheria and diphtheritis were introduced by 
M. Bretonneau, in 1826, to indicate a class of diseases, the dis- 
tinguishing feature of which was the tendency towards the 
formation of a false membrane, either on the external or internal 
skin. He noticed this, says Prof. Eeese, of the "New-York Col- 
lege and Charity Hospital, as an epidemic in France in 1818, 
1825, and 1826. It was observed as an epidemic in 1850 in 
Haverford West, England. It is clearly a constitutional disease, 
namely, one in which the whole mass of blood is implicated, 
caused by a peculiar condition or constituent in the atmosphere ; 
this has led to a general but erroneous impression that " diph- 
theria is catching." It prevails in families, not because it is com- 
municable under any ordinary circumstances, but because mem- 
bers of the same household breathe a common air. But if that 
air is made more foul by emanations from diphtheritic patients, 
those who are well, and who otherwise would have kept well 
will have their vitality lowered by breathing this vitiated air, 
and hence become proportionably liable to disease of any kind, 
and which would assume this form in preference, just as in any 
epidemic, most forms of disease run into that which is preva- 
lent. Hence it is best when diphtheria appears in a family, either 
to keep up a thorough v#ntilation, or, which is easier, safer, and 
better, send the children to a place several miles distant. 



Diphtheria is essentially a low form of fever, a fever in which 
the patient rapidly fails in strength, and the whole system is op- 
pressed. Generally it appears in a mild form, now and then it 
is exceedingly malignant and fatal, and these few latter cases 
have thrown around the name a terror which shakes the stoutest 
hearts, just as there are a thousand cases of scarlet fever which 
recover of themselves, while now and then there occurs one 
which is suddenly and fearfully fatal. 

Croup and scarlet fever and putrid sore throat are uniformly 
the result of the application of cold, of a cold taken in one of 
three ways. 

First. An only child of sixteen, spent several hours in a 
dancing-school ; the room was warm and she danced a great 
deal, causing free perspiration over the whole body; at the 
close, which was about dark of a cold, raw, windy November 
day, she ran down-stairs and stood on the sidewalk waiting for 
a companion. She was suddenly chilled, and died in forty- 
eight hours of malignant, putrid sore throat. 

Second. Getting chilled by sitting in a cold, damp room, or 
at an open window. 

Third. Allowing a wet garment to dry on the person, while 
being still. 

The same causes induce diphtheria in a diphtheritic condition 
of the atmosphere ; hence in winter, spring, and autumn, keep 
little children in- doors the whole of all rainy, thawy, raw, windy 
days ; and of all days, until after breakfast, and from and after 
one hour before sun- down ; give them their supper before dark, 
and send them to bed as soon 4 as the candles are lighted. Next 
in importance to prevention, is the premonition of diphtheria, 
the set of signs which indicate its on-coming, and which are 
peculiar to itself, premising that when scarlet fever is most pre- 
valent, diphtheria most abounds, as in England in 1858, and in 
New- York City in 1860, where twice as many persons died of 
scarlet fever in 1860 as in 1859, and never were so many diph- 
theritic cases reported here as for 1860. 

Sore throat, swelling outside, and an exceedingly offensive 
breath, are among the very first and most distinctive indica- 
tions ; on opening the mouth, there will be seen on the back 
part of the throat and tonsils spots of a whitish or grayish white 
color, with fever and general depression and debility. In the 


earliest stages, a gargle of salt water should be freely used every 
fifteen minutes ; a tablespoon of tincture of capsicum to a pint, 
would be a good addition, as it will be found efficient in rapidly 
clearing away the accumulations ; at the same time, bind flan- 
nels around the neck, dipped in salt water, as hot as the patient 
can bear, renewing every five minutes. The very best advice 
we can give is simply this, whether diphtheria is in the neighbor- 
hood or not, if a child from two to twelve years old complains 
of a sore throat and has a most offensive breath, send instantly 
for a physician. 

PRIVATE THINGS. — A person called some time ago, who 
in addition to a throat difficulty, complained that the urine had 
been coming away in a dribble for years, drop by drop, day 
and night. There was no remedy. No one can think of 
being in such a condition for a week without the most de- 
cided aversion, but to remain so, hopelessly, for all the long 
years of life yet to come and go in their weariness, is horrible 
to think of ! The immediate cause of this distressing malady 
was a paralysis of the bladder, brought on by resisting the calls 
of nature to urination, from early morning until business hours 
were over, and making it a habit day after day, on the ground 
that it interfered with business to give the requisite attention, 
and not knowing that any harm could come from it. 

By retaining the urine too long, the bladder sometimes be- 
comes so distended as to burst, and death is inevitable. When 
the membrane is not ruptured, it is, in a sense, like a bow bent 
to breaking, and loses all power of action ; the urine can not 
be discharged ; terrible pains ensue, and death is a speedy 
result. At other times persons get into the habit of resisting 
urination ; this induces inflammation, reabsortion into the cir- 
culation, and is a frequent cause of stone in the bladder, one of 
the most fearfully painful of human maladies, and when not 
fatal, requires a dangerous operation, at a cost of several hun- 
dred or a thousand dollars. This inability to urinate, brought 
on by deferring the calls, is, under all circumstances, a most 
distressing, dangerous, and alarming malady, and demands the 
most prompt and energetic treatment. The object of this ar- 
ticle is not to propose a remedy, for but too often it proves 
fatal in two or three days ; it is rather intended as a warning 


to all to avoid the cause by the easy means of yielding to na- 
ture's calls habitually and on the instant, however frequent. 
Medical books give a variety of fatal cases, where the patient was 
riding in a stage-coach, particularly in cold weather, and re- 
sisted nature for a whole day. Parents should teach their child- 
ren that it is a false modesty and a false politeness to put off 
these calls under any circumstances whatever. It is a thing 
which should invariably be attended to the last thing at night, 
and the last thing previous to going to any public assembly, 
and as nothing can excuse an unnecessary risk of life, so no- 
thing can excuse resistance to a call for urination. 

While on the subject, it is well to state that the more a person 
exercises, the less will be the amount urinated, because the 
water of the system then passes through the pores of the skin. 
But when the weather is cold, these pores are to a certain ex- 
tent closed ; the water is then driven to the interior, and has 
to be passed off through the kidneys. 

Ordinarily, the urine is high-colored and scant in warm 
weather, or when from exercise or other cause there is free per- 
spiration ; in cold weather it is abundant and clear. It is a 
practice hurtful and unwise to inspect the urine ; its color, con- 
sistence, and quantity are modified by such a variety of circum- 
stances of heat and cold ; chill and fever, food and drink, and 
even by the emotions of the mind, that only a thoughtful phy- 
sician can put a proper estimate on. appearances, and even then, 
it must be in connection with all the facts of the case, bodily, 
mental, and moral. 

Persons suffer a great deal in large cities from the want of 
public urinals. Scarcely a reader but may remember the time 
when he would have freely given a dollar for the use of such 
an institution. These establishments were formerly in Paris, 
but it was found impossible to keep them clean, and they were 
declared a nuisance. Hotels are scattered all through our cities, 
and while no proprietor of respectability would refuse an ac- 
comodation, yet if it could be brought about, that a tax of 
half a dime or a penny would secure it as a matter of bargain 
and sale, leaving both parties independent and free from obli- 
gation, much relief would be afforded and a great deal of suffer- 
ing prevented. The whole subject merits the mature attention 
of every reader. 


A very hasty and forcible attempt to urinate, especially when 
the parts are turgid, has resulted in a rupture of the membrane 
and subsequent stricture, and strictures tend to become more 
and more Aggravated until urination can only be performed by 
introducing a tube into the bladder, the very thought of which, 
both as to the trouble and danger of it, well inspires dread. A 
patient once had practiced this for sixteen years, but on one 
occasion introducing the instrument carelessly, an artery was 
ruptured, causing death in a few hours. And yet not one reader 
in a hundred but thinks it a small matter, and without possible 
harm to resist the desire to urinate for hours together. 

Stoolijstg. — By remaining too long at stool habitually, or by 
a sudden straining effort, with a view to expedition, the bowels 
have sometimes fallen down, at others, piles are engendered, as 
well as by the neglect to have one action of the bowels every 
twenty-four hours. Ailments of this sort aggravate themselves 
until it comes about that whenever the bowels act, their inner 
coating protrudes and the patient has to go to bed and remain 
there in literal agonies — " worse than death" is a common ex- 
pression ; sometimes these tortures last for two or three hours, 
to be repeated every day of the world, and yet between these 
sufferings the patient often appears in the enjoyment of perfect 
health. And how is such a terrible calamity induced? In 
one of three ways ; remaining at stool over eight or ten minutes ; 
straining rapidly ; or third, by deferring the calls of nature until 
the body gets into the habit of calling every two or three days, 
instead of regularly every twenty-four hours, and that soon after 
breakfast. The practice of that 

" Linked sweetness long drawn out," 

of which poets have sung, is competent to cause a life-long dis- 
ablement. The lesson of the article is, a call of nature as to 
urination or stooling or the " delays" in the other regard, can 
never be resisted with impunity in any one single instance, 
and many a life has been embittered in consequence of ignor- 
ance of these things, a life which otherwise would have been 
one of sunshine and usefulness. 


CROUPY SEASON.— In the early part of spring many child- 
ren die of croup, which is simply a common cold settling itself 
in the windpipe and spending all its force there. Why it should 
tend to the throat in them, rather than to the lungs as in some 
grown persons, and to the head of others, giving one man influ- 
enza, another pleurisy, a third inflammation of the lungs, and a 
fourth some low form of fever, is not so important as to know 
the causes of croup and the means of avoiding it. The very 
sound of a croupy cough is perfectly terrible to any mother who 
has ever heard it once. In any forty-eight hours, it may carry 
a child from perfect health to the grave. Croup always origi- 
nates in a cold, and in nine cases out of ten this cold is the re- 
sult of exposure to dampness, either of the clothing or of the 
atmosphere, most generally the latter, and particularly that 
form of it which prevails in thawy weather, when snow is on 
the ground, or about sun-down in the early spring season. At 
mid-day the bright sun lures the children out of doors, and 
having been pent up all winter, a hilarity and a vigor of exer- 
cise are induced, much beyond what they have been accustomed 
to recently. They do not feel either tired or cold ; but evening 
approaches, the cool of which condenses the moisture contained 
in the air, this rapidly abstracts the heat from the body of the 
child, and with a doubly deleterious impression ; for not only 
is the body cooled too quickly, but by reason of the previous 
exercise, it has been wearied and has lost a great deal of its 
power to resist cold, hence the child is chilled. Exercise has 
given it an unusual appetite, a hearty supper is taken, and in 
the course of the night the reaction of the chill of the evening 
before sets in, and gives fever ; the general system is oppressed, 
not only by the hearty meal, but by the inability of the stomach 
to digest it, and fever, oppression, and exhaustion all combined, 
very easily sap away the life of the child. In fact, it may yet 
be found, when the nature of diphtheria is better known, that it 
is a typhoid croup, malignant croup. 

Children should be kept as warmly clad, at least until May, 
as in the depth of winter ; they should not be allowed to remain 
out of doors later than sun-down, when they should be brought 
into a warm room, their feet examined and made dry and warm, 
their suppers taken, and then sent to bed, not to go outside the 
doors until next morning after breakfast. All through Febru- 

104 hall's journal of health. 

ary, March, and until the middle of April, especially when snow 
is on the ground, children under eight years of age should not 
be allowed to be out of doors at all, later than four o'clock in 
the afternoon, unless the sun is shining, or unless they are 
kept in bodily motion so as to keep off a feeling of chilliness. 
We have never lost a child, but feel that it must be a terrible 
calamity. Young mothers seldom get over the loss of a first 
born. Surely, then, it is worth all the care suggested in this 
article, to avert a calamity which is to be felt until we die. The 
commonest sense dictates the instant sending for a physician in 
case of an attack of croup, but the moment a messenger is dis- 
patched, have three or four flannels, dip them in water as hot 
as your hand can bear, and apply them successively to the 
throat of the child, so as to keep the throat hot all the time, so 
as to evaporate the matters, which if retained, cause the clog- 
ging up inside which soon stops the breath. Hot water should 
be constantly added to that in which the flannels are thrown, 
so as to keep it all the time hot. Keep the water from drib- 
bling on the clothing of the child, and see to it that the feet are 
dry and warm. Most likely the child will be out of danger be- 
fore the physician arrives, and it is pleasant to be able to turn 
over the responsibility on him. Loose cough, freer breathing, 
and a copious discharge of phlegm indicate relief and safety. 

Croup seldom comes on suddenly. Generally it has at first 
no other symptoms than these of a common cold, but the very 
moment the child is seen to carry his hand towards the throat, 
indicating discomfort there, it should be considered an attack of 
croup, and should be treated accordingly. When a child is 
sick of any thing, no physician can tell where that sickness will 
end. So it is with a cold, it may appear to be a very slight one 
indeed, still it may end fatally in croup, putrid sore throat, or 
diphtheria. The moment a mother observes croupy symptoms 
in a child from two to eight years, the specially croupy age, 
arranges to keep it in her own room, by her own side, day 
and night, not allowing it for a moment to go outside the door, 
keeping the child comfortably warm, so that no chilliness nor 
draft of air shall come over it. Light food should be eaten, no 
meats or hot bread, or pastries. The whole body, the feet espe- 
cially, should be kept warm all the time. Rubbing twenty 
drops of sweet oil into the skin over the breast, patiently with 

NOTICE. 105 

the hand, two or three or more times a day, often gives the most 
marked relief in a cold, thus preventing croup from supervening 
on an attack of common cold. Such a course promptly pur- 
sued will promptly cure almost any cold a child will take, and 
will seldom fail to ward off effectually, in a day or two, what 
would otherwise have been a fatal attack of croup, with its 
ringing, hissing, barking sound, and its uneasy, oppressive, 
and labored breathing, none of which can ever be mistaken 
when once heard. Many a sweet child is lost thus, the 
parents are aroused at dead of night with a cough that sug- 
gests croup ; but it seems to pass off, and in the morning they 
wake up with a feeling of thankful deliverance from a boding 
ill. The child runs about all day as if perfectly well ; but the 
next night the symptoms are more decided, and on the third 
night the child dies ; but this would have been averted with 
great certainty, if from the first night, the child had been kept 
in a warm room, warmly clad, the bowels had been kept free ; 
and nothing had been eaten but toast with tea, or gruel or 
stewed fruits. 

NOTICE. — Let all our readers understand that we have offered them 
no inducements whatever to subscribe for the Journal of Health for the 
present year ; if it can not make its way without people being hired to 
take it, both people and Journal can go to Guinea or to grass. For one dol- 
lar a year we send the Journal — "nothing else." 

Lewis's New Gymnastics, monthly, $1 a year : Boston. The editor's 
efforts to establish a rational system of gymnastics merit the patronage 
and cooperation of all intelligent persons, by his Blow-Gun and Parlor 
Skates, which he sells at 20 Essex street, Boston. He is enabling the 
young and the feeble to practice safe, interesting, and highly beneficial 
modes of exercising and developing the lungs and the limbs. 

All subscriptions to the Journal of Health and Fireside Monthly begin 
with the January number. Any number of the Journal, from the begin- 
ning, to complete sets, will be furnished for ten cents. Subscribers who 
failed to receive their January, February, or March numbers, will have 
them forwarded without charge. 



Bronchitis & Kin- 
dred Diseases. 


Asthma, Common 
" Perpetual 

' Causes & Nature 
" Symptoms & Treat. 

Bronchitis, what is 

" Nature & Cause 
" Symp. & Treat. 

Brandy & Throat disease 

Clerical Health 



" Cause of 


" How diseased 
" Many cases of 

Dangerous Delays 

" Exposures 

Disease Prevented 
Debilitating Indulgences 


Frail and Feeble 
Food, Tables of 

Heart, Contents 
" Disease of 
How remain Cured 
High Livers 

Inhalation, Medicated 
Inflammation described 

Lungs described 
" Contents 
Lake Shore, situation 
Life, average duration 

Mistaken Patients 
Merchants' Cases 

Nitrate of Silver 

Over Feeding 
Oxygen Breathing 
Overtasking Brain 


Prairie Situation 


Patent Medicines 



Smoking, Bainful effects 
Shortness of Breath 
Sea Shore 
Sea Voyages 
Spitting Biood 

Throat Ail 

« What is it 
" Symptoms 
* Causes 
" Philosophy 
" History 

Tobacco, effects of 

Tonsil Cutting 

" Unwell" 

Voice Organs described 



Appetite, Nature's 
Arkansas Hunter 
Air and Exercise 
Alcoholic Effects 

Bad Colds 
Brandy Drinking 

Consumption Described 
" Delusive 
" Not painless 
" Causes of 
" Symptoms 
" Localities 
" Liabilities 
" Nature of 
" Curable 
" Commencing 
<* Seeds deposited 
" Is it catching ? 

Cough, Nature of 
" Causes of 
" Effects of 

Cluster Doctrine 

Cheesy Particles 


Earliest Symptoms 

Exercise essential 

" Various forms of 

" Sinking in water 

Great Mistake 



Horseback Exercise 

Impure Air 

" Effects of 
Lacing Tight 

Night Sweats 
Nitrate of Silver 

Occupation in 
Out Door Activities 
Over Exercise 


Porter Drinking 

Respirator, Best 

Spitting Blood 
Short Breath 
Sea Voyages 
Sea Shore 
Safe Treatment 
Southern Climate 

Throat Ail, distinguished 
from Consump. 
" From Bronchitis 
Tickling Cough 

Health & Disease 




Anal Itching 



Apples Curative 

Bowels Regulated 

Bad Breath 

Baths and Bathing 




Binding Food 

Constitutions Restored 



Children, Health of 


Chills at Meals 


Clothing Changes 




Cooling off Slowly 

Chest Developed 

Clerical Rules 

Cnoosing Physicians 

Cracked Wheat 

Corn Bread 

Drinking at Meals 








Feet Cold 

First Things 



Horseback Exercise 

Inverted Toe Nails 

Late Dinners 

Morbid Appetite 



Pleurisy and Pneumonia 

Public Speakers 



Summer Complaint 
Spring Diseases 

&c, &c. 



Air, Deadly 

" Breathing Bad 

" State of 

" Of Crowded Room 

." Taints 

" Noxious 

" Bath 

" Country 

'• Hills 

" Sea Shore 

" Close Rooms 

" 01' Chambers 

" And Thought 

Black Hole of Calcutta 
Bodily Emanations 
Bad Habits 
Breath of Life 

Crowding, effects of 
Convulsions, Children's 
Capacity of Lungs 
Charcoal Fumes 
Chambers, Vitiated 
Chemical Affinities 

Deadly Emanations 



Electrical Influences 
Excessive Child-bearing 
as depriving of sleep ,&o 

Griscom's Ventilation 
Gas Burning 

Human Effluvia 
Houses and Cottages 

" Warming 

" " by steam 

" " by open fire plac. 

Indulgence, over 

" Measure of 

Invisible Impurities 

Marriage a safeguard 

Nursing at Night 

Pure Chambers 
Physiology Books 

" " Their bad effects 
Papered Rooms 
Pernicious Instruments 

Ruined Youth 

Second Naps 
Sleep of Children 
Sleeping with others 
" Old with young 
" Strong with feeble 
" with Consumptives 
" with Children 
" Well 
" How learned 

Youth's Habits 
" " How remedied 
&c. &c. 

The above books are sold at the prices annexed, at 42 Irving Place, New York. If or- 
dered by mail, send 12 cts. for postage. Address simply " Dr. W. W. Hall, New York." 
Hall's Journal of Health, $1 a year ; bound vols. $1.25 each ; postage 15 cts. additional. 


Our Legitimate Scope is almost boundless : for whatever begets pleasurable 
and harmless feelings, promotes Health ; and whatever induces 
disagreeable sensations, engenders Disease. 


Vol. VIII.] MAY, 1861. [No. 5. 


A real wife is a "help -meet," an assistant suitable for her 
husband ; a woman who adapts herself to the situation, circum- 
stances, and position of the man who has engaged to provide 
her with a house and home, arid to defend and protect her until 
she dies. It would not be just to say that no girl educated 
in a boarding-school ever became a good wife ; but that board- 
ing-school girls, as a class, make the worst of wives, is the im- 
pression of many a poor fellow who has had experience in that 

The very first care of a young man who is about to marry, 
should be to select a woman of vigorous health, from among 
those of his own religion, of his own neighborhood, and of his 
own grade in society. If he is of no account, he deserves no- 
thing higher ; if he is of sterling worth, he will elevate her 
from the hour, toward the position which he himself merits, 
with the happy result, that as he rises she will rise with him, 
become proud of him, while he will have reason to be proud 
of himself, and in time will carry with him that presence and 
that bearing which belong to the self-reliant and to those who 
have a consciousness of ability and moral worth. 

An important advantage in marrying from among one's 
neighbors is, that each party knows the social " status " of the 
other in a manner more perfect than is otherwise possible, and 
thus will all impositions be avoided ; for there are multitudes 
of persons whose inveterate aim is to impress those whom they 
have married with the idea of their position, their birth, and 
their blood, the more so as these all are questionable. The 
truly well-born never speak of these things voluntarily. It is 


not likely that William B. Astor or the Duke of Devonshire 
would proffer to any man the information that they were rich. 
A lady does not dress in violent colors ; her maid monopolizes 

To enjoy religion more and more, as we get older, is the true 
ambition, aim, and end of life ; to do this to the fullest extent, 
there should be as few points of divergence and diversion as 
possible, whether in sentiment, in habit, or in practice. It is a 
sweet thing in declining years for husband and wife to sit to- 
gether and read and sing and listen to the hymns which were 
familiar to them from childhood ; to talk about the same minis- 
ters; the members of the same church, of mutual friends and 
neighbors, and of common schoolmates. The truth- is, the more 
two old people have in common, the sweeter will be their in- 
tercommunions until they die. With considerable opportuni- 
ties of observation over many degrees of lattitude and longi- 
tude, the impression has been deepening for many years, that 
for domestic peace and happiness, and for the luscious commun- 
ings of pious hearts, it is best, as a very general rule, the ex- 
ceptions being rare, that the young should marry in their own 
neighborhood, their own circle, their own church, and their 
own State. A Southerner wil] always despise what is called 
the " picayunishness " of the North ; while the free and hearty 
abandon of the South, the Northerner can never reconcile him- 
self to. The North is a precise old maid. The South is a 
reckless dare-devil. The North has not the power of accom- 
modation. The South has wonderful facilities of adaptation. 
The Northerner must have every thing just so, or he is in a liv- 
ing purgatory. The Southerner readily conforms himself to 
privation and laughs at what a Northerner would cry over. 
Within a year, a young lady of Brooklyn picked up a foreign 
husband at Newport ; later on, she appeared at her father's door, 
a refugee from the intolerable treatment of her " lord " whom 
she had left in Italy ; she was a Quakeress by education, and 
married out of her sphere. 

In countless instances, ''educated " women have made miser- 
able wives. The fact is, in multitudes of cases, the wife is a 
slave, and, like any other slave, the less she knows as an intel- 
lectual being the less galling will the yoke matrimonial be, and 
the more likely will she be to discharge satisfactorily the ma- 


terial duties of a wife, which are the ordering of the household 
so that it shall be the haven and the heaven of the toiling hus- 
band, and the nestling, cozy refuge of the children. The truth 
is, the whole system of female fashionable education is an abor- 
tion and a curse. Our daughters are not trained for wives, in 
the true sense of the word, but for ladies, for puppets, for dolls, 
for playthings. Although John Bull has a high character for 
doing things in the right way, in respect to the girls born to 
him he is about as big a fool as Jonathan. In the European 
orphan schools and asylums of Calcutta and Madras, the child- 
ren of soldiers are, with great liberality, taken to be educated, 
especially the daughters of soldiers and officers who have died 
in their country's service ; but in place of being taught needle- 
work, cookery, reading, writing, and arithmetic, and in the do- 
mestic duties of wife and mother, they are instructed in subjects 
which might be expected in a London boarding-school, and 
hence Dr. Mouat says he has often heard steady soldiers declare 
that they preferred an uneducated native wife to the best of the 
inmates of the institutions above mentioned, because the former 
was gentle, quiet, obedient, fond of staying at home, careful 
and tender of the children, and anxious to minister to the com- 
fort and happiness of the husband ; whereas the latter was far 
too often a fine lady, alike regardless and ignorant of domestic 
duties, fond of gossip and flirtation, and^altogether ill calculated 
to produce happiness in her husband's household. It is pre- 
cisely this that is operating in New- York and Philadelphia and 
Boston, and other large cities, and extending even to small 
towns and the country, too, to diminish the number of marriages, 
leaving the most beautiful blossoms to be ungathered, while the 
bar-room, the coffee-house, and the club are more and more 
crowded, and the home of honorable wedlock is replaced by 
" liasons dangereuse " in New- York, and " les chambre garnee " 
of New- Orleans. 

In short, there is reason to fear that unless greater attention 
is paid to the education of the heart in both the principles 
and practice of evangelical religion in our female schools, the 
time is not far distant when it may be said of the United States, 
as of the most corrupt capitals of Europe, that every third child 
is the offspring of shame. Let the thoughtful mature the sub- 
ject well. 


WRECKED CLERGYMEN.— The utter stupidity of the men 
who have the control and management of Theological Semi- 
naries, is inconceivable, and the young men who go there do, 
in the judgment of charity, possess more piety than brains ; 
their zeal is not according to knowledge ; they cheat themselves, 
they cheat their parents, and they cheat the church. A con- 
siderable part of the money which is expended in paying pro- 
fessors' salaries and in sustaining "poor and pious young men," 
comes from people who have to* work for a living ; from farm- 
ers, mechanics; from girls and old women who make it by 
sewing and knitting ; from persons who, by severe economies, 
lay up a little as a matter of duty and of love to the Master. As 
faithful stewards, the men who distribute this money, or who 
order its distribution, are bound to do it wisely, to the best ad- 
vantage. If this is done by throwing out a bran-new preacher 
on the community who has barely strength to stand up long 
enough to read a sermon, who is so wrecked in brain and ruined 
in body, that it is problematical whether either will last six 
months from the day of his leaving the seminary — then we do 
not know what a faithful stewardship is. A professor in a 
theological seminary has no sense, never had any, never will 
have, beyond what he gathers in chewing Hebrew roots and 
ferretting out Greek themes ; his whole soul is taken up in 
proving doctrines that §ever existed except in his own imagin- 
ation ; in showing what can not be seen ; in fabrications which 
a breath of truth will smash to atoms. And looking forward 
to the time when they shall be quoted as very giants in Scrip- 
tural learning, they seem wholly to forget that the young men 
under their care have something else to do besides cramming 
their brains with theological abstractions. It really admits of 
debate, whether it would not be better for the world if the 
engine of Time had not better take a turn back by dumping 
every theological seminary, every medical college, and every 
public school into Symmes' north hole, and make another start 
in the direction of a better progress. Meanwhile, let this young 
man who wants an education, work by day for his board and 
tuition, and study at night by the light of a pine-knot or a bit 
of a rag dipped in a saucer of hog's fat. We have used both, 
and know their virtues. Let the other youngster who wants 
to become a doctor, take up the old-fashioned plan of com- 


pounding his master's medicines, going round with him to visit 
patients, and gradually learn to take his place when emer- 
gencies present themselves, thus making actual observation the 
foundation of his study and his skill. And as to theological 
training, certain it is that some of our greatest divines, the men 
who have signalized themselves by splendid utilities, were those 
who plodded while they plowed, who " studied" with their own 
ministers, and thus literally graduated from "the school of the 
prophets," without being hurried to death to keep up in the 
class with those who had brains and nothing else. The Pitts- 
burgh Missionary gives a telling illustration of one of the points 
made above as follows, and we could make a formidable list 
akin to it, from our own personal observation. 

" Scarcely two years ago, I was summoned to the grave of 

my brother, Kev. , who died with consumption in the very 

prime of manhood, with the most gratifying evidences of useful- 
ness behind him, and the most encouraging prospects of contin- 
ued usefulness before him. Soon after the failure of his health, 
I was attacked 'almost in the same way. A visit to the South 
had some influence in restoring my health, yet I can not now 
actively engage in the ministry. This, I assure you, afflicts me 
more than the pain arising from the disease itself. Whilst I 
hope I am gradually improving, another brother younger than 
myself, who has been studying for the ministry, is now passing 
through the last stage of consumption ! In his great eagerness 
to acquire an education in a short time, he broke down his 
health. I will soon be the last of the family. My father died 
twenty -five years ago, and his last request was, that his three 
sons should be trained for the ministry. My excellent mother, 
true to her promise, made every sacrifice possible for a mother, 
to carry out his wish. My brothers went to the University of 
Virginia to acquire an education. They acquitted themselves 
with honor, but returned home with broken constitutions ! My 
censure may be unfair, but it seems to me that the learned Fa- 
culty of that Institution are blest with but a small degree of 
knowledge in regard to the laws of health, or have not phi- 
lanthropy enough to render practical what they do know con- 
cerning the laws of the body. I know many young men who 
have graduated there with distinction, who are now among the 
dead. Half-fed, half-warmed, pushed, pulled, drilled, and 

112 hall's journal of health. 

drummed to learn rapidly — no attention paid to regular exer- 
cise, and, in consequence, the health of the poor student sinks. 
Surely, such learned men ought to know that exercise is indis- 
pensable, and that if students are too indifferent or parsimonious 
of time to take it, they should be compelled to do so, just as 
the student is compelled to recite his lesson at a certain hour. 
This system of " all work and no play," has filled my mind 
with sad thoughts, in regard to the future of many of our young 

AVENUES OP DEATH.— Isaac Watts with mournful and 
suggestive truthfulness sang : 

"Dangers stand thick through all the ground 

To push us to the tomb, 
And fierce diseases wait around, 

To hurry mortals home. 
Our life contains a thousand strings, 

And dies if one be gone, 
Strange that a harp of thousand strings 

Should keep in tune so long." * 

All who died in England during 1858, were the victims of 
one hundred and twelve groups of disease. A hundred and 
twelve fatal shafts are sped about and around us, a hundred 
and twelve diseases are always in existence — are floating on the 
wings of the viewless winds — our neighbors one by one fall 
at our side ; and at the age of forty, sixty, eighty years, we 
"still live," to magnify the kindness of that Eye which never 
slumbers or sleeps. And yet, in spite of that care, multitudes 
daily rush into the arms of death by inadvertence, by thought- 
lessness, by inconsiderations, and by the most unwarrantable, 
the most reckless exposures. The same care that is expended 
in saving a dollar, would many a time save a holy human life. 
Abraham, Leviticus, Deuteronomy, or some other of the ancient 
notabilities sold his title, his honor, for a bowl of soup ; but he 
was so hungry he couldn't help it. That a woman before now 
has walked herself into a "spell" of sickness, if not to death, 
in searching for a ribbon or dress-pattern of a particular shade 
of color, and gave as a reason, that she couldn't help it ; that 
multitudes of them sit up sewing till near midnight, ruin their 
eyes, and make themselves "cross as bears" for a whole week 
afterwards, by the over-tax on the system, and give as an all- 
convincing reason, they couldn't help it; that others go into 


the kitchen to make pastry and cakes and pies, while Bridget 
stands at her ease and looks complacently on, knowing that she 
is paid at the rate of eight dollars a month to over-see her mis- 
tress do her own work; the said mistress getting over-heated, 
and exhausted, goes up-stairs, throws herself on her bed, falls 
asleep, gets chilled, and wakes up to be an invalid for a week 
or two, and gives as a reason, she couldn't help it ; that at 
another time similar results follow from her showing a servant 
how to sweep a floor, make a bed, or scrub the shelves to white- 
ness, because she couldn't help it; that doctors live on the 
Avenue, and doctors' families sport faultless equipages with 
liveried servants and fifteen-hundred-dollar match-horses in 
consequence of this rather strange mode of reasoning — can not 
be truthfully denied, so determined do many seem to brave all 
providence, and to put all sense, common and uncommon, at 
defiance. A daughter goes to a ball or an opera, rejects gum- 
shoes and a shawl as precautionary. She comes home in the 
rain, feet wet, body chilled, with a week's illness, and reasons 
thus: I couldn't help it. I was there, and was obliged to 
come home. Ye happy husbands ! how many times have you 
been " shut up " by this adroit mode of handling an argument 
on the part of your divinities ? And how often patience has 
not had her perfect work when you have seen the utter falsity 
of the argument, but yet did not exactly " see your way clear ;." 
in other words, hadn't sense enough to flash out the absurdity in 
a single, all-convincing utterance? How often this has hap- 
pened, you must report yourselves. But be candid. Are you 
not too mad half the time to do any thing but grit the teeth, 
and say nothing ? But these things are so, because, because 
we have — hem! — "hearn tell!" The real meaning of the ex- 
pression, "I couldn't help it," is, I didn't choose to help it; in 
other words, there was an inability to act wisely, or an ignor- 
ance of cause and effect, which are equally inexcusable, if not 
actually criminal, often ending, as these things do, in tedious 
invalidism, at a ruinous expense of the husband's time and 
means, or in leaving whole families of motherless children to 
grow up uncared for, if not driven from their homes, by some 
designing or heartless successor ; driven into stranger families ; 
driven into ill-assorted or unwilling marriages; driven into 
neglect, to want, to temptation, to the acceptance of wages for 
accursed deeds. Health is a duty, its loss a crime. 


DEATH'S WEAPONS. — The higher the state of civiliza- 
tion, the more attention is paid by nations towards ascertaining 
the causes of disease and death, with kindred subjects, the object 
being to exercise that parental care and authority which becomes 
a beneficent government. The glorious English nation is pre- 
eminent in these regards, our own being too young to have in- 
augurated any system commensurate with the importance of 
the subjects. In one year fifty thousand persons died of con- 
sumption in England and Wales. It is particularly note- wor- 
thy that the mortality from this disease in the city of London 
bore about the same proportion as that of hilly Wales. And it 
is not a new remark that, as cities grow older, consumption di* 
minishes ; in consequence, no doubt, of the greater intelligence 
of the people and the greater conveniences and comforts of 
life. Another fact protrudes itself, and that is, that the doctors 
do not kill every body. In Wales, twelve of every hundred 
persons dying had no medical attendant. In one district in 
England, one person out of every ten had no doctor to help 
them over the bridge of sighs. Half of all who died were 
under seventeen years of age. This fearful truth will come 
more directly home, to parents at least, by saying: "Half of 
your children will die before entering their eighteenth year !" 
And why ? Because it is natural that they should die thus 
early? Because they were not made to live longer? Be- 
cause there is a necessity that it should be so ? No ; none 
of these. Nor is it because, inheriting a weakly constitu- 
tion, they were born diseased. A wise care will overcome 
these disadvantages in a vast majority of cases. One of the 
greatest sovereigns in the world was born so decidedly scrofu- 
lous as to be threatened with a life-long deformity ; and yet, of 
a houseful of children, not one has died, several have grown 
up to majority, and all are in high health, and by virtue, too, 
of a systematic and persistent attention to the laws of hygiene. 
It clearly follows that half of our children die before they 
become of age, because they are not properly taken care of, 
watched over, and instructed as to the means of preserving 
their health ; they are not told by their parents how to avoid 
disease. This is certainly a fearful reflection, and yet it is 
undeniably true. 


A PILL OF LAUGH.— The two favorite medicines with us 
are, an out-door walk or ride of two or three hours, and a good 
laugh. We are not exactly at leisure to hunt up fun, so we 
manufacture it for the nonce, or draw on the resources of mem- 
ory. In other words, when we are sensible of the need of a 
stir-up, of a quickening of the fluids ethereal as well as material, 
we lie down on the floor, think of something funny and laugh 
at it ; no grinning, but a real out-and-out, wide-mouth guffaw, 
which rings over the premises so loudly that the Quaker 
Upper House comes down to say, " William, I rather opine 
the neighbors will think thee a little daft ;" these may not be 
the identical words, in fact, we rather think that a literal report 
would not "draw it quite so mild," no, not by a long shot ; but 
the reader has the idea ; now for the pills. 

The two which are most infallible in their effect^ and which 
do not seem to lose their power by repetition, are the reading 
of the " doubtful witness " in the January Jouknal, to which 
we respectfully refer, price, ten cents ; the other we have never 
seen in print, nor has any one else, perhaps from an impression 
it might be tabooed ; but the incidents did occur, and the nar- 
ration was made, and surely what has been stated in company 
may be put in print, especially as the distinguished conversa- 
tionalist was a clergy man r a D.D., and belonged, too, to that 
most stern and staid and educated of all religions, the Old School 
Presbyterian Church ; in short, no less a personage than the 
late Rev. Dr. , of , a man of infinite jest, who 

could tell a joke or take a glass of wine with any body. So 
sweet a voice had he, that it fell upon the ear like the most de- 
lightful "lullaby." Well, to our— pill of laugh. In one of 
his journeyings across the mountains to the " General Assem- 
bly " at Philadelphia, at that early day when it was made by 
" stage " instead of " rail,* requiring weeks instead of days — the 
vehicle was full — a beautiful young country girl occupied the 
position of the end-seat of the middle bench, in the old-time 
famous " Troy coaches," hence she sat next the door, and it was 
most convenient that she should get in last. At one of the 
stopping-places for "refreshments," the horn summoned the 
" passengers " to resume their seats; the roads were muddy, 
the day was dismal, and the travelers were " dismaller," by 
reason of the fashion then, as now, to hurry you up before th& 


dinner was half down. All were soon in but the doctor and 
the young lady. He opened the door, and was about handing 
her up to her seat, as any chivalric Kentuckian would do — in 
fact, they are all, that is, the race of forty years ago, as frank, 
and genial, and hospitable, and courteous, and brave a race of 
men as ever lived. Can't say as much of the later crops; 
rather think idleness and whisky, and the disposition to plume 
themselves on the virtues of their grand old sires have withered, 
and wilted, and wrecked the nobler nature, leaving behind a 
scaly race fit only to make loafers and braggadocios of. We are 
speaking of the sons only ; the daughters ! why, they are as 
handsome, and lady-like, and courteous, and courtly as they 
always were. Within a year the sweetest of them all said in 
our office : " Why, coz, when I returned to the old homestead 
to show my little boy to his grandfather, sixteen out of the 
seventeen young men with whom I had more or less an ac- 
quaintance, who were on visiting terms, have died drunkards 
or come to some other untimely end since I was a girl, a short 
seven years ago." In the same connection it may be related, 
that " the friend of our youth," from the same village school, 
and who has climbed higher up on the ladder of human fame 
and usefulness than we, passed a few days in our house not 
long ago, and in the mournfully pleasing reminiscences and in- 
quiries which may be well imagined to have occurred on such 
an occasion, questions were asked of this and that and the Other 
well-remembered name of childhood, he having come from the 
spot an age later than we. But rather objurgating as to the 
unsatisfactory answers given in reference to some of whom we 
wanted to hear, he explained : "The fact is, when I met my 
old friends, I was absolutely afraid to ask them about their 
children, ' gone to the dogs ' being the very general and suc- 
cinct history of those who, when I left a dozen or more years 
ago, were growing up as almost models of manliness and per- 
sonal attractiveness. The reason was about the same as to all, 
idleness, gaming, drinking." Why, within a month when in- 
quiring of an old acquaintance, of the young men who were in 
the medical department of the university at the time when a 
diploma in pills and physic was ground out to us, and who had 
then made themselves notable among their fellows by actual 
talents, and the promise of greater things to come — " Doctor, I 


am ashamed to tell you, but in the town where I live, the place 
where you will always find the names l at home ' to which you 
have referred, is the billiard-saloon." Kentuekians ! what 
means this ? Do you intend that the race of giants shall die 
with Clay and Crittenden ? Is it true, as reported in some of 
the papers, that your Governor was so " tight," on the occasion 
of a visit to the capital of the sister State of Ohio, that he denied 
it was three o'clock in the morning when he reached his lodg- 
ings, and as positive proof, said that it was only one o'clock, 
because it had that moment ceased, and it struck only one, for 
he had counted it three times ? We have on several occasions 
boasted of the representation of our native county in this very 
same old Gotham, the clergy of several different denominations, 
the doctors of different names and pathies, and the editors ! too, 
are literally headed by Bourbonians, the very identical place 
where the best whisky in the world comes from. Even the 
prince of horse-tamers, the immortal Earey, got his cue from a 
man who was either a native of Bourbon county, or so near it 
that there was no fan in it. Dr. himself, the hero of 

this, what shall we call it ? was bred in Bourbon, got his first 
fame and first wife there ; but we forgot to remember two other 
celebrities from the same old " Bourbontown," as it was named 
seventy years ago. Both of them were our schoolmates ; one 
is the prince of gamblers, and may be seen any day in Broad- 
way " looking out" for spoils; the other was a prince of 
gin. Our most vivid recollection of the former was an effort 
of his, when not ten years old, to lead us into a " bet," which 
would have been inevitably lost by a quibble ; this was seen 
instantly by us, and was declined. On a more recent occasion, 
the former being named " Asbury " by his good old Methodist 
mother, after her reverenced bishop, of blessed memory, the 
other was the son of a " new light preacher," of note in his day, 
"Augustus," these two worthies were in Broadway in broad 
daylight ; they were two of the busiest men we ever saw, were 
Gust and Asbury. They were serious, too ; there was not the 
scintillation of a smile. As we got nearer to them at the corner 
of Howard street and Broadway, there seemed to be an expres- 
sion of countenance on both indicative of earnestness and de- 
termination ; in short, they were endeavoring to hold up the 
lamp-post in that rather famous locality. Our impression was, 


as we passed rapidly by in a vehicle, that they would succeed ; 
subsequent events verified that impression, for next day the 
lamp-post was there " all right," and no wonder, for they hug- 
ged it as a man would his own brother in affectionate circum- 

Keally, we think that the old United States had better not 
draft us to go down South on a fighting excursion, for if our 
leaden bullets were delivered as scatteringly as our pen mis- 
siles, we rather think the secessioners would not be much hurt. 
But as we were saying, when Dr. was about handing up 

the unsophisticated " seventeen " to her seat, he found it occu- 
pied by a great, big, burly, frowslety-headed, unshorn, and 
rather garment-soiled new-comer who " didn't care whose seat 
it was ; he found it empty and intended to keep it." This was 
one of those rather rare cases in which it was pretty clear that 
" parleying" would do no good, and the doctor both saw and 
felt it on the instant, and that the best thing to be done was a 
coup de pied et de main ; so placing one foot on the stage-step as 
a point d'appui, or fulcrum, and one hand at the boor's throat, 
the "rough" was left sprawling in the mud; with the other 
hand he lifted the lass to her seat, and with the word " drive 
on!" to Jehu, the whip snapped, the horses snorted and away 
they went. The inmates were struck with silent surprise ; for 
a few moments not a word was uttered ; at length a fellow- 
traveler came to the relief of all — it was now quite dark — by re- 
marking he had always heard the Kentuckians were afraid of 
nothing and nobody — in short, that they were a pretty fierce, 
ungovernable, dare-devil set. "You are entirely mistaken 
there," said Edgar ; " when you get to know us better, you^ 
will find that we are an unforward, unpresuming, and in fact, 
rather a retiring and modest people, almost shame-faced some- 
times ; for example : A young clerical friend of mine had oc- 
casion to read the twenty-second chapter of Numbers before a 
large congregation. (The reader may remember that the chap- 
ter named, discourses somewhat about a remarkable mule, the 
head of which, or that of a number of its descendants, is either at 
Fowler's or Barnum's ; Brady has the best photograph of them.) 
He found it necessary, when rising, to summon up his deter- 
mination, and to assume a fearlessness which, in reality, he was 
conscious of not possessing. But on the faith of an axiom very 


true indeed in its immediate scope, that faint heart never won 
fair lady, he read ahead, with the same fearlessness that pos- 
sesses a schoolboy, when he whistles with all his might in pass- 
ing a graveyard. All went along splendidly until the close of 
the twenty-seventh verse. Then, there was evidently a hem 
and a hitch. I am only demonstrating to you, said the Doctor 
parenthetically, what a modest set we are out West. A kind 
of confusion seemed to come over the young man's eyes and 
mind ; in short, there was such a mixture of horses and mules 
and other things, that the reader's eyes were all blurred over, 
and having some consciousness that attention was particularly 
upon him at that juncture, he made a desperate plunge, and 
suiting the action to the word, in a fairly thundering tone, he 
read, "And Balaam's horse opened at this juncture there 
was such an " irrepressible conflict " all over the house, that 
what the young man really said farther was never affirmed — it 
never "transpired." "Oh! no; you are mistaken," said the 
Doctor, " we are the most modestest people out West you ever 

SMOKING TOBACCO.— There is no vice of the appetite 
which does not find advocates among otherwise respectable 
people. The Boston Medical and Surgical Journal, the standard 
New-England medical periodical, is quoted as advocating smok- 
ing tobacco as a preventive of clergyman's sore throat. Now, 
some twenty years of personal observation with multitudes of 
confessions from the suffering, prove that smoking cigars is the 
immediate excitant of some of the most fearful sufferings ever 
recorded in medical books connected with the throat, an actual 
slow starving to death, from the utter inability to swallow a 
particle of nutriment, solid or fluid ! 

Again. Three fourths of all cases of throat trouble, put down 
under the head of Chronic Laryngitis, or Clergymen's Sore 
Throat, as eminent medical men of all schools admit, arise from 
a wrong condition of the digestive functions ; in plainer lan- 
guage, clergymen's sore throat is generally the result of inju- 
dicious eating, of a disproportion between exercise and diet. 
That a man may feel better, or rather is less sensible of dis- 
comfort in his throat after smoking a cigar or pipe, is admitted ; 
so would he from a dose of opium ; but the effect of both is to 

120 hall's journal of health. 

obtund the sensibility of the parts, to place, the patient falsely 
at ease, while the malady is burrowing in the system, gathering 
greater power, requiring more and more tobacco to keep the 
patient comfortable, until it refuses to be kept under control 
any longer, and either surprises the patient by death from starv- 
ation, or forcing some other outlet, assumes a new form of dis- 
ease, and the patient " was cured of his laryngitis by smoking 
cigars," but died afterwards of something else ! The truth is, 
neither opium, nor " liquor," nor tobacco, ever of themselves 
cured any body of any thing since the world began. 

Dupuytren, one of the most eminent and honored names in 
medicine, says of tobacco-smoking: "I can not understand the 
progress of this filthy custom among educated people. It is in- 
credible that a man of liberal education should consent, thus 
deliberately to debase his intellect ; that a man who has enjoyed 
the pleasures of literary and scientific information should pre- 
fer to the sublime enjoyments of the mind the ignoble pleasure 
of rendering himself disgusting to all around him." 

The London Lancet, high authority in the medical world, 
says, that " dividing the young gentlemen who attend the Poly- 
technic School at Paris into smokers and non-smokers, not only 
do the smokers on entering the classes take a lower rank, but 
in all the examinations afterwards the average rank of the 
smokers constantly falls, while those who do not smoke at all, 
enjoy a clearness of brain and thought of which the smokers 
have no experience." We can not accept this as demonstrative 
of the fact that smoking tobacco does of itself certainly have a 
marked deleterious impression on the mental faculties, although 
it strongly points that way. If, however, that solution is re- 
jected, it follows that young fellows who smoke cigars, either 
lack the sense or the application necessary to reach positions of 
enviable distinction. Of the two most inveterate smokers that 
ever came to our knowledge, one died of starvation from in- 
ability to swallow food ; the other was always smoking, always 
sick, when being sent to the penitentiary from Wall street, he 
gained fifteen pounds in three months, on the strength of entire 
compulsory abstinence from the " weed," and at the end of 
three years, is still doing the State efficient service. 


HEARTY SUPPERS.— A case was recently stated in this 
Journal, in which a clergyman rode from breakfast until night, 
without eating any thing. Weary and hungry, he ate a very 
hearty meal and retired to bed. During the night he was taken 
ill, fell at once into a stupor, and in that condition died next 
day. In another case, a man came into the hospital with both 
shoulders disjointed, the result of a hearty late supper, as there 
explained. In another instance, under our own observation, a 
person in as apparent good health as at any time during the 
fifty years preceding, was attacked with lung-fever, in conse- 
quence of hearty eating in the latter part of the afternoon, and 
died in three days. Usually, late and hearty suppers cause 
diarrhea, cholera, cramp-colic, and similar forms of disease, 
but in many cases their ill-effects are manifested in ways little 
suspected ; hence they often get off with less than their share 
of blame. It is useful, therefore, to give some of their more un- 
common results, this may lead a few of the wiser sort to adopt 
from principle, as a wise precaution, the safe, advantageous and 
rational practice of eating nothing later than the mid-day meal, 
beyond a piece of cold bread and butter, adding, perhaps, not 
a glass of cold water, but what is better, a single teacupful of 
any .hot drink. Lung-fever, inflammation of the lungs, and 
pneumonia, mean precisely the same thing, " Lung-Fever" 
being plain old Anglo-Saxon. The patient ate very heartily 
indeed, late in the after-part of the day, and waked up in the 
night with a severe chill, which shook the body like an aspen, 
and lasted for more than an hour ; then came vomiting of bile, 
and looseness of bowels, and a little cough ; these all suddenly 
ceased, and the patient sank rapidly into the grave, at the age 
of seventy-five. The lungs of this person had been so weak at 
the early age of twenty -two, that it was freely prophesied, that 
life could not last another year. When any thing is eaten, 
extra blood and heat go to the stomach to carry on the work 
of digestion, and this process ceases the instant the temperature 
is below nature's standard. An extra meal requires extra di- 
gestive power and extra heat ; the blood is called in from the 
outposts, and so is the heat, to assist the stomach in its unusual 
labor ; that leaves the surface, the skin, the feet, the fingers, 
cold. Has the reader never felt chills run over the body in 
getting up from a hearty meal ? A greater degree of that would 

122 hall's journal of health. 

be a " regular shake." Now the lungs are in direct sympathy 
with the skin, hence the chill of the skin is often transferred to 
the lungs. In the case in question, the effects of the chill fell on 
the lungs, they being the weaker part, the chill of the skin drove 
all the blood inwards and congested it, heaped it on the inca- 
pable, the weak, the helpless lungs ; as proof, the patient spat 
blood, a mouthful or less, ft was nature's effort to get rid of 
the terrible load ; if she had been able to clear herself of half 
a tea-cupful or more, the patient would have been saved, but 
there was not constitutional strength enough to make the effort ; 
the clockwork of life had run so long, that all its wheels had 
pretty nearly worn out together, so that there was not power 
sufficient to overcome the obstacle of a pin-head, as it were. 
The main lesson of the article is, that eating heartily, late in the 
day, is always hurtful, sometimes dangerous and even fatal. 
And further, that safety in the old and the feeble consists in 
habitually guarding against even slight exposures, slight irregu- 
larities, and slight changes in any of the habits and practices of 
life, eating and drinking and exercising in the greatest modera- 
tion, being systematic and uniform in all things. 

THE SECRET OUT.— A very imprudent physician has done 
his brethren a great injury by thoughtlessly divulging one of 
the most valuable secrets of the profession, while riding up to 
Union Square in the Fourth Avenue cars yesterday. " How is 
practice now ? you must be making a great deal of money, for 
every third person seems to be ailing?" " True ; there is much 
serious sickness, but I get no practice. Secession has made the 
times so hard, that people cure themselves by eating nothing." 

There are a few bodily ailments which are aggravated, and 
in some cases rendered incurable by insufficient diet; but 
with the exception of Diphtheria and a few others, nine out of 
ten of all ordinary ailments are controlled, are arrested, are per 
manently cured by a wise diminution of the amount of food 
eaten. This is particularly the case when there is no decided 
ailment, but a general feeling of discomfort or of unwellness. 
In all actively inflammatory maladies, where there is acute pain 
any where, total abstinence from all substantial food, from every 
thing liquid or solid, except hot teas, is the sheet-anchor of 
safety, when not extended beyond thirty-six hours. No one 


should venture on a longer abstinence on any occasion without 
the advice of a physician. 

All pain is caused by over-distended blood-vessels pressing 
against some neighboring nerve. Hence the quickest way of 
relieving any ordinary pain is to diminish the amount of blood 
in the vessels of the part by bleeding. But there is a safer, a 
better and a more enduring relief in cutting off the supply of 
blood ; and as blood is made out of the food we eat, it must be 
apparent, that if on the feeling of pain or discomfort, we cease 
eating absolutely, that pain must begin to diminish within six 
hours, that being the time required for converting food into 
blood, and if no more food is eaten, no more blood can be made ; 
while the amount in the system is diminished at the rate of two 
or more pounds in every twenty -four hours of invalidism, there 
must be relief. But let it be remembered that while this dimin- 
ution goes on in a state of rest by means of the perspiration, sen- 
sible and insensible, as well as by all the involuntary motions of 
the system, and the friction of the blood along its vessels, it is 
an important fact that every crook of the finger, every wink of 
the eye, every thought of the mind, is at the expense of the 
consumption of a greater or less number of particles of the body ; 
so that, in every succeeding moment, the body weighs less than 
it did the preceding moment ; this diminution takes place in 
the amount of the circulating fluids directly. If then the slight- 
est motion diminishes the amount of blood, and it is the excess 
of blood in a part that causes pain, the next best means of di- 
minishing pain, after cutting off the supply of food, is exercise. 
Hence the more a man exercises short of actual fatigue, the better 
he will feel, the sooner and more effectually will he be relieved. 
Many a time a man has felt uncomfortable, sometimes very de- 
cidedly so, but upon taking a walk or ride, or engaging in some 
interesting work, he expresses himself as having been greatly 
relieved. Let then this thought impress itself on the mind, 
that in the common every day ailments of life we must look 
for the cause in an excess of blood and other fluids in the body, 
and that whatever diminishes that excess is curative. The me- 
thods of this diminution are worth remembering. 1. Abstin- 
ence from food. 2. Perspiration, whether induced by covering 
up in bed and drinking hot teas, or by muscular exercise. 
3. Vomiting. 4. Bleeding. 5. Counter-irritation, as by fric- 

124 hall's jouknal of health. 

tions with the hand or a mustard-plaster. Of these we recom- 
mend only abstinence, perspiration, exercise, friction. But let 
it be remembered that when exercise evidently increases the 
discomfort or the pain, or when it induces a positive feeling of 
weariness, it is contra-indicated, and quiet of mind and repose 
of body should be sedulously cultivated. And under all cir- 
cumstances let it be remembered that however beneficial exer- 
cise may be in any given case, the very moment it becomes a 
felt fatigue, that moment it becomes a positive injury, if per- 
sisted in. 

TKIALS OF LIFE. — We start upon life's journey full of 
hope, full of gladness, and full of joyous ambition, confident in 
our own strength and in the support of friends and kindred sta- 
tioned round about us, on whom we lean with great satisfaction ; 
but as years pass on, one of the outposts, the supports, falls ; and 
then another and another, each succeeding year, leaving one or 
more the less. For a while we scarcely miss the acquaintances 
and friends of our childhood, for we have so many ; but as time 
rolls on, the number becomes so small that each additional loss 
makes a greater void. Father, mother, brothers, sisters, our old- 
est neighbors, all gone ; the minister of our youth has grown 
gray before us — he, too, has passed away ; and beyond a school- 
mate here and another there, nothing is left to connect us with 
the times and the home of childhood, and such a feeling of 
desolation comes over us, that we are ready to sink in per- 
fect helplessness and despair. To the old who may chance to 
read these lines, the suggestion is made, which, if wisely heed- 
ed, may save the body from sinking under the whelming load, 
and it is this, He who made us, is the Father of us all ; and the 
dispensations of this life are designed to prepare us the more 
certainly for a beatific existence beyond the grave, and to en- 
able us to make the transition with the least violence, and at 
the same time to train us to those habitudes of heart which 
will the more elevate us in the world beyond, he arranges 
that we shall learn to lean less on ourselves, less on others, and 
more on Himself, as a weary man leans on a staff ; and the 
sooner we begin to learn thus to lean, the happier we shall be 
in time, and the more ready shall we find ourselves to take up 
the returnless journey without a murmur and without a sigh. 


There are no words more beautiful and more true in any lan- 
guage than that " God is Love " to all his true children ; and 
the longer they live the more constantly does he gather himself 
about them with his providences, not certainly in the way that 
man's wisdom would devise, but in the manner most surely to 
eventuate in their safe arrival at their heavenly home. So that, 
while it is natural that we should feel the death of those who 
are near to us more and more acutely, the older we grow, we 
should gain even physical power to resist the most crushing 
trials, in the sweet reflection that, behind the darkest cloud, a 
loving Father hides a face all radiant with pity, sympathy, and 
affection, to be shown in due time when faith has done its per- 
fect work. So that, for life's sufferings, there is a balm in Gilead, 
there is a Physician there ! 

PREVENTING DISEASE. — To inaugurate a healthy, 
moral condition of the community, we must prevent crime by 
educating the masses to its avoidance. This is the part of the 
true philanthropist ; so is it the highest aim of the good physi- 
cian, not to cure disease, but to prevent it. Such was the an- 
nouncement in the very first line of the first number of our 
Jotjenal. On the title-page we intimated that the good time 
was coming, and we are gratified at some signs of its approach, 
infinitely more tangible than any Dr. Cummings can show that 
the world is near its end. In the great city of London, which 
now covers a space of one hundred and twenty-one square miles, 
on which live two and three quarter millions of people, one per- 
son out of every dozen dies in a workhouse, one out of every 
half-dozen in a charitable institution, one person out of every 
six is too poor to die in his own bed, and must rest in a pauper's 
grave. To what extent sickness and slow disease incapacitate 
the striving multitudes from supporting themselves, none can 
estimate better than the physician and the philanthropist. In 
view of so sad a result in the greatest city of the greatest na- 
tion on earth, the Eegistrar- General first looks for relief in im- 
proving the physical health of the teeming millions, and to this 
end aims at securing three things : 

1. Pure air to breathe. 

2. Pure water to drink. 

3. A healthy soil to live upon. 


The next thing he proposes is, to set the two thousand doc- 
tors of London to work in teaching the people how to prevent 
disease. And he wakes up to this as a tl bran-new " idea. In 
the vividness of his fancy he fairly runs riot in beatific antici- 
pations. " Imagine an army of two thousand of the most en- 
lightened profession in the world employed in instructing the 
people in the way of a healthy life. How many thousands of 
lives would be saved every year in London alone ! How much 
better and happier the population would be !" The majestic 
*■ Thunderer," the London Times, chimes in with the Registrar- 
General, and heads it, a " Beginning of the Movement under Sir 
B. Hall's Act." The Times has made a mistake. It is Dr. W. 
W. Hall, 42 Irving Place, New- York, and not an English 
baronet who set the ball in motion. Think a letter to her 
majesty Queen Yic the First might rectify matters and put 
the glory on the right cranium. The Registrar-General com- 
plains that : " Physicians are chiefly employed in treating dis- 
ease. The art of preventing is not cultivated ; it is not taught in 
any of our medical schools ; it is not formally the subject of 
examination in any of our universities. The father of a family 
does not go to a doctor and say : l How can I preserve my 
health and make my children well and vigorous, and develop 
all their faculties to the fullest extent ?' " The Times goes on to 
say that : " Under Sir B. Hall's Act, medical health officers are 
appointed in the various districts of London, and many of them 
are working courageously against ignorant opposition with suc- 
cess. They deserve public approbation, for they have done 
quietly a great deal of good work, and it is probable have 
saved many lives and prevented much sickness." 

The readers of this Journal will bear witness to its steady 
efforts to teach them how to prevent disease ; and we feel safe 
in saying that tens of thousands in this country have learned 
useful lessons in this direction from these pages. What is 
most deeply to be regretted is, that so few persons, compara- 
tively, can be induced to pay a dollar a year in order to place 
in the hands of their children a publication devoted to the one 
point — how health may be maintained ; how a good constitu- 
tion can be preserved, counseling at the same time that when 
there is actual disease, a regularly educated physician should be 
promptly called in. 




The very sight of what is beautiful tends to purify the heart and elerate the character ; while 
the cultivation of flowers directly promotes physical well-being. The following list of flowering 
plants was made out by the Germantown Telegraph to afford a succession of bloom throughout 
the season, and with the page about clocks made from flowers, will be regarded with interest by 
every intelligent reader in the beautiful May. In this connection may be premised a striking ex- 
emplification of the instinct of plants by the naturalist Hoare, who placed a bone in the strong, 
dry clay of a vine border. The vine sent out a leading or tap-root, directly through the clay ; the 
main root threw out fibers, but when it reached the bone it entirely covered it by degrees with the 
most delicate and minute fibers like lace, each one sucking at a pore hi the bone, like a litter of 
pigs at their dam, as she lies down on the sunny-side of the farm-yard. On this luscious morsel of 
a marrow-bone would the vine continue to feed as long as any nutriment remained to be ex- 
tracted. What wonderful analogies there are running through the various forms of animal and 
vegetable creation, to stimulate curiosity, to gratify research, and, finally, to lead our contempla- 
plations from nature, in a feeling of reverence " up to nature's God." 

As to the vine spoken of by Hoare, it is worthy of remark that the root went no further than the 
bone, which it seemed to have literally smelt out, as would a hungry dog, in passing. 


Pink Mezereon 

Dwarf double-flowering Almond. 

Double Purple Tree Peony. 

Chinese White Magnolia. (Conspioua.) 

Soulange's Magnolia. 

Sweet-scented Magnolia. (M. glauca.) 

White Fringe Tree. 

Garland Deutzia. (Z>. Scabra.) 

Broad-leaved Laburnum. 

Rose Acacia. 

Tartarian Tree-Honeysuckle, red and white. 

Double White Hawthorn. 

Double Pink Hawthorn. 

Fragrant Clethra. 

Oak-leaved Hydrangea. 

Yenitian Sumac or Purple Fringe. 

Buffalo Berry, (male and female.) 

Siberian Lilac. 

The Althea or Hibiscus Syriacus. 

Colutea Arborescens. 

Chinese double-flowering Apple. 

Deutzia Gracillis. 

All the Spireas. 

Snowball, (eommon though, beau tifuL) 

Dwarf Dogwood. 

Pyrus Japonica. 

Euonymus, (burning bush.) 


Philadelphus, (Mock Orange.) 


Wiegeila Rosea. 


Dicentra Spectabilis. 


White and Pink Phlox. 

[There are from twenty to thirty common 
Phloxes, many of them dwarf, of beautiful colors 
and much admired.] 

Chrysanthemums, (summer and fall.) 
Double Hollyhocks. 
Paeonias, (white and red.) 
Iris, (pale blue, very fragrant.) 
Sweet William. 
Persian Lilac. 


Some of the finest and hardiest climbing shrubs 
are the following : 

Large flowering Trumpet Creeper. 

Queen of the Prairie Rose. 

Chinese Glacine, (Wistaria.) 

Double Purple Clematis. 

Clematis Flamula, Florida and Siboldii. 

Monthly Fragrant Honeysuckle. 

Chinese Twining Honeysuckle. 

Yellow Trumpet Honeysuckle. 

Scarlet Trumpet Honeysuckle. 

Japan Evergreen Honeysuckle. 

Chinese Bignonia. 

Virginia Creeper. 

Periwinkle, (as a creeper for shady places.) 


Queen of the Prairies. 
White Multiflora. 
Laura Davoust, (half-hardy.) 
Baltimore Belle. 


Glory of Rosamond. 
Baron Prevost. 
Noisette Superba. 
La Reine. 


Hermosa, pink. 

Cels, blush and pink. 

Devoniensis, creamy white. 

Archduchess, pure white. 

Giant of Battles, crimson. 

Louis Philippe, red. 

Souvenir, blush. 

Luxemborg, buff. 

Queen of Lombardy, deep rose. 

Saffrana, yellow buff. 

Daily, light Pink. 

Prince Albert. 


Triomphe l'Exposition. 

Monthly Cabbage. 



The periodicity of plants in opening and closing their 
blossoms, has enabled botanists to form floral dials or 
clocks, by means of which the different hours of the day 
may be ascertained. 

At 3 o'clock A. M., the Goatsbeard blossom opens. 

At 4 o'clock the Dandelion. 

At 5 o'clock the Hawk's-beard, (Crepis teetorium.) 

At 6 o'clock the Vipers-grass, (Scarzonera.) 

At 7 oclock, flowers of the common Lettuce open. 

At 8 o'clock, Venus' looking-glass, (Specularie specu.) 

At 9 o'clock, Creeping mouse-ear hawk-weed. 

At 10 o'clock, the purple savin, (Juniperus sabina.) 

At 11 o'clock, the Star of Bethlehem. 

No plant by its flowering distinctly marks mid-day, al- 
though many varieties of fig-trees do blossom about that 

At 1 P. M., the Succory (Chicorium,) opens. 

At 2 P. M., the Squill Hyacinth. 

At 3 P. M., the common Marigold, (not reliable.) 

At 4 P. M., the Four-o'clock. 

At 5 P. M., the Flo wer-of-the- wall (Hieracum murarum. 

At 6 P. M., Evening Primrose. 

At 7 P. M., the Night-blooming Cereus, (Noctiflora-) 

At 8 P. M., Marvel of Peru, (Mirabilis jalapa) uncertain. 

At 9 P. M., the Mournful Geranium, (Geranium trieste) 

Of course, from various causes, these fair visitors are 
not always punctual to the minute — yet, "a plant accust- 
omed to flower in daylight at a certain time, will continue 
to expand its flowers at the wonted period, even when 
kept in a dark room. Decandolle made a series of experi- 
ments in the flowering of plants kept in darkness, and in a 
cellar lighted by lamps. He found that the law of perio- 
dicity continued for some time to operate, and that in arti- 
ficial light, some flowers opened, while others, such as spe- 
cies of Convolvulus, still followed the clock hours in their 
opening and closing. — Working Farmer. 


Dr. Hall somewhat widely known through his Journal 
of Health, publishes another monthly, which, from its ex- 
cellence, we fear will not flourish in these degenerate 
times. He says of it : 

"While it is not, professedly, a religious publication, it 
never by any chance contains a sentence, a line, or a word 
adverse to the Bible, to religion, or the Sabbath-day ; nor 
a sentiment contrary to what is usually received by the 
friends of evangelical Christianity." — Herald of Progress. 



Mr. Editor : Those who have, in a measure, lost their health have learn- 
ed by experience what the unthinking and careless do not know. Strolling 
through the Central Park, I passed with the crowd into a kind of vault or 
cave, which was delightfully cool and refreshing ; it was provided with 
seats which were well filled. The temperature within and without was very 
dissimilar, hence I remained a very short time. On emerging from this re- 
treat, a friend at my side who had not a remembered pain in twenty years, 
complained of considerable discomfort in drawing in his breath, a fact and 
a lesson of considerable practical importance, by which the multitudes of 
merry visitors to our beautiful Central Park, during the coming spring-time 
and summer, may be warned that in visiting the cave it is best to tarry but 
for a moment and pass directly on. 

I recently visited a Mission Chapel in Sixth avenue, which is well filled 
with children, twice every Sunday ; on any fine day, the windows will be 
found dropped down, by which the cold air falls immediately on the heads 
of the little ones. I counted twenty-six persons coughing or sneezing with- 
in the hour. In one week the minister reported three deaths from among 
the children who had assembled there the previous Sabbath. On one occa- 
sion, the sexton refused to close the windows at a gentleman's request, who 
consequently felt obliged to leave the church. Observer. 

The remarks of our thoughtful correspondent remind us that the favorite 
method of airing the rooms of our public-schools is to drop the upper sash 
two, three, or more inches ; the cold air being heavy, falls directly on the 
heads of the children who are ranged around the wall ; and they are com- 
pelled to this ordeal daily. It is murderous. We knew a robust, healthy 
child made sick for a week by a single exposure of the kind ; the lower 
part of the room being warm enough to cause the little thing to remark : 
"I was almost roasted." It should be impressed on the reader's mind for 
a life-time, that no air of a room or vehicle, however hot or foul ft may be 
by a crowd and stove-heat, under any ordinary circumstances, is the one 
hundredth part as pernicious for one hour as a draft of the purest air from 
the poles for half that time on the occupant who remains still or is a little 
heated. The very worst that can occur from a crowded omnibus or city 
car, or from any stove-heated room or church, or other apartment under 
any common occasion, is a swoon from which the person will recover, per- 
fectly, in a few minutes ; but a draft of cold air on a perspiring person 
for five minutes, or on a person sitting still until chilled, has resulted in 
life-long maladies, and in death within a week in millions of instances. 
Better a thousand times faint by foul air and be as well in ten minutes as 
ever, as will certainly be the case, than by a draft of delicious cool air, 
have an attack of Pneumonia, of Pleurisy, or some other equally dangerous 
and fatal disease ; for if these ailments do not prove fatal, they always are 
attended with a very slow recovery ; a recovery after months of discomfort 
oftener than of weeks ; and sometimes they leave life-long ailments. 



Many invalids, sedentary and weakly persons, have found it a serious obstacle in 
the way of their restoration to health, that they had nothing to do in certain sea- 
sons and states of the weather ; nothing that they could do which would secure to 
them the benefit of those bodily activities which have so great an influence not 
only in working off the old, diseased, decayed, and otherwise useless particles of 
the system, but in preparing newer, fresher, and more healthy ones to supply their 
place. To many, an objectless walk, or drive, or ride is a great bore ; so is the 
sawing of wood, and various forms of domestic employments, as they do not exhil- 
erate and interest Under these circumstances, the parlor-skate, made to go on 
rollers, attached to the feet and propelled by the same motions as in the common 
skates for ice, is a most valuable invention. These skates cost from two to five 
dollars a pair, and are best used on a wooden floor or oil-cloth. Parlor-skating is 
a most admirable means of strengthening the ankles, than which nothing is more 
necessary to grace and agility of bodily movements. It is superior to dancing as a 
mere exercise, because it calls into play a greater number of muscles, brings them 
into more active exercise and can be done independently : dancing alone is not to 
be thought of. The variety, grace, and agility of motions obtained by some of the 
young parlor- skaters is wonderful, as may be seen any day or evening by a visit to 
Palace Gardens or 446 Broadway. 

PUKE MILK FOB CHIIiDBEN.— It is the general testimony of city physicians 
that many children become diseased and die, especially in warm weather, from two causes : bad 
milk and change of kind ; using that of one cow to-day and of another to-morrow. Following tha 
example of the veteran editor of the American Medical Gazette, Prof. Reese, of the New-York 
Medical College and Charity Hospital, one of the most accomplished medical scholars on this side 
the Atlantic, we commend from personal knowledge in a two years' use, the milk furnished by the 
Rockland County and New-Jersey Milk Association, under the energetic and vigilant superintend" 
ence of Mr. S. W. Canfield. This Company has its depot in Rockland county, where there are 
no distilleries ; the milk is taken charge of by the agent while yet warm from farm-house cows, 
is stirred until cooled ; then, being placed in cans surrounded with ice, is forwarded by the Erie 
Railroad to the city office at No. 146 Tenth street. 

Here it is put in cans which are locked and sent direct to customers, who have duplicate keys, 
thus preventing adulteration by the milkmen. Any family desiring it, can have milk supplied 
from the sa/ne cow during the season, and pure cream at 37£ cents per quart. 

GET THE BEST.— The New-York Commercial Advertiser, one of the oldest and 
most substantial of the newspapers published in this city, said in its issue for November 19th, 
of the Worcester PIANO : " They have stood the test of so many years that they hardly need 
a word of encomium now. For the better part of a generation, they have been constantly before 
the public, all of them, old and new, proving by their stability and constancy the skill with which 
they are constructed. For durability of tone, for evenness and uniformity of work, and for excel- 
lence of frames, these pianos may well challenge competition. We know instruments of Mr. Wor- 
cester's turn out, that have borne the thummings of fifteen years, and remain as perfect in tone 
and in build as in their first estate. The number made at this factory is largely increased from 
year to year." We cordially add the testimony of our own experience to the truth of the Com- 
mercial's statement, which we find also indorsed in our Southern exchanges. 

BIBLIOGBAPHICAIi.— Dr. Bodenhamer, formerly of Kentucky, now at 854 Broadway, 
New-York, whom we have represented in these pages as having no superior, if even an equal, in 
this or any other country, in the treatment of fistulas, fissures, piles, and other diseases of contig- 
uous textures, has just placed himself at the head of American surgery in that department by the 
issue of a work on the Malformations of the Rectum and Anus, which, by the leading medical 
periodicals and the private testimony of a number of the most distinguished medical professors in 
the nation, is pronounced " exhaustive ;" that it is a work which " must be considered by far the 
most valuable, if not the only text-book on the subject." 

EYES.— Prof. Mark Stephenson, of Fifth Avenue, has obtained a high position attong the 
profession in the treatment of all diseases of the eye. 


Our Legitimate Scope is almost boundless : for whatever begets pleasurable 
and harmless feelings, promotes Health; and whatever induces 
disagreeable sensations, engenders Disease. 


Vol. VIII.] JUNE, 1861. [No. 6. 


While the gastric juice has a mild, bland, sweetish taste, it 
possesses the power of dissolving the hardest food that can be 
swallowed ; it has no influence whatever on the soft and deli- 
cate fibers of the living stomach, nor upon the living hand, but, 
at the moment of death, it begins to eat them away with the 
power of the strongest acids. 

There is dust on sea, on land ; in the valley, and on the 
mountain-top ; there is dust always and every where ; the at- 
mosphere is full of it ; it penetrates the noisome dungeon, and 
visits the deepest, darkest caves of the earth ; no palace-door 
can shut it out, no drawer so " secret" as to escape its presence; 
every breath of wind dashes it upon the open eye, and yet that 
eye is not blinded, because there is a fountain of the blandest 
fluid in nature incessantly emptying itself under the eyelid, 
which spreads it over the surface of the ball at every winking, 
and washes every atom of dust away. But this liquid, so mild, 
and so well adapted to the eye itself, has some acridity, which, 
under certain circumstances, becomes so decided as to be scald- 
ing to the skin, and would rot away the eyelids were it not 
that along the edges of them there are little oil manufactories,, 
which spread over their surface a coating as impervious to the 


liquids necessary for keeping the eye-ball washed clean, as the 
best varnish is impervious to water. 

The breath which leaves the lungs has been so perfectly di- 
vested of its life-giving properties, that to rebreathe it, unmixed 
with other air, the moment it escapes from the mouth, would 
cause immediate death by suffocation ; while if it hovered about 
us, a more or less destructive influence over health and life 
would be occasioned ; but it is made of a nature so much 
lighter than the common air, that the instant it escapes the lips 
and nostrils, it ascends to the higher regions, above the breath- 
ing-point, there to be rectified, renovated, and sent back again, 
replete with purity and life. How rapidly it ascends, is beauti- 
fully exhibited any frosty morning. 

But foul and deadly as the expired air is, Nature, wisely 
economical in all her works and ways, turns it to good account 
in its outward passage through the organs of voice, and makes 
of it the whisper of love, the soft words of affection, the ten- 
der tones of human sympathy, the sweetest strains of ravish- 
ing music, the persuasive eloqu nee of the finished orator. . 

If a well-made man be extended on the ground, his arms at 
right angles with the body, a circle, making the navel its center, 
will just take in the head, the finger-ends, and feet. 

The distance from " top to toe" is precisely the same as that 
between the tips of the fingers when the arms are extended. 

The length of the body is just six times that of the foot; 
while the distance from the edge of the hair on the forehead, 
to the end of the chin, is one tenth the length of the whole 
stature. . 

Of the sixty-two primary elements known in nature, only 
eighteen are found in the human body, and of these, seven are 
metallic. Iron is found in the blood ; phosphorus in the brain ; 
limestone in the bile ; lime in the bones, dust and ashes in all ! 
Not only these eighteen human elements, but the whole sixty- 
two, of which the universe is made, have their essential basis 
in the four substances — oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and car- 
bon, representing the more familiar names of fire, water, salt- 
peter, and charcoal; and such is mam the lord of earth ! a 
spark of fire, a drop of water, a grain of gunpowder, an atom 
of charcoal ! But looking at him in another direction, these 
elements shadow forth the higher qualities of a diviner nature, 

science Christianity's handmaid. 

of an immortal existence. In that spark is the caloric which 
speaks of irrepressible activity ; in that drop is the water which 
speaks of purity ; in that grain is the force by which he sub- 
dues all things to himself makes the wide creation the supplier 
of his wants, and the servitor of his pleasure ; while in that 
atom of charcoal, there is the diamond, which speaks at once of 
light and purity, of indestructibility and of resistless progress, for 
there is nothing which outshines it ; it is purer than the dew- 
drop; "moth and rust corrupt" it not, nor can ordinary fires 
destroy ; while it cuts its way alike through brass and adamant 
and hardest steel. In that light we see an eternal progression 
towards omniscience ; in that purity, the goodness of a divine 
nature ; in that indestructibility, an immortal existence ; in 
that progress, a steady ascension towards the home and bosom 
of God. 


Science is the knowledge of facts and principles ; art is their 
application to the utilities of life. It is a scientific fact that the 
magnet points unerringly to the pole ; by the application of 
this fact the mariner confidently navigates the trackless seas. 
On the scientific principle that nature abhors a vacuum, at least 
as high as thirty- two feet, the common water-pump is con- 
structed. Science is truth itself as to all material things, as 
religion is truth itself as to the moral and spiritual world ; hence, 
science and religion must sustain each other, for truth stands by 
truth throughout the boundless empire of Omnipotence ! 

If then Christianity is a truth, science must sustain it wherever 
and whenever they come in contact, on whatever field they 
meet ; and Christianity being founded on the Bible, every Bible 
assertion will be corroborated by science whenever science 
speaks at all in reference to that assertion. In other words, as 
new facts are eliminated in the world's daily history, they can 
never fail to corroborate the assertions and assumptions of the 
Bible whenever they bear testimony to a common point. If 
therefore, the Bible should assert a fact of which there is no 
historical record, no confirmatory testimony in the world's his- 
tory, the Christian has every thing to hope, and nothing to fear, 


from investigation, from research, from actual discovery; hence, 
a true system of religion must become firmer and broader and 
deeper in its foundations, and towering the higher too as true 
knowledge advances. Hence also, true religion finds its inter- 
est in promoting learning, in fostering educational plans, in en- 
couraging laborious investigation and brave research ; for it 
looks to the light of truth and knowledge, and glories in it, as 
the flower looks upwards and basks in the light of the sun, 
w hile false systems hate the light, come not to it ; they fear 
education and elevation and liberty, for their highest hope is in 
the darkness of ignorance, and in the chains of despotism. 

Investigation, discovery, demonstration, these are the legiti- 
mate fields of science, these are its proper work, and in jpropor- 
tion to the acquisitions made by them throughout the world, 
will the Scriptures be confirmed ; and by the mouth of these 
"two witnesses," science and the Bible, will true religion stand 
the stronger and the firmer with each real discovery. Hence, 
true religion is the foster brother of education, elevation, and 
research, and that system which cherishes ignorance and re- 
presses thought, may be known thereby to be false in its found- 
ations the world over. 

There is no employment of the present time more deeply 
interesting than that of collecting some of the more remarkable 
discoveries of later years, those of Layard, Kawlinson, and others, 
and comparing their testimonies with the literal expressions of 
the Scriptures made three thousand years ago. Their unity of 
idea is amazing ! Some Old Testament statements have, as yet, 
found no confirmation in any human record ; others were so 
palpably at variance with ascertained facts a few ages later, that 
some of the most enthusiastic believers in its divine authenticity 
were dumb under their announcement, and in trembling hope- 
fulness could only say, "Wait." Centuries passed away and 
yet it was a Wait." Millenniums were numbered with a by- 
gone eternity, and they were waiting still; but within months, 
in number not large, the triumphant shout of victory comes 
through the air, crossing oceans, and traversing^ continents. 
From emboweled pyramids, from exhumed cities, from inscrip- 
tions hidden from the sun-light for one and two and three 
thousand years agone, comes the glad pean: "The Bible is 
true, and its author is God !" 

Centuries before the Christian era, the mournful prophet 
declared that the stars of heaven could not be numbered ; not 
in the unimpressive words of a mere announcement, but in the 
confident manner of one who feels that it is impossible to call 
the fact in question — " As the host of heaven can not be num- 
bered." The people of his time looked out upon the sky of 
night and contemplated with wonder, what seemed to them an 
innumerable host of twinkling points. But they were not 
innumerable. Astronomy has counted and localized every one 
of them, and there are but about three thousand ; the human 
eye can see no more, not another star ; but the seer had said 
they could not be numbered ! 

One day during a past century, a Grerman apprentice-boy was 
amusing himself in melting glass over a flame, when the idea of 
the telescope flashed across his mind, subsequently revealing the 
fact that there are more than three thousand stars ; that in our 
own system there are millions ; that there are a hundred millions 
of them yet to be located ; and as science and art are construct- 
ing telescopes of wider range, not only other stars, but other 
systems of stars are coming up from the deep depths of the 
midnight sky ; so that up to this hour, the systems have not 
been numbered, while each of them counts its multitude of 
millions of stars. Said not Jeremiah well : "As the host of 
heaven can not be numbered?" 

Nearly a thousand years before the Christian era, Jonah, said 
that it was a three days' journey to compass the city of Nineveh; 
a statement which might well challenge the admission of the 
most credulous, when it is remembered that London, the largest 
city in the world, with its two and a half million of inhabitants, 
covers only seventy-six thousand acres of land, and can be easily 
walked around in a day ; and that a city, three times its size 
and population ever existed, is simply an absurdity. But -the 
news has come to us that Layard has himself made the circuit 
of ancient Nineveh on the eastern bank of the Tigris, and that 
the " three days' journey" of the prophet is still required to 
compass its ruins, and it was of its physical dimensions, and not 
of its numerical population, that Jonah, spoke. 

Whole pages would be required to comprise the literal con- 
firmations of incidental Scripture allusions, which the discoveries 
of Champollion, and Abbott, and Layard, and Eawlinson, and 
Gliddon, and others, have made in their exhumation and inter- 


pretation of records on clay and stone and brass and imperish- 
able adamant ; of records preserved for two thousand years in 
entombed cities, traced on papyrus, stamped on coins, engraved 
in the solid rock, or sketched on palace wall and fallen column, 
on its capital and its base, on temple sill and lintel, never in a 
case falsifying a Scripture record, never in a case failing to cor- 
roborate w T hen testifying to the same point. 

As science then confirms true religion, it is to the highest 
interest of the latter to foster science, having nothing to fear, 
and much to hope from its development. For the encourage- 
ment which Christianity has given learning and art and science, 
behold the return in a single department ! Three hundred 
years ago, copies of the Bible had to be made with the pen, 
while those who could read and write were so few, that not one 
of them could be spared by the state, so that if a traitor or a 
murderer could read and write, the gallows lost its due, and the 
bullet failed of its mark, because the "benefit of clergy," the 
" benefit," the advantage of being able to read, was, that he 
should go free. Then, it required a laboring man's pinching 
savings for a good lifetime to purchase a Bible ; but now, by 
virtue of what has been done by such sons of science and art as 
Fulton and Watt and Morse and Bauer and Hoe and others like 
them, the price of a Bible can be easily earned in a single day, 
and these men are thus, in a sense, missionaries of fche cross, 
with Martin and Buchanan and Judson and Heber and their 
brother worthies, while scientific books and papers are their 
M sermons" and their " tracts," the legitimate use of which is the 
advancement of a high form of civilization, and it is there 
where religion shines the brightest, and shows its greatest power. 
Thus is it that science and art and true Christianity go hand in 
hand ; triple brothers are they, mutually aiding each other, the 
advance of one being promoted by the prosperity of the others, 
and as they progress man is elevated, society is purified, and 
the world made free. Christianity cherishes learning ; learning 
establishes Christianity. The head and the heart are cultivated 
together, side by sid3 they grow, the one in purity, the other 
in power ; and fast friends will they be until time's ending, 
making on the earth meanwhile, gardens out of every desert, 
scattering flowers where only thorns grew before, and clearing 
away from every physical and moral waste the blots and blurs 
which mar the beauty of the material and moral world. 



Forty-two years ago there was born to the wife of a poor 
and obscure blacksmith, a son. The father died, and, soon 
after, the mother ; and their history and memory perished from, 
before men. The infant child was left to the care of whomso- 
ever might take a fancy to it; but as months passed, then 
years, one friend took it up and then another; and how, he 
could scarcely tell himself, he obtained a collegiate education 
and found his way into the ministry ; when, one day, a thou- 
sand miles away from the play -grounds of his childhood, after 
preaching to a large attentive audience, an old lady met him at 
the foot of the pulpit-stairs and said : "I was present at your 
birth : I knew your mother well, and I do not wonder you 
have risen to be a minister of the Gospel, for it was her habit 
to give you to the Lord in prayer before you were born." 
Blessed mother ! unknown to the rich and great of her time, 
known, perhaps, even to her neighbors only as the "black- 
smith's wife," she worked, and lived, and loved, and prayed in 
her poor little obscure sphere, until it was her Master's will 
that she should go up higher ; and she went early, because she 
was early ready ; but her works follow after and upward unto 
heaven, as one by one souls saved by her son's instrumentali- 
ty cross over Jordan, and meeting her with other angels bright 
on the better bank, they join , hand to hand and file away up- 
ward to the Father's bosom, chanting in glory : " Saved by grace 
through her prayers." 

More than a hundred years ago there lived in London the 
wife of a sea-captain : who were her ancestors, where she was 
born, or what of her life, no one knows or ever will know now. 
She was early left a widow with a fatherless child ; but she 
feared God and felt her responsibilities to the child of her love. 
But in spite of a mother's teachings he went to sea and became 
one of the most profligate of young men ; but never, in all his 
wanderings and dissipations, could he rid himself of the remem- 
brance of the sad, pale, and sweet face of his mother, nor her 
earnest, patient, and loving teachings. She died, but her 


prayers bound him fast to the throne of Grod, and John Newton 
became one of the best of men. His pious conversation was 
the means of converting Dr. Buchanan, whose work, Star in 
the East, led Adoniram Judson to the Saviour, converted Dr. 
Scott, the commentator ; Cowper's piety was deepened, Wilber- 
force became a changed man, and wrote a Practical Yiew of 
Christianity, which converted Legh Eichmond, who wrote the 
Dairyman's Daughter, and how many souls that book has 
awakened and led to the Saviour, and will continue to do, only 
the records of eternity can tell. Mothers ! however poor, and 
obscure, and unknown, look upon your boy-child and remem- 
bering what God hath wrought through such as you, take 
courage, and pray in faith that the same he can do by you. 

— «-4 — > -n » »' 


Chemical analysis and physiological research have estab- 
lished, beyond dispute, that every article of food and drink is 
composed of elements differing in quantity or quality. It is 
equally true that the various parts of the human frame are dif- 
ferent in their composition, as the bone, the flesh, the nerve, 
the tendon, etc. But there is no element in the human body 
which is not found in some article of food or drink. A certain 
normal proportion of these elements, properly distributed, con- 
stitutes vigorous health, and forms a perfect body. If one of 
these elements be in excess, certain forms of disease manifest 
themselves ; if there is not enough, some other malady affects 
the frame. When the blood contains less than its healthful 
amount of iron, it is poor, watery, and comparatively colorless; 
the muscles are flabby, the face pale, the eyes sunken, the whole 
body weak, the mind listless and sad. If the bones have not 
enough lime, they have no strength, are easily bent, and the 
patient is rickety ; if there is too much lime, then the bones are 
brittle, and are broken by the slightest fall or unusual strain. 
The highest skill of the physician in these cases consists in 
determining the excess or deficit of any element, and in sup- 
plying such food or drug as will meet the case; when the 
medical attendant can not determine what is wanting nor 


furnish, the s apply, nature is often loud enough in her calls, 
through the tastes or appetites, to indicate very clearly what 
item of food or drink contains the needed elements ; this is the 
" Instinct of Appetite." Chemistry is unable to say of but one 
article of human food, that it contains all the constituents neces- 
sary to supply the human body with every element requisite 
for its welfare, and that is pure milk, as supplied by the mother 
of the new being; but after the first years of life, the body 
demands new elements, in order to enable it to meet the duties 
which increasing age imposes ; hence, nature dries up this 
spring, as being no longer adequate, and compels the search for 
other kinds of sustenance, showing that milk is a proper sole 
food for the young ones ; and healthy grown persons who live 
upon it mainly will always become invalids. 

All kinds of life, whether vegetable or animal, have within 
them a principle of preservation, as well as of perpetuity ; were 
that not the case, all that breathes or grows would die ; this 
principle or quality is common to man and beast, and all that 
springs from root or seed ; it is named " Instinct." It is in- 
stinct which calls, by thirst, for water, when there is not fluid 
enough in the system. It is instinct which calls for food, by 
hunger, when a man is weak and needs renovation. It is 
curious and practically valuable as a means for the removal of 
disease, to notice the working of this instinct, for it seems to be 
almost possessed with a discriminating intelligence ; certain it 
is, that standard medical publications give well-authenticated 
facts, showing, that following the cravings of the appetite, the 
animal instinct has accomplished far more than the physician's 
skill was able to do ; has saved life in multitudes of cases, when 
science has done its best, but in vain. 

About three years ago, the little daughter of a farmer on the 
Hudson river, had a fall, which induced a long, painful and 
dangerous illness, ending in blindness ; medication availed no- 
thing. By accident, a switch containing maple buds was placed 
in her hands, when she began to eat them, and called earnestly 
for more, and continued to eat them with avidity, improving, 
meanwhile, in her general health for some fifteen days or more, 
when this particular relish left her, and she called for candy, 
and, as in the case of the buds, ate nothing else for two weeks, 
when this also was dropped, a more natural taste returning 


with returning eyesight and usual health. This was instinct 
calling for those articles of food which contained the elements 
the want of which laid between disease and recovery. 

A gentleman aged thirty-six, seemed to be in the last stages 
of consumptive disease, when he was seized with an uncontrol- 
lable desire for common table-salt ; he spread it in thick layers 
over his meat, and over his bread and butter ; he carried it in 
his vest-pocket, which was daily emptied by eating a pinch at 
a time. He regained his health, and remained well for years 

More recently, a case occurred in England of a child gradu- 
ally declining in health, in spite of all that could be done by a 
remarkably shrewd and observant physician. On one of his 
visits, he found the father sipping a glass of toddy. The 
thought occurred to the doctor to offer some of it to the child, 
who took it with great satisfaction. The hint was improved ; 
more was given, and more ; and for two months this child of 
two years old lived almost wholly on whisky -toddy, when the 
desire declined, a more natural appetite returned, the health 
improving every hour, and was eventually entirely restored ; 
but ever thereafter the child loathed the very smell or even 
sight of whisky-toddy. 

A similar case is reported where a sick child took a pint of ale 
daily, and nothing else for many days, ultimately recovering, 
when the sight of an ale-bottle could not be endured. The 
child of a New- Yorker was supposed to be dying of the " sum- 
mer complaint." As a last and desperate resort, it was hurried 
off to Eockaway in August, having the (usually considered 
fatal) hiccup when it started. Immediately on its arrival, on a 
cold, raw, chilly evening, about an hour after sundown, some 
fresh milk from the cow was instantly boiled and offered to it. 
It was with difficulty that the bowl could be withdrawn from 
its poor emaciated fingers. After an hour's interval more milk 
was given, and nothing else, for a number of days. That child 
is now one of the heartiest, healthiest girls in New- York 1 

In the cases above given, the children could not name their 
cravings ; but accident threw in their way what the instincts 
required. Grown persons can express their cravings. There 
are many persons who can record, from their own personal ex- 
perience, the beginning of a return to health, from gratifying 


some insatiate desire. The celebrated Professor Charles Cald- 
well was fond of relating in his lectures, that a young lady, 
abandoned to die, called for some pound-cake, which " science" 
would have pronounced a deadly dose ; but as her case was 
considered hopeless, she was gratified, and recovered, living in 
good health afterwards. But in some forms of dyspepsia, to 
follow the cravings is to aggravate the disease, life is made in- 
tolerable, and suicide closes the scene. In low fevers, typhoid, 
yielding to the cravings is certain death. 

To know when and how to follow the instinct of appetite, to 
gratify the cravings of nature, is of inestimable value. There 
is a rule which is always safe, and will save life in multitudes 
of cases, where the most skillfully "exhibited" drugs have 
been entirely unavailing. Partake at first of what nature seems 
to crave, in very small quantities ; if no uncomfortable feeling fol- 
lows, gradually increase the amount, until no more is called for. 
These suggestions and facts find confirmation in the large ex- 
perience of that now beautiful and revered name, Florence 
Nightingale, whose memory will go down with blessing and 
honor side by side with that of the immortal John Howard to 
remotest time. She says : "I have seen, not by ones or tens, 
but by hundreds, cases where the stomach not only craves, but 
digests things which have never been laid down in any dietary 
for the sick, especially for the sick whose diseases were pro- 
duced by bad food. Fruit, pickles, jams, gingerbread, fat of 
ham, of bacon, suet, cheese, buttermilk, etc., were administered 
freely, with happy results, simply because the sick craved 


Never, in the history of the world, has science been more 
actively and efficiently engaged in pushing its researches, than 
now ; and mainly because this is an age of peace. Hitherto 
war has been the rule— peace the exception. Now, it is the 
reverse. Time is allowed to men to apply their mental 
energies to more elevated and useful purposes than slaying 
one another, pillaging cities, and subverting empires. The 
steam-engine saves labor; the telegraph economizes time; 
hence, less work, greater comfort, and more leisure are secured 


to the busy brain- worker — leisure for devising appliances 
which shall be the instrumentalities of a higher civilization, at 
once ennobling and happifying. Horrid wars, in the past, 
destroyed the populations; gentle peace, in the present, in- 
creases them. But to preserve the increasing millions physically 
science must be appealed to ; morally, religion. Thus it is 
that, in every year of the world's future history, science will 
become more perfectly the hand-maid of religion, and they will 
be co-workers in making this earth an Arcadia more enraptur- 
ing than any of which philosopher ever dreamt, or poet sang, 
but which the prophets of Divinity pre-shadowed in the 
declaration : " The desert shall bud and blossom as the rose.' 
A double verification ; for while science will cover the Saharas 
of the world with waving grass and bending corn, our holy 
religion will fructify the moral wastes and make of earth a 
paradise flfc for the home of angels. 

In proportion as the population of the world increases, the 
aids of science are becoming more and more indispensable to- 
wards making two blades of grass grow where before there 
grew but one ; and the acre of to-morrow must yield the double 
of to-day's. Hence, a brighter and a better day is dawning for 
men of mind' — for those who possess inventive genius and 
combine with it the industry and the love of its exercise and 
application. Hard is the heart which does not sorrow over the 
ill requital of the men of a generation or two agone, whose 
whole lives were expended in wearing anxiety of mind and 
wasting toil of body, in poverty, if not even in destitution, in 
eliminating machineries which were destined to enrich those 
whom they never knew ; in whose veins no kindred blood 
flowed, while they themselves were to end their labors and 
their lives in sight of fruitions which the hands of them and 
theirs were never to gather ! 

It was a sad record of two weeks ago {Scientific American, 
page 276) that, in a single branch, of an industrial department, 
the men who, during the last century, initiated machineries 
which now fill the mouths of millions of the two greatest 
nations on earth with bread, died miserably poor ; and some of 
their immediate descendants were only saved from death by 
want, through public pity! The prospect, however, is cheer- 
ing, that a better fate and a higher reward await the Kavs, and 


Pauls, and Higbeys, and Hargreaves, and Whitneys, of the 
present and coming generations, and that they will become the 
Arkwrights, the Cramptons, and the Peels of our own time, for 
because of them ''Cotton is King!" 

"Whatever may have been the demands of past ages, invent- 
ive genius is the necessity of the present. If the sword has 
hitherto reigned supreme, science must be its successor. The 
sword may initiate or construct an empire, but science, in its 
application to industrial pursuits, in the direction of machineries 
for manufactories, and implements for farms, must be invoked 
to sustain it. Nations can live by the sword no longer, for the 
dominion of barbarism has passed away, and empire must be 
humanitarian and Christian, founded on true knowledge and 
its wise application. 


We wrong them in that we compel them to marry. Our 
sons marry or not, as they please, whenever it suits their con- 
venience, or whenever they can tease some body into taking 
them "for better or for worse," and the parents say it's all 
right ; but they must marry off their daughters, get rid of them, 
and speedily, too, or they will be old maids, and so disgraced 
forever. The love of the parent succumbs to public opinion, 
to tyrant custom, and for fear of the " world's dread laugh," 
they send forth their young daughters into the soul-mart to be 
sold to the first, or more probably the highest bidder. Must 
not this be humiliating — galling — more bitter than rue ? 

The remedy for this wrong lies in giving your daughter 
some other aim in life except marriage, so that this may become 
to her a matter of will, not of necessity. Girls, as well as boys 
ought to have something in view — something to stimulate 
them, something to bring out their energies. It is usual with 
parents to ask their sons, as soon as they are old enough to 
understand the question: " What do you intend to be?" 

The boy's inclinations are watched, his tastes ascertained, his 
abilities weighed, in order that they may be better able to 
decide what shall be his future course. When his career is 
settled, all his powers are concentrated, all his energies directed 


to the accomplishment of that one object; his life becomes 
earnest, for he feels that he has a work to perform ; he acquires 
a new dignity, for he is a person of importance in the world — 
he has a purpose in life ; he is not a mere cipher. But what 
father among us, indulging and loving as he may be, turns 
from his proud boy, and while, perchance, a tear-drop glistens 
in his eye, lays his hand so tenderly on the broad white brow 
and silken tresses of his darling girl, and asks, with a strange 
tremor in his manly voice : "And what is my heart's child 
going to be?" If ever such a thought crosses his mind, it 
usually amounts to nothing more than : " She will be a belle, 
and make a great match." Thus, in every instance, the one 
everlasting and apparently inevitable idea of marriage, as 
though no woman had .ever lived and died without being mar- 
ried, or without even desiring to be. I can not see wiry girls 
should be brought up to the idea that marriage is the " one 
thing needful," the " sumrnum bonum" the "nothing more be- 
yond." I wish they would begin to think otherwise. — Carolina 
Christian Monthly. 


The facts embodied in the following narration, in connection 
with a recent murder-trial, show the value of scientific acquire- 
ments, and are of exceeding interest to a large class of our 
readers : 

A traveler was found ded in his bed, one morning at a coun- 
try tavern. His throat was cut at the side, the instrument hav- 
ing pierced the carotid artery ; the victim had been for some 
time wasting away by disease. The landlord was one of the 
most influential and highly esteemed persons in the neighbor- 
hood, was extensively and well connected, and had a large and 
interesting family. Having been seen very late at night passing 
through the hall into which the traveler's door opened, the sus- 
picions of certain persons were aroused ; and upon being taken 
into custody, a penknife was found in his pocket, with apparent 
blood- stains on the large blade, and something similar on the 
ivory handle. The knife was placed in the hands of an expert 
physiological chemist for examination. The stain was found 


to be of blood, and not of iron-rust or paint, as it contained al- 
bumen and animal fiber. The blood on the handle contained a 
large amount of iron, that on the blade comparatively little. As 
human blood contains ten times as much iron as that of animals, 
it seemed certain that the knife in question could not have en- 
tered a human body ; still there was a doubt, because in slow 
diseases there is a great deficit of iron in the blood, which deficit 
is a not unfrequent cause of death. 

But as the blood on the ivory handle had the full amount of 
iron for a man in vigorous health, it seemed to show that there 
were two different kinds of blood, one human certainly, the 
other possibly so. Hence another mode of inquiry was pro- 
posed. The blood of animals and men crystallizes, but in differ-, 
ent forms — that of men represented by a perfect square length- 
ened cube, called prismatic ; that of animals, by the cube, tetra- 
hedal, or several-sided hexagonal. This analysis removed the 
doubts connected with the proceeding, for it demonstrated that 
the blood on the blade was that of a lower animal, and that on 
the handle was certainly human. 

A third line of investigation was. pursued. All the inner 
surfaces of the human body are covered with a glairy-looking 
fluid called " mucus," which is differently constituted, accord- 
ing to the part of the body from which it is taken. As ob- 
served through a microscope, that which is found about the 
upper part of the throat presents the appearance of a pavement 
of bricks or square pieces, hence it is called " tesseiated." The 
mucus from some other parts is conical, looking like a pavement 
made of round pieces flattened. A third kind, coming from 
the intestines, seems hairy, ciliated, waving like the tops of long 
grass under the influence of the wind. Examining the blood on 
the handle, which was now known to be that of a human being, 
it was found not to present the pavement-like appearance, but 
it did clearly show the wavy lines ; it could not, therefore, have 
come from the throat, and as the traveler had no wound except 
that on the throat, and as the blood on the blade was clearly 
animal blood and not human, no part of the blood on the knife 
could have been that of the unfortunate traveler, and therefore 
the landlord was discharged, when he gave the following state- 

Some days before, while out hunting, he killed several squir- 

rels, and stooped to cut a switch with a knob at the root, on 
which to string his game ; the knife slipped as he cut upwards, 
and it penetrated the abdomen. In his haste, he wiped the 
knife clean with some leaves ; closed the blade, and in attempt- 
ing to put it into his pocket it fell on the ground ; he picked it 
up and directed his steps homeward. In a few minutes, one of 
the squirrels slipped off; he pierced it through with his knife, 
strung it on the switch, and had not used the knife since. This 
was plausible, and he showed the wound, not yet entirely 
healed; but this could easily have been made to answer an ob- 
ject. The physiologist, therefore, proposed, as a mere matter of 
curious interest, to examine the blood on the blade, and also 
that on the handle. That on the handle was wavy, ciliary, 
with the largest amount of iron, showing that it must have been 
from a man of robust health, and the mucus from the abdomen 
is always ciliary and never tesselated. Again, the blood ad-- 
hering to a knife penetrating a living body coagulates — that 
entering a body already dead never does. The blood on the 
blade, already shown to be that of a mere animal, was now 
found to be incoagulable. 'Hence, that on the blade was shown 
to be the blood of a mere animal already dead ; that on the 
handle was the blood of a man in vigorous health, and could 
not have come from the throat, and almost certainly came from 
the abdomen. When the knife fell on the ground, the handle 
touched some of the leaves with which it had just been wiped. 
Thus the chain of- evidence for the landlord's innocence was 
unbroken and perfect. The real culprit was subsequently 
found, tried, and executed, confessing his guilt. 

It is certain that in the progressive march of science and art, 
the unchangeable laws of nature will be better understood— 
correcting the errors and fallacies of human judgment ; and the 
testimony of Science will thus aid Justice in forming her opin- 
ions and enabling her to give her decisions with her eyes open. 

" Be temperate in all things." — Bible. 

" He that hateth suretyship is sure." — lb. 

" Do justly, love mercy, and walk humbly with thy God." — lb. 

" True religion, and undefiled, is this to visit the fatherless 
and widows in their affliction, and to keep himself unspotted 
from the world." — lb. 



{From HaWs Journal of Health, $1 a year, New - York.) 

The immediate cause of a vast number of cases of disease and death is a " cold ;" it is that 
which fires a magazine of human ills ; it is the spark to gunpowder. It was to a cold taken on 
a raw December day, that the great "Washington owed his death. It was a common cold, aggra- 
vated by the injudicious advice of a friend which ushered in the final illness of Washington 
Irving. Almost any reader can trace the death of some dear friend to a " little cold." 

The chief causes of cold are two: 1st, cooling off too soon after exercise; 2d, getting tho 
roughly chilled while in a state of rest without having been overheated ; this latter originates 
uangerous pleurisies, fatal pneumonias (inflammation of the lungs,) and deadly fevers of the 
typhoid type. 

Persons in vigorous health do not take cold easily ; they can do with impunity what would be 
fatal to the feeble and infirm. Dyspeptic persons take cold readily, but they are not aware of it, 
because its force does not fall on the lungs, but on the liver through the skin, giving sick-headache ; 
and close questioning will soon develop the fact of some unusual bodily effort, followed by 
cooling off rapidly. 

A person wakes up some sunny morning, and feels as if he had been " pounded in a bag ;" every 
joint is stiff, every muscle sore and a single step can not be taken without difficulty or actual pain. 
Reflection will bring out some unwonted exercise, and a subsequent cooling off before knowing it — 
as working in the garden in the spring-time ; showing new servants " how to do," by turning 
themselves into chambermaids, waiters at table, and pastrycooks, Bridget being 'cute enough not 
to learn, " on purpose," (why should she, when she is paid full wages to oversee her mistress !) in 
going a " shopping," the particular pest of city husbands — an expedition which taxes the mind 
and body to the utmost ; the particular shade of a ribbon, the larger or smaller size of a 
"figure" on a calico dress, or a camel's hair shawl ; whether the main flower of a bonnet shall be 
" Jimp?on" or a rose-bud ; whether the jewelry shall sport a Cupid's arrow or a snake's head ; these 
and similar debatable points on a thousand " little nothings," rouse their minds to a pitch of in- 
terest and excitement scarcely exceled by that of counselors of state in determining the 
boundaries of empires or the fate of nations. 

Of course they went out upon that expedition dressed within an inch of life, as if for a ball, an 
opera, or a court reception, to return home exhausted in body, depressed in mind, and thoroughly 

heated ; the first thing done is to toss down a glass of water to cool off the inner woman ; 

next to lay aside bonnet, shawl, and " best dress," to cool the outer; then to "blaze away at 
every body in general, and the poor unfortunate husband in particular, if he has not had the 

gumption before then, to learn to give a wide berth on such occasion-., to cool the upper man: 

lastly, to put on a cold dre3S, lie down on a bed in a fireless room, and fall asleep, to wake up 
with infinite certainty, to a bad cold, which is to confine to the chamber for days and weeks 
together, and not unseldom , carries them to the grave ! 

A little attention would avert a vast amount of human suffering in these regards. Sedentary 
persons, invalids, and those in feeble health, should go directly to a fire after all forms of exer- 
cise, and keep all the garments on for a few minutes ; or, if in warm weather, to a closed apart- 
ment, and, if any thing, throw on an additional covering. "When no appreciable moisture is found 
on the forehead, the out-door garments may be removed. The great rule is, cool off very slowly 
always after the body has in any manner been heated beyond its ordinary temperature. 


(From HalVs Journal of Health, New -York.) 

1. Never sleep in a room where there is any green paper on the walls, as this 
color is made of arsenic or lead ; the former is by far the most dangerous, being 
scheeles green, and is known positively by a drop of muriatic acid 'on the green 
leaving it white. 

2. White glazed visiting-cards contain sugar of lead, and will poison a child 
>vho is tempted to chew them from the slight sweetish taste. 

3. Green glazed cards used for concert-tickets, are still more poisonous ; a 
single one of them contains a grain and a half of arsenic, enough to kill a child. 

4. Never put a pin in the mouth or between the teeth, for a single instant, 
because a sudden effort to laugh or speak, may convey it into the throat, or lungs, 
or stomach, causing death in a few minutes, or requiring the windpipe to be cut 
open to get it out ; if it has passed into the stomach, it may, as it has done, cause 
years of suffering, ceasing only when it has made its way out of the body through 
the walls of the abdomen or other portion of the system. 

5. It is best to have no button or string about any garment worn during the 
night. A long, loose night-gown is the best thing to sleep in. Many a man has 
facilitated an attack of apoplexy by buttoning his shirt-collar. 

6. If you wake up of a cold night, and find yourself very restless, get out of 
bed, and standing on a piece of carpet or cloth of any kind, spend five or ten 
minutes in rubbing the whole body vigorously and rapidly with the hands, having 
previously thrown the bed clothing towards the foot of the bed so as to air both 
bed and body. 

V If you find that you have inadvertently eaten too much, instead of taking 
something to settle the stomach, thus adding to the load under which it already 
labors, take a continuous walk with just enough activity to keep up a very slight 
moisture or perspiration on the skin, and do not stop until entirely relieved, but 
end your exercise in a warm room, so as to cool off very slowly. 

8. Never put on a pair of new boots or shoes on a journey, especially on a visit 
to the city ; rather wear your easiest, oldest pair, otherwise you will soon be pain- 
fully disabled. 

9. A loosely-fitting boot or shoe, while traveling in winter, will keep the feet 
wanner, without any stockings at all, than a tight pair, over the thickest, warmest 

10. Riding against a cold wind, immediately after singing or speaking in public, 
is suicide. 

11. Many public speakers have been disabled for life by speaking under a hoarse- 
ness of voice. 

12. If you happen to get wet in cold weather, keep moving on foot with a 
rapidity sufficient to keep off a feeling of chilliness until you get into a house, and 
not waiting to undress, drink instantly and plentifully of hot tea of some sort ; tken 
undress, wipe dry quickly, and put on warm, dry clothing. 

13. Never go to bed with cold feet, if you want to sleep well. 

14. If a person faints, place him instantly flat on a bed, or floor, or earth, on 
his back, and quietly let him alone at least for ten minutes ; if it is simply a faint- 
ing-fit, the blood, flowing on a level will more speedily equalize itself throughout 
the system ; cold water dashed in the face, or a sitting position are unnecessary and 

15. Never blow your nose, nor spit the product of a cough, nor throw a fruit- 
peel on the sidewalk. 


(From Rail's Journal of Health, $1 a year, New -York.) 

1. To eat when you do not feel like it is brutal, nay, this a slander on the lower 
animals, they do not so debase themselves. 

2. Do not enter a sick-chamber on an empty stomach, nor remain as a watcher 
or nurse until you feel almost exhausted, nor sit between the patient and the fire, 
nor in the direction of a current of air from the patient toward yourself, nor eat 
or drink any thing after being in a sick-room until you have rinsed your mouth 

3. Do not sleep in any garment worn during the day. 

4. Most grown persons are unable to sleep soundly and refreshingly, over seven 
hours in summer, and eight in winter ; the attempt to force more sleep on the sys- 
tem by a nap in the daytime, or a "second nap" in the morning, renders the 
whole of the sleep disturbed and imperfect. 

5. Some of the most painful ''stomach aches" are occasioned by indigestion, this 
generates wind, and hence distension. It is often promptly remedied by kneading 
the abdomen with the ball of the hand, skin to skin, from one side to another, 
from the lower edge of the ribs downwards, because the accumulated air is forced 
on and outwards along the alimentary canal. 

6. When you return to your house from a long walk or other exhaustive exer- 
cise, go to the fire or warm room, and do not remove a single article of clothing 
until you have taken a cup or more of some kind of hot drink. 

*7. In going into a colder atmosphere, keep the mouth closed, and walk with a 
rapidity sufficient to keep off a feeling of chilliness. 

8. Two pair of thin stockings will keep the feet warmer than one pair of a 
greater thickness than both. 

9. The " night sweats" of disease come on towards daylight, their deathly clam- 
miness and coldness is greatly modified by sleeping in a single, loose, long woolen 

10. The man or woman who drinks a cup of strong tea or coffee, or other stimu- 
lant, in order to aid in the better performance of any work or duty, public or pri- 
vate, is a fool, because it is to the body and brain an expenditure of what is not 
yet got ; it is using power in advance, and this can never be done, even once, with 

11. The less a man drinks of any thing in hot weather the better, for the more 
we drink the more we want to drink, until even ice-water palls and becomes of a 
metallic taste ; hence the longer you can put off drinking cold water on the morning 
of a hot day, the better will you feel at night. 

12. Drinking largely at meals, even of cold water or simple teas, is a mere habit 
and is always hurtful. No one should drink at any one meal more than a quarter of 
a pint of any liquid, even of cold water, for it always retards, impairs, and interferes 
with a healthful digestion. 

13. If you sleep at all in the daytime, it will interfere with the soundness of 
your sleep at night much less, if the nap be taken in the forenoon. 

14. A short nap in the daytime maybe necessary to some. Let it not exceed ten 
minutes, to this end sleep with the forehead resting on a chair-back or edge of the 

15. Never swallow an atom of food while in a passion, or if under any great 
mental excitement, whether of a depressing or elevating character ; brutes won't do it. 


{From HalVs Journal of Health, $1 a Year, New -York.) 

1. If a man faints, place him flat on his back and lei- him alone. 

2. If any poison is swallowed, drink instantly half a glass of cool water with a 
heaping teaspoonful each of common salt and ground mustard stirred into it ; this 
vomits as soon as it reaches the stomach ; but for fear some of the poison may still 
remain, swallow the white of one or two raw eggs or drink a cup of strong coffee, these 
two being antidotes for a greater number of poisons than any dozen other articles 
known, with the advantage of their being always at hand ; if not, a half-pint of 
sweet-oil, or lamp-oil, or " drippings," or melted butter or lard are good substitutes, 
especially if they vomit quickly. 

3. The best thing to stop the bleeding of a moderate cut instantly, is to cover it 
profusely with cob-web, or flour and salt, half-and-half. 

4. If the blood comes from a wound 'by jets or spirts, be spry, or the man will 
be dead in a few minutes, because an artery is severed ; tie a handkerchief loosely 
around near the part between the wound and the heart ! ! put a stick between the 
handkerchief and the skin, twist it round until the blood ceases to flow, and keep 
it there until the doctor comes ; if in a position where the handkerchief can not be 
used, press the thumb on a spot near the wound, between the wound and the heart ; 
increase the pressure until the bleeding ceases, but do not lessen that pressure for 
an instant, until the physician arrives, so as to glue up the wound by the coagula- 
tion or hardening of the cooling blood. 

5. If your clothing takes fire, slide the hands down the dress, keeping them as 
close to the body as possible, at the same time sinking to the floor by bending the 
knees ; this has a smothering effect on the flames ; if not extinguished, or a great 
headway is gotten, lie down on the floor, roll over and over, or better, envelop 
yourself in a carpet, rug, bed-cloth, or any garment you can get hold of, always 
preferring woolen. 

6. If a man asks you to go his security, say, " No," and run ; otherwise you may 
be enslaved for life, or your wife and children may spend a weary existence, in 
want, sickness, and beggary. 

V. If you find yourself in possession of a counterfeit note or coin, throw it in the 
fire on the instant ; otherwise you may be tempted to pass it, and may pass it, to 
feel mean therefor, as long as you live, then it may pass into some man's hands as 
mean as yourself, with a new perpetration of iniquity, the loss to fall eventually on 
some poor struggling widow, whose "all" it may be. 

8. Never laugh at the mishaps of any fellow mortal. 

9. The very instant you perceive yourself in a passion shut your mouth ; this is 
one among the best precepts outside of inspiration. 

10. The man who always exacts the last cent, is always a mean man ; there is no 
"evacuant" in all the " Materia Medica" efficient enough to "purge" him of his 
debasement ; he is beyond druggery. 

11. Never affect to be "plain" or " blunt;" these are the synonyms of brutality 
and boorishness ; such persons are constantly inflicting wounds which neither time 
nor medicine can ever heal. 

12. Never be witty at another's expense; true generosity never dwelt in such a 
heart ; it only wants the opportunity to become a cheat or a rogue. 

13. If the body is tired, rest ; if the brain is tired, sleep. 

14. If the bowels are loose, lie down in a warm bed, remain there, and eat 
nothing until you are well. 

15. If an action of the bowels does not occur at the usual hour, eat not an atom 
until they do act, at least for thirty-six hours; meanwhile drink largely of cold 
water or hot teas, and exercise in the open air to the extent of a gentle perspira 
tion, and keep this up until things are righted ; this one suggestion, if practiced 
should save myriads of lives every year, both in city and country. 

16. The three best medicines in the world are warmth, abstinence, and repose. 


From HalVs New -York Journal of Health. 

1. In any ordinary campaign, sickness disables or destroys three times as many 
as the sword. 

2. On a march, from April to November, the entire clothing should be a colored 
flannel shirt, with a loosely-buttoned collar, cotton drawers, woolen pantaloons, 
shoes and stockings, and a light-colored felt hat, with broad brim to protect the 
neck, eyes, and face from the glare of the sun and from the rain, and a substantial 
but not heavy coat when off duty. 

3. Sun-stroke may be prevented by wearing a silk handkerchief in the hat, or a 
white linen hood hat-cover, extending like a cape over the neck and shoulders. 

4. Colored blankets are best, and if lined with brown drilling the warmth and 
durability are doubled, while the protection against dampness from lying on the 
ground, is almost complete. 

5. Never lie or sit down on the grass or bare earth for a moment ; rather use 
your hat — a handkerchief even, is a great protection. The warmer you are, the 
greater need for this precaution, as a damp vapor is immediately generated, to be 
absorbed by the clothing, and to cool you off too rapidly. 

6. While marching, or on other active duty, the more thirsty you are, the more 
essential is it to safety of life itself, to rinse out the mouth two or three times, 
and then take a swallow of water at a time, with short intervals. A brave French 
general, on a forced march, fell dead on the instant, by drinking largely of cold 
water, when snow was on the ground. 

7. Abundant sleep is essential to bodily efficiency, and to that alertness of mind 
which is all-important in an engagement ; and few things more certainly and more 
effectually prevent sound sleep than eating heartily after sun-down, especially after 
a heavy march or desperate battle. 

8. Nothing is more certain to secure endurance and capability of long-continued 
effort, than the avoidance of every thing as a drink except cold water, not exclud- 
ing coffee at breakfast. Drink even cold water very slowly. 

9. After any sort of exhausting effort, a cup of coffee, hot or cold, is an admira- 
ble sustainer of the strength, until nature begins to recover herself. 

10. Unless after a long abstinence or great fatigue, do not eat very heartily just 
before a great undertaking ; because the nervous power is irresistibly drawn to the 
stomach to manage the food eaten, thus drawing off that supply which the brain 
and muscles so much need. 

11. If persons will drink brandy, it is incomparably safer to do so after an effort 
than before ; for it can give only a transient strength, lasting but a few minutes ; 
but as it can never be known how long any given effort is to be kept in continu- 
ance, and if longer than the few minutes, the body becomes more feeble than it 
would have been without the stimulus, it is clear that its use before an effort is 
always hazardous, and is always unwise. 

12. Never go to sleep, especially after a great effort, even in hot weather, with- 
out some covering over you. 

13. Under all circumstances, rather than lie down on the bare ground, lie in the 
hollow of two logs placed together, or across several smaller pieces of wood, laid 
side by side ; or sit on your hat, leaning against a tree. A nap of ten or fifteen 
minutes in that position will refresh you more than an hour on the bare earth, with 
the additional advantage of perfect safety. 

14. A cut is lees dangerous than a bullet-wound, and heals more rapidly. 

15. If from any wound the blood spirts out in jets, instead of a steady stream, 
you will die in a few minutes unless it is remedied ; because an artery has been 
divided, and that takes the blood^direet from the fountain of life. To stop this 
instantly, tie a handkerchief or other cloth very loosely BETWEEN! ! the wound 
and the heart ; put a stick, bayonet, or ramrod between the skin and the handker- 
chief, and twist it around until the bleeding ceases, and keep it thus until the sur- 
geon arrives. 

16. If the blood flows in a slow, regular stream, a vein has been pierced, and the 
handkerchief must be on the other side of the wound from the heart ; that is, be- 
low the wound. 

17. A bullet through the abdomen (belly or stomach) is more certainly fatal than 
if aimed at the head or heart ; for in the latter cases the ball is often glanced off by 
the bone, or follows round it under the skin ; but when it enters the stomach or 
bowels, from any direction, death is inevitable under almost all circumstances, 
but is scarcely ever instantaneous. Generally the person lives a day or two with 

perfect clearness of intellect, often not suffering greatly. The practical bearing of 
this statement in reference to the great future is clear. 

18. Let the whole beard grow, but not longer than some three inches. This 
strengthens and thickens its growth, and thus makes a more perfect protection for 
the lungs against dust, and of the throat against winds and cold in winter, while in 
the summer a greater perspiration of the skin is induced, with an increase of evap- 
oration ; hence, greater coolness of the parts on the outside, while the throat is 
less feverish, thirsty, and dry. 

19. Avoid fats and fat meats in summer and in all warm days. 

20. Whenever possible, take a plunge into any lake or running stream every 
morning, as soon as you get up ; if none at hand, endeavor to wash the body all 
over as soon as you leave your bed, for personal cleanliness acts like a charm 
against all diseases, always either warding them off altogether, or greatly mitigating 
their severity and shortening their duration. 

21. Keep the hair of the head closely cut, say within an inch and a half of the 
scalp in every part, repeated on the first of each month, and wash the whole scalp 
plentifully in cold water every morning. 

22. Wear woolen stockings and easy-fitting shoes, keeping the toe and finger- 
nails always cut moderately close. 

23. It is more important to wash the feet well every night, than to wash the face 
and hands of mornings ; because it aids to keep the skin and nails soft, and to pre- 
vent chafings, blisters, and corns, all of which greatly interfere with a soldier's 

24. The most universally safe position, after all stunnings, hurts, and wounds, 
is that of being placed on the back, the head being elevated three or four inches 
only ; aiding more than any one thing else can do, to equalize and restore the proper 
circulation of the blood. 

25. The more weary you are after a march or other work, the more easily will 
you take cold, if you remain still after it is over, unless, the moment you cease 
motion, you throw a coat or blanket over your shoulders. This precaution should 
be taken in the warmest weather, especially if there is even a slight air stirring. 

26. The greatest physical kindness you can show a severely-wounded comrade is 
first to place him on his back, and then run Avith all your might for some water to 
drink ; not a second ought to be lost. If no vessel is at hand, take your hat ; if 
no hat, off with your shirt, wring it out once, tie the arms in a knot, as also the 
lower end, thus making a bag, open at the neck only. A fleet person can convey 
a bucketful half a mile in this way. I've seen a dying man clutch at a single drop 
of water from the fingers' end, with the voraciousness of a famished tiger. 

27. If wet to the skin by rain or by swimming rivers, keep in motion until the 
clothes are dried, and no harm will result. 

28. Whenever it is possible, do, by all means, when you have to use water for 
cooking or drinking from ponds or sluggish streams, boil it well, and when cool, 
shake it, or stir it, so that the oxygen of the air shall get to it, which greatly im- 
proves it for drinking. This boiling arrests the process of fermentation which 
arises from the presence of organic and inorganic impurities, thus tending to pre- 
vent cholera and all bowel diseases. If there is no time for boiling, at least strain 
it through a cloth, even if you have to use a shirt or trowser-leg. 

29. Twelve men are hit in battle, dressed in red, where there are only five, 
dressed in a bluish grey, a difference of more than two to one ; green, seven ; 
brown, six. 

30. Water can be made almost ice cool in the hottest weather, by closely envel- 
oping a filled canteen, or other vessel, with woolen cloth kept plentifully wetted 
and exposed. 

31. While on a march, lie down the moment you halt for a rest ; every minute 
spent in that position refreshes more than five minutes standing or loitering about. 

32. A daily evacuation of the bowels is indispensable to bodily health, vigor, and 
endurance ; this is promoted in many cases, by stirring a table-spoonful of corn 
(Indian) meal in a glass of water, and drinking it on rising in the morning. 

33. Loose Bowels, namely, acting more than once a day, with a feeling of debility 
afterward, is the first step toward cholera ; the best remedy is instant and perfect 
quietude of body, eating nothing but boiled rice with or without boiled milk ; in 
more decided cases, a woolen flannel, with two thicknesses in front, should be 
bound tightly around the abdomen, especially if marching is a necessity. 

34. To have "been to the wars," is a life-long honor, increasing with advancing 
years, while to have died in defense of your country will be the boast and the glory 
of your children's children. 


Ft'oyn HalVs New -York Journal of Health. \ 

1. In any ordinary campaign, sickness disables or destroys three times as many 
as the sword. 

2. On a march, from April to November, the entire clothing should be a colored 
flannel shirt, with a loosely-buttoned collar, cotton drawers, woolen pantaloons, 
shoes and stockings, and a light-colored felt hat, with broad brim to protect the 
neck, eyes, and face from the glare of the sun and from the rain, and a substantial 
but not heavy coat when off duty. 

3. Sdx-stroke may be prevented by wearing a silk handkerchief in the hat, or a 
white linen hood hat-cover, extending like a cape over the neck and shoulders. 

4. Colored blankets are best, and if lined with brown drilling the warmth and 
durability are doubled, while the protection against dampness from lying on the 
ground, is almost complete. 

5. Never lie or sit down on the grass or bare earth for a moment ; rather use 
your hat — a handkerchief even, is a great protection. The warmer you are, the 
greater need for this precaution, as a damp vapor is immediately generated, to be 
absorbed by the clothing, and to cool you off too rapidly. 

6. While marching, or on other active duty, the more thirsty you are, the more 
essential is it to safety of life itself,, to rinse out the mouth two or three times, 
and then take a swallow of water at a time, with short intervals. A brave French 
general, on a forced march, fell dead on the .instant, by drinking largely of cold 
water, when snow was on the ground. 

7. Abundant sleep is essential to bodily efficiency, and to that alertness of mind 
which is all-important in an engagement ; and few things more certainly and more 
effectually prevent sound sleep than eating heartily after sun-down, especially after 
a heavy march or desperate battle. 

8. Nothing is more certain to secure endurance and capability of long-continued 
effort, than the avoidance of every thing as a drink except cold water, not exclud- 
ing coffee at breakfast. Drink even cold water very slowly. 

9. After any sort of exhausting effort, a cup of coffee, hot or cold, is an admira- 
ble sustainer of the strength, until nature begins to recover herself. 

10. Unless after a long abstinence or great fatigue, do not eat very heartily just 
before a great undertaking ; because the nervous power is irresistibly drawn to the 
stomach to manage the food eaten, thus drawing off that supply which the brain 
and muscles so much need. 

11. If persons will drink brandy, it is incomparably safer to do so after an effort 
than before ; for it can give only a transient strength, lasting but a few minutes ; 
but as it can never be known how long any given effort is to be kept in continu- 
ance, and if longer than the few minutes, the body becomes more feeble than it 
would have been without the stimulus, it is clear that its use before an effort is 
always hazardous, and is always unwise. 

12. Never go to sleep, especially after a great effort, even in hot weather, with- 
out some covering over you. 

13. Under all circumstances, rather than lie down on the bare ground, lie in the 
hollew of two logs placed together, or across several smaller pieces of wood, laid 
side by side ; or sit on your hat, leaning against a tree. A nap of ten or fifteen 
minutes in that position will refresh you more than an hour on the bare earth, with 
the additional advantage of perfect safety. 

14. A cut is less dangerous than a bullet- wound, and heals more rapidly. 

15. If from any wound the blood spirts out in jets, instead of a steady stream, 
you will die in a few minutes unless it is remedied ; because an artery has been 
divided, and that takes the blood direct from the fountain of life. . To stop this 
instantly, tie a handkerchief or other cloth very loosely BETWEEN! ! the wound 
and the heart ; put a stick, bayonet, or ramrod between the skin and the handker- 
chief, and twist it around until the bleeding ceases, and keep it thus until the sur- 
geon arrives. 

16. If the blood flows in a slow, regular stream, a vein has been pierced, and the 
handkerchief must be on the other side of the wound from the heart ; that is, be- 
low the wound. 

17. A bullet through the abdomen (belly or stomach) is more certainly fatal than 
if aimed at the head or heart ; for in the latter cases the ball is often glanced off by 
the bone, or follows round it under the skin ; but when it enters the stomach or 
bowels, from any direction, death is inevitable under almost all circumstances, 
but is scarcely ever instantaneous. Generally the person lives a day or two with 

perfect clearness of intellect, often not suffering greatly. The practical bearing of 
this statement in reference to the great future is clear. 

18. Let the whole beard grow, but not longer than some three inches. This 
strengthens and thickens its growth, and thus makes a more perfect protection for 
the lungs against dust, and of the throat against winds and cold in winter, while in 
the summer a greater perspiration of the skin is induced, with an increase of evap- 
oration ; hence, greater coolness of the parts on the outside, while the throat is 
less feverish, thirsty, and dry. 

19. Avoid fats and fat meats in summer and in all warm days. 

20. Whenever possible, take a plunge into any lake or running stream every 
morning, as soon as you get up ; if none at hand, endeavor to wash the body all 
over as soon as you leave your bed, for personal cleanliness acts like a charm 
against all diseases, always either warding them off altogether, or greatly mitigating 
their severity and shortening their duration. 

21. Keep the hair of the head closely cut, say within an inch and a half of the 
scalp in every part, repeated on the first of each month, and wash the whole scalp 
plentifully in cold water every morning. 

22. Wear woolen stockings and easy-fitting shoes, keeping the toe and finger- 
nails always cut moderately close. 

23. It is more important to wash the feet well every night, than to wash the face 
and hands of mornings; because it aids to keep the skin and nails soft, and to pre- 
vent chafings, blisters, and corns, all of which greatly interfere with a soldier's 

24. The most universally safe position, after all stunnings, hurts, and wounds, 
is that of being placed on the back, the head being elevated three or four inches 
only ; aiding more than any one thing else can do, to equalize and restore the proper 
circulation of the blood. 

25. The more weary you are after a march or other work, the more easily will 
you take cold, if you remain still after it is over, unless, the moment you cease 
motion, you throw a coat or blanket over your shoulders. This precaution should 
be taken in the warmest weather, especially if there is even a slight air stirring. 

26. The greatest physical kindness you can show a severely-wounded comrade is 
first to place him on his back, and then run with all your might for some water to 
drink ; not a second ought to be lost. If no vessel is at hand, take your hat ; if 
no hat, off with your shirt, wring it out once, tie the arms in a knot, as also the 
lower end, thus making a bag, open at the neck only. A fleet person can convey 
a bucketful half a mile in this way. I've seen a dying man clutch at a single drop 
of water from the fingers' end, with the voraciousness of a famished tiger. 

27. If wet to the skin by rain or by swimming rivers, keep in motion until the 
clothes are dried, and no harm will result. 

28. Whenever it is possible, do, by all means, when you have to use water for 
cooking or drinking from ponds or sluggish streams, boil it well, and when cool, 
shake it, or stir it, so that the oxygen of the air shall get to it, which greatly im- 
proves it for drinking. This boiling arrests the process of fermentation which 
arises from the presence of organic and inorganic impurities, thus tending to pre- 
vent cholera and all "bowel diseases. If there is no time for boiling, at least strain 
it through a cloth, even if you have to use a shirt or trowser-leg. • 

29. Twelve men are hit in battle, dressed in red, where there are only five, 
dressed in a bluish grey, a difference of more than two to one ; green, seven ; 
brown, six. 

30. Water can be made almost ice cool in the hottest weather, by closely envel- 
oping a filled canteen, or other vessel, with woolen cloth kept plentifully wetted 
and exposed. 

31. While on a march, lie down the moment you halt for a rest ; every minute 
spent in that position refreshes more than five minutes standing or loitering about. 

32. A daily evacuation of the bowels is indispensable to bodily health, vigor, and 
endurance ; this is promoted in many cases, by stirring a table -spoonful of corn 
(Indian) meal in a glass of water, and drinking it on rising in the morning. 

33. Loose Bowels, namely, acting more than once a day, with a feeling of debility 
afterward, is the first step toward cholera ; the best remedy is instant and perfect 
quietude of body, eating nothing but boiled rice with or without boiled milk ; in 
more decided cases, a woolen flannel, with two thicknesses in front, should be 
bound tightly around the abdomen, especially if marching is a necessity. 

34. To have "been to the wars," is a life-long honor, increasing with advancing 
years, while to have died in defense of your country will be the boast and the glory 
of your children's children. 


Our Legitimate Scope is almost boundless : for whatever begets pleasurable 
and harmless feelings, promotes Health ; and whatever induces 
disagreeable sensations, engenders Disease. 


Vol. VIII.] iULY, 1861. [No. 6. 



Next to the blessing of an intelligent and pious mother, is 
the privilege of knowing, in early life, a truly great and good 
man. The spectacle of intellect and piety embodied thus be- 
fore us, lingers as a consecrated thing in the memory of after 
years, and leaves an indelible impression on the character. 
It was my rare privilege, at an early period of life, to form, 
under peculiar circumstances, an intimate acquaintance with 
the late Dr. Kelson, as intimate as could well exist between a 
youth of twenty and a man in the full maturity of his powers, 
in the zenith of his fame, and amidst the incessant activities of 
a most laborious and successful ministry. With every oppor- 
tunity of unconstrained association, seeing him, hearing him, in 
public and in private, weekly, daily, in the pulpit, at the family 
altar, in the domestic circle, observing his habits of thought, 
his method of sermonizing, the books he read, the opinions he 
held, the various peculiarities of his intellect and character, if 
there be presented, in these sketches, an erroneous conception 
of this man, it must be attributed to want of capacity to appreci- 
ate him justly, and not to want of advantages for thorough 

NO. VI. — VOL. VIII.— 1861. 


This acquaintance was renewed from time to time by person 
al intercourse, during a period of fifteen or eighteen years, and 
after seeing and hearing many of the most distinguished minis- 
ters and theologians at home and abroad, the impression re- 
mains distinct and vivid that he was not only the prince of 
preachers, but the noblest of men, and the former precisely be- 
cause he was the latter. He was a model of apostolic simpli- 
city, sincerity, earnestness, and I might add, of apostolic gran- 
deur. The holiness and greatness of the man would have awed 
you, had there not been an inexpressible human naturalness 
about him- — a gentle human sympathy, sometimes a child-like 
naivete, which fascinated and reassured you. You felt that 
there was the bond of a common nature between you. He, too, 
was a man ; and as he talked, whether in his gayer or more 
solemn moods, you felt that the very depths of his being were 
laid open before you, and }^ou held converse with a genuine 
human soul. His countenance, in some of its nobler aspects, 
was often recalled, in after-life, by that of Luther, in the best 
portraits of the great reformer ; with less of breadth and com- 
prehensiveness, indeed, yet never, even in that large Teutonic 
heart, was there a richer fund of humor, or a keener, quicker 
relish for merriment and harmless fun. His appreciation of the 
loveliness of female piety, as in all lofty minds, was exquisite, 
and in the society of the young daughters of his friends, just 
passing into womanhood, in the exuberant gayety of opening 
life, that grave and thoughtful countenance would sometime^ 
relax into playful merriment ; he would recite whole cantoes of 
their favorite poems, discuss the heroes and heroines of ro- 
mance, kindle into enthusiasm as he dilated on the character of 
Eowena or Die "Vernon, and shake his sides with laughter over 
the Fat Friar of Copmanhurst. 

He had a profound knowledge of man and men, a profound 
comprehension of the universal elements of our nature, and a 
quick insight into individual character. To those who knew 
him only at a distance as the lofty orator, in public, in private 
only as the rapt and silent and meditative thinker, this may 
appear a paradox. But the very vividness of his interest in 
spiritual things made him only more widely awake and keenly 
sensitive in regard to all that concerned man 7 s eternal destiny. 
Quick to perceive, and acute to analyze each aspect of human 


nature that might harmonize with or oppose the great object 
of his ministry. Hence, it may be doubted whether he ever 
addressed, in his better days, an assembly of his fellow-men, 
without some deep and manifest impression, or ever personally 
approached a human being who did not feel and recognize his 
power. The man who touched and fascinated Marshall, and 
Breckinridge, and Denny, and Crittenden, and Bobertson, and 
Eoss, and Grundy, and John Bell, so different, each from . the 
other, and all so different from himself, must have known and 
touched our nature at innumerable points. He would, in like 
manner, have touched Tholuck, and Neander, and Schleier- 
macher, and Steffins, and Ch aimer, and Vinet. They would 
have smiled, perhaps, at his ignorance of some departments of 
human science. He would have pitied their comparative ignor- 
ance of all that it most behooves man to know. All would 
have recognized his immeasurable superiority in all the ele- 
ments of moral greatness. The attributes that constitute true 
greatness, the thoughts and interests that stir man's soul to. its 
profoundest depths, are not peculiar to any age or nation. He 
would have been recognized in London, or Berlin, if he had 
spoken German, as cordially and enthusiastically as in Balti- 
more, or Danville, or New- York. 

The grandeur of the themes which were the habitual subject 
of his thoughts, gave a corresponding grandeur to his charac- 
ter ; and the intensity with which he studied them communi- 
cated such habitual and healthy activity to his vigorous under- 
standing, and such vivid and condensed power to his language, 
that he looked down, not with arrogance, but with pity, upon 
the trivial pursuits, and listened, with wonder at their weak- 
ness, to the ordinary efforts of even highly-gifted men. On his 
return from a visit to Washington City, he said, "I had known 
Mr. Grundy and John Bell in Tennessee. Grundy took me to 
the Senate Chamber, and introduced me to Clay, Webster, Cal- 
houn, and others. I could not help pitying those men, that 
they wasted such talents and so much time about such trifles. 
I heard them all speak, even on the trifling 'subjects they dis- 
cussed;" the speeches seemed to him about worthy of the sub- 
jects, and were heard with surprise and pain. 

" James," said he, turning to a youth then present, and who 
may remember the conversation still, "James, I hope you will 

156 hall's jouknal of health. 

not spend your life in making marks on the sand, or scratching 
in the ashes like ;" he called the name of the most distin- 
guished of them all. So trivial, and even pitiful in his views, 
so unworthy of an immortal being, and so belittling to the in- 
tellect itself, were all the highest objects of earthly ambition, 
and all the efforts which those objects or that ambition could 
inspire. It was this habitual, unassumed, and unassuming ele- 
vation of character and purpose, united with the most unfeigned 
humility and simplicity of character, which gave the delicate 
point to the remark of one who loved and admired him above 
all living men when, turning abruptly to him, he said, in seem- 
ing censure: "Dr. Nelson, you are the most ambitious man I 
ever saw — I do believe, the most ambitious man in the world." 
" Why ?" asked the Doctor, startled, and fearing, perhaps, that 
the keen eye of a faithful friend had detected the remains of a 
worldly pride, which he had hoped was long since subdued. 
" Because you are satisfied with nothing this world can give — 
nothing less will content you than a kingdom, and a throne, and 
a croivn all in heaven" That kingdom, that throne, that crown 
of glory, were ever before his eyes, and beneath the power of 
that transcendent vision, all the energies of his understanding 
and all the feelings of his heart were aroused to their utmost 
activity, and concentrated on the one great object of his life. 
He lived, and moved, and had his being amidst the realities x>f 
the eternal world, and walked by faith amidst them, as if he 
saw them palpably before him in the broad light of day, and 
with the sober certainty of waking vision. 

He went from the closet to the pulpit with the solemn im- 
pression of these great realities vivid and fresh upon him. His 
words of exhortation were like a voice from heaven ; his tones 
of warning or denunciation like the trump of God. " It is the 
blood earnestness of the man /" said Dr. Mason, when asked : 
" What is the secret of Chalmers' power ?" 

We are told by some that knowledge is power, that genius 
is power, that energy of will is power. But the great lessons 
which Nelson has left behind for the instruction of his own 
and succeeding generations is, that holiness is power, that faith is 
power, that a life imbued with the spirit of the Gospel, and con- 
secrated to its service, a soul glowing with its hopes, sanctified 
by its truths, sustained, impelled, exalted by its sacred influ- 


ences, and in habitual communication with its Author — this is 
power — the mightiest power on earth — and by God's blessing, well 
nigh irresistible. 

What wonder if that herculean form sank down, at last, be- 
neath those stupendous labors ; and that gigantic intellect shook 
down, at last, by the intensity of its own action, the frail tene- 
ment it inhabited, and if not overwhelmed, was, at least, par- 
tially obscured amidst its ruins. To say this is only to enroll 
him amongst the mighty army of martyrs — that hallowed band 
of consecrated and heroic spirits, whom the zeal of Grod's 
house had consumed. A calculating prudence might have pro- 
longed that life, and preserved, for a season, those powers for 
the Church and the world. But that life, so delicately nursed, 
had not been Nelson's life ; those energies, so cautiously re- 
strained and securely fettered, had not been his. It seems the 
inevitable destiny of the world's best and greatest men, to be 
consumed in diffusing light and blessings to others. The eagle's 
pinion wings the shaft that quivers in the eagle's heart. Only 
for the martyr spirit are reserved the martyr's crown of glory 
above, and the martyr's deathless memory on earth. I wit- 
nessed the first indication, at any rate, the first public and deci- 
sive indications of that malady, which afterwards obscured the 
brilliancy of his genius, without ever destroying its equipoise, 
however, or disturbing the serenity of his Christian hope. A 
Senator from Mississippi was on a visit to Danville, his native 
place. He had just entered upon his political career at Wash- 
ington, when the premonitory symptoms appeared of that he- 
reditary consumption which consigned him to his grave. He 
was outwardly, a cold, phlegmatic man, though with strong, 
deep feelings, reserved, some would say haughty ; imbued with 
the skeptical sentiments which, nurtured by the writings of 
Hume and Gibbon, and the high authority of Mr. Jefferson, had 
pervaded our most intelligent society. 

With that quickness of propriety and ready perception of 
character which marked all his intercourse with men, Nelson 
never sought the society of this gentleman, nor intruded on his 
privacy. He agreed, however, to preach at the house of a 
common friend, where the visitor was expected to be present, 
and the discourse was designed for his especial benefit. In the 
midst of one of those impassioned bursts of eloquence which 

158 hall's journal of health. 

all of us remember and none can describe, in which fact and 
argument, reason and imagination, sublimity and pathos, 
blended in inexplicable combination, at the point where genius 
trembles almost on the verge of inspiration, he paused, drew 
his hand slowly across his brow, and calmly said, with an ex- 
pression rather of surprise than alarm : "A strange oblivion has 
passed over me." The great mind had sunk beneath the vast- 
ness of its own conception ; amidst the full swell of that ma- 
jestic melody, the cords from which it issued burst from the in- 
tensity of their own vibrations. Man can not rival the angels, 
though he may " have moments like their highest." There was 
no thought, in any mind, of what we now call a failure ; no 
expression, on any countenance, of mortification, scarcely of 
sadness, but of wonder, rather perhaps allied to awe — awe as 
of some portentous mystery — the great continuity of nature 
broken off, and a black chasm before you, Men did not sym- 
pathize with Nelson. They revered him as an old apostle, or 
one of the prophets as, apart from inspiration, one might bow 
reverently before Paul, or tenderly love St. John. At least, so 
it seemed to one who loved and revered him. — Mathetes — 
Center College Magazine. k 


1. Dr. D wight used to remark to his pupils at Yale, that the 
raising of fruit was the cheapest and pleasantest way of enter- 
taining one's friends. We are creatures of society, and it is a 
very important object to make the social board attractive to 
all who honor us with their friendship. A dish of well-grown 
apples is always wholesome and acceptable. 

2. An orchard is an ornament to the farm, beautiful in its 
spring blossoms, its summer drapery of green, and its autumn 
burden of yellow and ruddy fruit. No farm is complete with- 
out its acres of orchard. 

3. The cultivation of fruit is a very pleasant occupation, 
and has an important influence upon the mind and heart of, 
the cultivator. It requires higher intelligence than the grow- 
ing of the annual crops. It fosters forecast and hopefulness, 
and tends to a cheerful temper. 

4. It makes home attractive — children are universally fond 
of fruit, and the home where this luxury is always enjoyed, 


will be more loved on that account. It will be in pleasant 
contrast with many homes around them. 

5. It will tend to guard children against vice and crime. So 
strong is the desire for fruit, that they may steal it if it be 
not provided for them at home. And the boy that grows 
up plundering his neighbor's fruit-yard and orchard, is 
very likely to steal more valuable things when he becomes 
a man. 

6. It is a very sure investment. An apple-tree, if well 
planted, is about as hardy as an oak, and sure to bear fruit 
according to the labor bestowed upon it. When houses burn 
up, and banks fail, and railroad stocks depreciate, the orchard 
will yield dividends. 

7. It is not only a sure investment for yourself, but for your 
children. No real-estate in their inheritance is likely to be so 
permanently valuable. An orchard in good soil will bear 
fruit for a hundred years. 

8. It is a perpetual incitement to thanksgiving to the boun- 
tiful Creator. It yields its burden of precious fruit year after 
year, giving large returns for the labors of the husbandman, 
and calling him to behold the wisdom and goodness of provi- 
dence. Do not fail to plant that long-deferred orchard, and 
while you are about it, select good marketable fruit. The best 
is the cheapest. — American Agriculturist. 


A story went the round of the public papers, within two 
years, that a young woman was employed to prepare a lace 
vail for the approaching marriage of the daughter of royalty. 
Later on, she applied for her pay, but from some cause or 
other, she failed, after repeated efforts, to accomplish her ob- 
ject. She determined to tell her story to the ears of royalty 
itself, but her pressing necessities, the length of the road she 
had to walk, the rudeness and rebuffs she had to encounter, so 
weighed upon her health and spirits, that she died. The debt 
was then paid, but x atonement for the wrong can never be made 
this side the judgment. " The Bible is the poor man's friend," 
used to be a favorite saying of that great and good man, Dr. 
James W. Alexander, and one of a multitude of proofs there- 


of, is the merciful injunction of the Jewish economy, u The 
wages of him that is hired shall not abide with thee all night 
until the morning," and among' the closing curses of the Old 
Testament, was that which was threatened the perjured equal- 
ly with him who " should oppress the hireling in his wages," 
the widow and the fatherless. The writer knew on one occa- 
sion, a single bank-bill to pay debts in a single forenoon, 
amounting in the aggregate, to three hundred and forty dol- 
lars, at a time of great pecuniary pressure. To refuse to pay 
a just debt on any pretense, when the money is on hand, with- 
out making it satisfactory in some way, to the person to whom 
the money is due, is to commit a great injustice, an inexcus- 
able wrong. If the narration above made, is wholly true, no 
blame is hereby charged to the noblest living queen, but to 
those about her who refused to allow the knowledge of the 
matter to come to her ears. An illustration of the truth un- 
der consideration, is found in the following, which sounds so 
much like fact, that we can not say it is not so. 

" Sir, if you please, boss would like you to pay this little 
bill to-day," said for the tenth time, a half-grown boy in a dir- 
ty jacket, to a lawyer in his office. 

The attorney at length turned round and stared the boy full 
in the face, as if he had been some newly discovered specimen, 
gave a long whistle, thrust his inky fingers first into one 
pocket and then into the other of his black cloth vest, and 
then gave another long whistle, and completed his stare at the 
boy's face. 

11 Ho, ha, hum! that bill, eh?" said the legal young gentle- 
man, extending the tips of his fingers toward the well-worn 
bit of paper, and daintily opening it, looked at the contents. 

" Hum ! for capping and for heel-tapping, six shillings — for 
foxing, ten and sixpence, and other sundries, eh? So your 
master wants me to settle this bill, eh ?" repeated the man of 

"Yes, sir; this is the nineteenth time I have come for it, 
and I intend to knock off at twenty, and call it half a day." 

" You're an impudent boy." 

" I's always impudent to lawyers, coz I can't help it — it's 


11 You've got your eye-teeth cut, I see." 

" That's what boss sent me for, instead of the 'prentices as 
was gettin' their teeth cut. I cut mine at nine months old 
with a hand-saw. Boss says if you don't pay the bill, he'll sue 

"Sue me? I'm a lawyer!" 

" It makes no odds. Lawyer or no lawyer, boss declares 
he'll do it — so fork over." 

" Declares he'll sue me ?" 

" xls true as there is another lawyer in Filadelphy." 

" That would be bad I" 

"Wouldn't it?" 

" Silence, you vagabond ! I suppose I must pay this," mut- 
tered the attorney to himself. " It's not my plan to pay these 
bills. What is a lawyer's profession good for, if he can't get 
clear of paying his own bills? He'll sue me ! "Pis just five 
dollars. It comes hard, and he don't want the money. What 
is five dollars to him ? His boy could have earned it in the 
time he has been sending him to me for it. — So your master 
will sue me for it if I don't pay?" 

" He says he will do it, and charge you a new pair of shoes 
for me." 

" Iiarkee ; I can't pay you to-day, and so if your boss will 
sue me, just ask him to employ me as his attorney." 

" You !" 

" Yes ; I'll issue the writ, have it served, and then you see 
I shall put the cost into my own pocket, instead of seeing it 
go into another lawyer's. So you see if I have to pay the bill, 
I'll make costs — capital idea !" 

The boy scratched his head awhile, as if striving to com- 
prehend this capital idea, and shook it doubtingly. " I don't 
know about this ; it looks tricky. I'll ask boss, though, if as 
how you won't pay it no how without being sued." 

" I had rather be sued, if he will employ me, boy." 

11 But who is to pay them costs — the boss ?" 

The lawyer looked all at once very serious, and gave one of 
those long whistles peculiar to him. 

" Well, I'm a sensible man, truly. My anxiety to get the 
costs of suit blinded me to the fact that they were to come out 

162 hall's journal of health. 

of my own pocket before they could be safely put in. Ah ! 
well, my boy, I suppose I must pay. Here's a five dollar gold 
piece; is the bill receipted? it's so dirty and greasy I can't 

"It was nice and clean when boss gin it to me, and the 
writin' shined like Knapp's blackin' — it is torn so a dunnin' so 

" Well, here's your money," said the man of law, taking a 
solitary five dollar gold piece from his watch fob ; " now tell 
your master, Mr. Last, if he has any other accounts he wants 
sued, I'll attend to them with the greatest pleasure." 

" Thank'ee, sir," answered the boy, pocketing the five ; "but 
you are the only dunnin' customer boss has, and now you've 
paid up, he haint none but cash folks. Good day to you." 

" Now, there goes five dollars that will do that fellow no 
good. I am in want of it, but he is not. It is five thrown 
away. It wouldn't have left my pocket but that I was sure 
that his patience was worn out and costs would come of it. I 
like to get costs, but I can't think a lawyer has any thing to do 
with paying them." 

As Peter Chancery did not believe, in his own mind, that 
paying his debt to Mr. Last was to be any benefit to him, and 
was of opinion that it was money thrown away, let us fol- 
low the fate of those five dollars through the day. 

" He has paid," said the boy, placing the money in the mas- 
ter's hand. 

" Well, I'm glad of it," answered Mr. Last, surveying the 
money through his glasses, " and it's a half-eagle, too. Now 
run and pay Mr. Furnace," as the boy delivered his errand 
and the money. " I was just wondering where I could get five 
dollars to pay a bill that is due to-day. Here, John," he called 
to one of his apprentices, " put on your hat, and take this 
money to Capt. O'Brine, and tell him I came within one of 
disappointing him, when some money came in I didn't ex- 

Capt. O'Brine was on board his schooner at the next wharf, 
and with him was a seaman with a hat in his hand, looking 
very gloomy as he spoke with him. 

" I'm sorry, my man, I can't pay you — but I have just rais- 


ed and scraped the last dollar I can get above water, to pay 
my insurance money to-day, and have not a copper left in my 
pocket to jingle, but keys and old nails." 

" But I am very much in need, sir ; my wife is failing, and 
my family are in want of a good many things just now, and I 
got several articles at the store, expecting to get money of you 
to take them up as I went along home. We hain't in the house 
no flour, nor tea, nor — : — " 

" Well, my lad, I'm sorry. You must come to-morrow. I 
can't help you unless I sell my coat off my back, or pawn my 
schooner's kedge. Nobody pays me." 

The sailor who had come to get advance of wages, turned 
away sorrowfully, when the apprentice-boy came up and said 
in his hearing : 

" Here, sir, is five dollars Mr. Furnace owes you. He says 
when he told you he couldn't pay your bill to-day, he didn't 
expect some money that came in after you left the shop." 

"Ah ! that's my fine boy. Here, Jack, take this five dollars, 
and come on Saturday and get the balance of your wages." 

The seaman with a joyful bound took the piece, and touch- 
ing his hat, sprung with a light heart on shore, and hastened 
to the store where he had already selected the comforts and 
necessaries his family stood so much in need of. 

As he entered, a poor woman was trying to prevail upon the 
store-keeper to settle a demand for making his shirts. 

" You had better take it out of the store, Mrs. Conway," he 
said to her, " really I have not half the amount of your bill 
to-day, and I don't expect to. I have to charge every thing, 
and no money comes in.' r 

"I can't do without it," answered the woman earnestly, "my 
daughter is very ill and in want of every comfort ; I am out 
of firewood, and indeed I want many things which I have de- 
pended on this money to get. I worked night and day to get 
your shirts done." 

" I'm very sorry, Mrs. Conway," said the store-keeper, look- 
into his money-drawer ; " I've not five shillings here — and 
your bill is five dollars and ninepence." 

The poor woman thought of her invalid child and wrung 
her hands. 

164 hall's journal of health. 

"A sailor was here awhile ago, and selected full five dollars 
worth of articles here on the counter and went away to get his 
wages to pay for them, but I question if he comes back. 
If he does and pays for them, you shall have your money, 

At this instant Jack made his appearance at the door. 

" Well, shipmate," said he, in a tone much more elevated 
than when he was discovered speaking with the captain, " well, 
my hearty, hand over your freight. I've got the documents, 
so give us possession ;" and displaying his five dollar piece he 
laid hold of the purchases. The store-keeper examining and 
seeing that the money was good, bade him take them with 
him ; and then, sighing as he took another and a last look at 
the piece, he handed it to the poor widow, who with a joyful 
smile received it from him and hastened from the store. In a 
low and very humble tenement, near the water, was a family of 
poor children, whose appearance exhibited the utmost destitu- 
tion. On a cot-bed lay a poor woman, ill and emaciated. The 
door opened and a man in coarse, patched garments, entered 
with a wood-saw and a horse, and laid them down by the door- 
side and approached the bed. 

" Are you any better, dear?" he asked in a rough voice, but 
in the kindest tones. 

u No ; have you found work ? If you could get me a little 
nourishing food. I could regain my strength." 

The man gazed upon her pale face a moment, and again 
taking up his horse went out. He had not gone far before a 
woman met him, and said she wished him to follow and saw 
some wood for her. His heart bounded with hope and grati- 
tude, and he went after her to her dwelling, an abode little 
better than his own for poverty, yet wearing an air of comfort. 
He sawed the wood, split and piled it, and received six shil- 
lings, with which he hastened to a store for necessaries for his 
sick wife, and then hurried home to gladden her heart with the 
delicacies he had provided. Till now he had had no work for 
four days, and his family had been starving, and from this day 
his wife got better, and was at length restored to his family and 
to health, from a state of weakness which another day's con- 
tinuation would probably have made fatal. 


These six shillings, which did so much good, were paid him 
by the poor woman from the five dollars she had received 
from the store-keeper, and which the sailor had paid him. The 
poor woman's daughter was also revived and ultimately re- 
stored to health, and was lately married to a young man who 
had been kept three years absent, and returned true to his 
troth. But for the five dollars which had been so instrumental 
in her recovery, he might have returned to be told that she 
whose memory had been so long the polar star of his heart had 

So much good did the five dollar piece do, which Peter 
Chancery, Esq., so reluctantly paid to Mr. Last's apprentice-boy, 
though little credit is due to this gentleman for the result that 
followed. It is thus Providence often makes bad men the in- 
strument of good to others. Let this little story lead those 
who think a "small bill" can stand because it is a small bill, 
remember how much good a five dollar piece has done in one 
single day, and that in paying one bill they may be paying a 
series of twenty bills, and dispensing good to hundreds around 


Some men are great in one thing only ; others in many ; of 
this latter was the author of the Cause and Cure of Infidelity, who 
was originally a physician of great ability ; so much so that his 
practice became in a short time worth some thousands a year in 
a community where a single thousand dollars was considered a 
large sum of money. He subsequently became more distin- 
guished as a speaker than he had been as a doctor. There are 
thousands yet living in and near New- York city who vividly 
remember the power of his eloquence, and what crowds flocked 
to hear him at the old Broadway Tabernacle, the building being 
filled to its utmost capacity night after night for weeks in suc- 
cession. He had a herculean frame, and gave many a proof be- 
fore his embrasure of Christianity, of personal courage and fear- 

* In the three preceding articles the editor has departed from his custom of ad- 
mitting into the Journal of Health only such pieces as he has written himself ; but 
the reader will excuse this as it is made the occasion of inculcating useful lessons 
and impressing them on the mind by historical facts of a striking character. 


lessness, but he was an epilectic; and he knew that the tenden- 
cies of his system were in that direction, and that the only 
method of preventing the attacks was the most rigid control of 
the appetite. His medical knowledge placed this truth so dis- 
tinctly before his mind, and his. self-control was so heroic, that 
in speaking of it on one occasion to those very dear to him, he 
said : "I have been hungry for two years." This was exhibit- 
ing a rational self-denial worthy of all admiration, and is a les- 
son to that vast multitude which no man can number who have 
not enough force of character, of moral courage, to prevent their 
yielding to their appetites three times a day, not merely to the 
extent of satiety,, but actual repletion, really eating, and that ha- 
bitually more than narure needs. Man is like a pig ; when he 
is hungry he gets quarrelsome, ill-natured, snappish ; but in one 
respect he is unlike a hog; that animal with all its love of filth, 
ceases to eat when it is no longer hungry. Keader, did you 
never eat to make it even ? take some more bread because you 
had a little butter on your plate, or take a little more sauce, or 
gravy, (called "essence" in the higher spheres) because a bit 
of bread was left, and you did not want to leave it. That was 
waste ; it was worse than waste, because it not only did you no 
good, but a positive injury. The great name mentioned in this 
article under the influence of the gnawings of hunger, volunta- 
rily endured, was one of the loveliest men in his disposition, we 
ever encountered ; for we once lived under the same roof with 
him, and personally knew of what we speak. The narration 
has been given in order to enforce a lesson on the subject of 
Epilepsy, which is so often engendered by injudicious eating; 
an attack often arising from a single injudicious meal, in very 
young children, and being repeated several times in succession, 
becomes a habit to afflict through life, wearing out the intellect 
by slow degrees, ending in hopeless imbecility, if not more 
speedily by a "fit," falling from a horse, or vehicle, or into a 
river, or into the fire. But from whatever cause, Epilepsy is 
more certainly kept under control indefinitely by a rigid system 
of dieting than in any other way. Dr. Nelson proved this in 
his own case, and died in the full possession of all his giant 

Common Sense. ^7 

Is not the practical sense of the great mass of the people, it is 
rather the legitimate deduction drawn by a wise man from 
any given premises ; it is the instinctive course pursued when 
action is required by a mind working with perfect freedom in 
the light of truth. Scarce a man who reads this article but 
has found a dozen times, that in washing his hands with his 
coat off, the wristbands of his shirt, if unbuttoned, will slide 
down towards the hands and be dribbled with water. And 
yet the very next time the hands are washed under the same 
circumstances, the wristbands will be pushed up, in the hope 
that they will remain up. In this case laziness prevents the 
mind from working freely, from looking at the facts of the 
case, and drawing natural inferences. The arm forms toward 
the wrists an inclined plane, made more inclined by the fact 
that in washing, the fingers are lower than the wrists below a 
horizontal line. Common sense dictates that the wristbands 
left unsupported could only maintain their place under the 
circumstances by the annihilation of the great first law of 
matter, gravity. A cotemporary says on the general subject, 

" If common sense were an article to be bought in the mar- 
ket, doubtless there would be a great demand for it ; or if not, 
it would be well for the corporation to make an appropriation of 
the public moneys to buy up a lot, from which the needy might 
draw without any charge. It is about as essential as Croton 
water to our daily comfort, but there are a great many elegant 
looking houses into which it has not yet been introduced: 
The very low-born, the totally ignorant, who find it difficult 
to distinguish between the suggestions of conscience, the 
promptings of common sense, and the false light of supersti- 
tion, which they mistake for knowledge, are only pitiable. But 
those who were born to an inheritance of common sense, and 
have wasted it, deserve our reprobation and contempt. 

"If half the sensible people in the world had common 
sense, it would be better ; but, unfortunately, most men's 
judgments slide in between their prejudices and their educa- 
tion, like windows in badly-fitting sashes ; when you attempt 
to bring them to the position they were made to take, they 
give first on this side and then on that, and particularly hap- 
py you may feel yourself if you can bring them into position 
without putting out a light." 

In reference to health, common sense teaches that every 
time a man puts his finger in the fire it will be burned ; that 
if a certain article of food eaten to-day gives discomfort, it will 
do it to-morrow ; that if a hearty and late 3upper prevents 
sound refreshing sleep one night, it will do it another ; that if 

168 Common Sense. 

exposure to a draft of air while perspiring gives a bad cola 
once, it will do it again ; yet there are multitudes who get 
old before they learn to heed these things, to have " common 


" The human body is a very delicately-constructed machine. 
Yet as the City Hall clock, which every body pronounces an 
excellent one, took the liberty to stop, a few days since, when 
a boy pushed his chair up against the ' compensator;' so the 
human mechanism will not move true and steady, if ignorant 
men are allowed to play with l the works.' Seeing that there 
is not room for the finest cambric needle to lie, without pro- 
ducing mischief, any where within the several solid feet that 
constitute the body of a man, common sense would satisfy an 
appreciative person that he cannot accommodate within his 
living tissues a pound of drugs, every grain of which pene- 
trates farther than needles and blocks, or throws off the track, 
the wheels of every rolling globule of blood in his veins. 

" Common sense takes the stump, and labors to convince 
sensible people that when they are sick the thousandth part 
of a grain of any material, of which they have taken a drachm 
since dinner, and been neither better nor worse therefor, can- 
not materially modify their condition. Yet men who ars 
good for making money, and who do not educate their children 
with specific reference to making fools of them, are stone deal 
on the side that common sense whispers his admonitions; spend 
goodly sums on the quack who indulges them in the luxury 
of being cheated, and enjoy the high satisfaction 6f being 
wonderfully cured where nothing under the sun has ailed 
them. Common sense, of course, shakes off the dust of his 
feet, and leaves to his fate one whose phrenological develop- 
ments would justify the suspicion of a moderate share of in- 
telligence, when he makes phrenology ridiculous, and belies 
all the indications of physiognomy by imbibing bottle after 
bottle of Nervous Antidote, Cherry Bitters, Choice Catholicons 
or Renovating Resolvents, to cure ailments whose characters 
differ in every respect from each other; just as if all diseases 
were like the vermin of all sorts that haunt old alms-house 
cellers, and all alike were best disposed of by being drowned 
out of their quarters. 

" But it seems to us as if common sense were particularly 
ashamed of those stout, stalwart bodies, in which strong minds, 
like engines of many horse-power, were originally set up, 
when, instead of trusting to their own powers, and heeding 
their own capacities, they give themselves up to the guidance 
of other men, in mafciers which they ought thoroughly to un- 
derstand for themselves. When a good skipper is going 
through Hurl- Gate, he does very well to ask a pilot on board 
if he does not know the rocks ; but when he is fairly out on 
the Sound, with a fair wind and a clear night, when the com 
pass is a good one, and he knows all the lights from Sandy's 

Common Sense. 169 

Point to Little Gull, lie is weak and wasteful to be at the ex- 
pense of a pilot's fees. So when a man is sailing among colics 
and pains of any sort, of which he does not know the nature, 
he cannot do better than order on board a skillful physician, 
who has sounded every foot of the way, and knows when to 
give a fuller sheet, when to haul close, and when to put the 
craft square before the wind, and trust every thing to his 
care, till the ripples are all past and the waves chase each 
other, without any sudden breaks or declension, to right or 
left, as if a rock were just below. But for a full-grown man, 
who is well, to call in a doctor to know if he may eat this 
delicious fruit or that, may make this pleasure trip or that, 
may tarry within the bounds of the city till his business will 
permit his removing to the country, or must push at once into 
summer quarters, it is simply ridiculous, and common sense 
objects to being claimed by him as an acquaintance. 

"The Great Exhibition will open soon. Without. a doubt, 
then there will be an increased amount of common sense in 
and about our streets; for the appearance now is, 'that from 
every point the honest men, who have dwelt in country places 
and been conversant with growing fields, that rather favor 
the growth of robust sense, will come up in crowds. It would 
be no bad idea for citizens to cultivate their acquaintance, 
that the arts and tricks of city life may experience some 
healthful rasping from their rougher and more natural ways. 
Staying in the city, -we grow affected and vain. It is to be 
hoped that strangers enough will come here to make our 
vanity and affectation shrink into a contemptible minority, 
and the common sense, which, by inheritance, ought to rule 
us, take heart, sally forth, conquer back his lost provinces, 
and hereafter have the first and last word in all our councils. 

" Ten o'clock. — But you, my dear fellow, ought to be a-bed. 
Have not you read Alcott, and Graham, and Franklin, and 
Sinclair? Haven't you studied Hygiene, and attended a 
course of popular lectures on the subject? Haven't you 
studied the rules of longevity ? Don't you know that every 
hour less than seven of sleep at night, is a day deducted from 
the sum total of your life ? and that, from Dr. Johnson to 
Todd's Student's Manual, all the authorities agree that an 
hour of sleep before midnight is worth two after it? 

" No ! no ! don't go to writing now. Don't raise the steam 
at this time of night. You would not let your housekeeper 
begin her baking now, neither should you set your brain to 
seething so unseasonably. It was a wise man — and a little 
time spent among our books would enable us to give his 
name — who allowed no serious book to engross his attention 
after his evening meal, and indulged himself in no severer 
labor than a game of romps with his children." 




The following table shows that men have attained a good 
old age and there is no reason to suppose that these might not 
be the average ages of men and women. 


. 70 

Lewenhoeck, . • 

. 91 



Cato. .... 



. 70 

Hans Sloane, 

. 93 

Linnseas, . . 




Locke, . . ; 

. 73 

Michael Angelo, 

. 96 

La Fontaine, . 


Titian, .... 


Rev. Dr. Wardlow, 

. 75 


. 98 





Reaumer, ... 

. 75 

Hervelias, • • 

. 100 






. 78 

Zeno, . • • 

. 100 

Roger Bacon, . 


Terentia, • . 


Corneille, . . • 

. 78 

Stender, . • • 

. 103 



Helen Gray, . 


Solon, . . • 

. 80 


. 107 

Thucydides, . • 


Thomas Garrick, . 


Anacreon, . • • 

. 80 


. 109 

Juvenal, • 


Joseph, .... 



. 80 

Joshua, . . 

. 110 

Pindar, • • 


A. Serush, . . 


Young, • • 

. 80 


. 112 



H. Thauper, 


Sophocles, . • • 

. 80 

R. Glen, . 

. 115 



Moses, .... 


BufFon, . . , 

. 81 

Prastus, King of Poland, 


Goethe, , 



. 127 

Dr. Chaa. Caldwell, 

. 82 






. 144 


. 82 

Countess of Desmond, . 







. 84 

Jacob, . t 


Herschell, . • 


Thomas Parr, 


Anacreon, . 

. 85 

Thomas Damme, . 


Newton, . . • 



. 157 


. 85 

Henry Jenkins, 


Halley, . 


John Rovin, . . 


Simeon, • 

. 90 

Abraham, . 

. 175 



Isaac, .... 



. 90 

Peter Torten, 




Monga of Kentigen, 



. 90 

Ventilation. 171- 

Among the preceding names are found all the occupations of 
life, from the philosopher to the common day-laborer, selected 
from all nations, and of all ages, from the days of Abraham 
down to the present time, and if no nation, or age, or sex, or 
clime, or ordinary occupation necessarily prevents men from 
arriving at old age, that old age must be generally attainable, 
if tbe proper conditions are met. It is the design of this 
Journal to inculcate these conditions. To do it early, is of the 
highest importance, as it gives every advantage ; hence the 
special desire of the Editor that parents generally should 
nave their children, at least those above fifteen years of age, 
become subscribers to this periodical. 


This is a subject which should be understood by every 
human being, not only that man may apply it to himself, but 
also to the domestic animals, for their well-being is in a sense 
very intimately connected with our own; hence duty and 
humanity demand our attention to the subject ; and if for the 
brutes that perish, much more for our servants, and, above 
all our children. In reference to the general subject, a con 1 
temporary remarks : 

" II our people only knew how many thousands of lives they 
are annually sacrificing, how many hundreds of thousands are 
now suffering from fevers and other maladies which have their 
origin in the inhaling of noxious air, the excitement and alarm 
on this subject would be unprecedented. They are poisoning 
themselves by wholesale, and two- thirds of them have no sus- 
picion of the fact; 

" Our dwellings are often charnel houses. The very first 
necessity of every living human being — pure air to breathe — 
is rarely regarded in their construction. The air actually in- 
haled steals in at crevices and crannies, felon-like, because it 
cannot be shut out. Only the defects of our Architecture 
prevent our dying of a vitiated, poisoned, mephitic atmos- 
phere, from which the vital element has long been exhausted. 
Most men, including architects, would seem ignorant of the 
fact that the atmosphere is a combination of different gases, 
only one of which is wholesome and life-giving, and that this 
is consumed in the lungs upon inhalation, leaving the residue 
to be expelled as a poison. The church, lecture-room, or 
other structure which is filled, or even half filled, with human 
beings, and its doors and windows closed,while no express 
provision has been made for its ventilation, very soon becomes 
a slaughter-pen, in which no rational being should tarry 
another minute. Few churches or other public edifices are 
sufficiently ventilated, while a large majority of them are ut- 

172 Ventilation. 

terly unworthy of toleration, and ought to be closed by the 
public authorities until they shall have been rendered fit for 
their contemplated use, and no longer nurseries of disease 
and ante- chambers to the tomb. 

" Our manufactories are nearly all disgraceful to their own- 
ers and architects in regard to ventilation. They are often 
divided into rooms less than ten feet high, each thickly stowed 
with human beings, who breathe and work and sweat in an 
atmosphere overheated and filled with grease, wool or cotton 
waste, leather or cloth, and the poisonous refuse expelled 
from human lungs, which together are enough to incite a 
plague, and are in fact the primary cause of nearly all the 
fevers, dysenteries, consumptions, &c, by which so many 
graves are peopled. No factory should be permitted to com- 
mence operations until it shall have been inspected by some 
competent public officer, and certified to be thoroughly pro- 
vided with ventilators — not windows, which may, indeed, be 
opened, but in a cold and stormy day very certainly will not 
be — but apertures for the ingress of fresh, and others for the 
egress of vitiated air, both out of the reach of ignorance, and 
defying the efforts of confirmed depravity of the senses to 
close them; 

" Our bedrooms are generally fit only to die in. The best 
are those of the intelligent and affluent, which are carefully 
ventilated; next to these come those of the cabins and ruder 
farm-houses, with an inch or two of vacancy between the 
chimney and the roof, and with cracks on every side, through 
which the stars may be seen. The ceiled and plastered bed- 
rooms, wherein too many of the middle-class are lodged, Avith 
no other apertures for the ingress or egress of air but the 
door and windows, are horrible. Nine-tenths of their occu- 
pants rarely open a wiudow, unless compelled b} r excessive 
heat, and very few are careful even to leave the door ajar. 
To sleep in a tight six-b} T -ten bedroom, with no aperture ad- 
mitting air, is to court the ravages of pestilence, and invoke 
the speedy advent of death. (See Dr. HalPs Book on Sleep.) 

" Our railroad cars and steamboat berths are atrociously 
devoid of ventilation. A journey is taken far more comforta- 
bly and expeditiously now than it was thirty years ago, but 
with far greater risk and harm to health. There are proba- 
bly ten thousand passenger cars now running in the United 
States, whereof not more than one hundred are decently sup- 
plied with fresh air. Most of these, wherein forty or fifty 
persons are expected to sit all day and doze all night, ought 
to be indicted as fit only for coffins. The men who make 
them, probably, know no better; but those who buy and use 
them have not even that poor excuse. They know that they 
are undermining constitutions and destroying lives; they know 
that ample means of arresting these frightful woes are at 
command; yet they will not adopt them, because they cost 
something; How long shall this be endured ? " 



By Dk. W. W. Hall, 42 Irving Place, New-York. Sent post-paid for 25 cents. 
*28 pp., 16mo. How to guard against the three prevalent diseases in all armies, 
Fever, Diarrhea, and Dysentery ; and also to control them by means which the 
soldier may almost any where command ; a complete system of camp-cookery and 
hospital diet, with Scripture-reading and Hymn for each day, with a night, morn- 
ing, and Sunday prayer and hymn ; radiating distances from Washington, Balti- 
more, Harper's Ferry, Cairo ; cost of all the forts ; census of all the States — of the 
militia of each State ; fifty-nine health axioms ; rank and pay of all the officers and 
privates in the army, etc., etc. This is a book which would benefit every soldier 
physically, mentally, and morally. 

We conceive it impossible for any reader to spend twenty- 
five cents to greater advantage than by ordering one of these 
books to be sent to some friend or kinsman in the army. It is 
six inches by four, a quarter of an inch thick, has a paper- 
cover, and weighs less than three ounces, hence can easily be 
carried to the battle-field in the pocket. It is the only book 
published that meets so many of the wants of the soldier on the 
field of battle. If he is left for dead, or wounded, its directions 
meet the emergencies ; if life is ebbing away, there is Scripture- 
reading adapted to his case, and near a dozen of the sweetest 
hymns in the English language ; hymns as familiar to every 
American soldier as the alphabet, with their hallowed associa- 
tions of home and the village- church. When it is remembered 
that soldiers are not allowed to carry any thing into battle but 
the indispensable clothing, the arms and the canteen, that often 
not only the pockets are filled with cartridges, but even the 
spaces between the buttonings of their coats, a little book of 
this sort, which can be carried in a very small space, answering 
to the general wants of the soldier, as to the body and the soul, 
is of the utmost importance. But all do not think as well of 
the book as we do. The Philadelphia Press of June 17th says : 

" Xearly forty page3 here, containing Scriptural selections and hymns, seem to 
have been introduced merely to swell up the work. Dr. Hall's hymns abound in 
bad rhymes. He makes cross rhyme with cause ; flood with God ; surpass with 
grace ; clean with sin ; confess with grace ; song with tongue ; holiness withpeace; 
been with sin ; povjer with more ; bleed with head ; done with unknown ; face with 
thankfulness; owe with do; grace with praise; sin with clean; past with rest; 
shed with plead, and so on. We have seldom found so many miserable rhymes in 
such a small space. Dr Hall evidently has no ear for rhythm and rhyme." 

As Isaac Watts wrote nearly all the hymns, and they are 
those which have been most admired for a century by nearly 
all denominations of Christians, we have merely sided with the 


majority, and rather think that the "Cricket" is not a very 
regular church-goer. The first lines of the hymns are : 

Am I a soldier of the cross ? 

Alas ! and did my Saviour bleed ? 

God bless our native land. 

It is the Lord enthroned in light. 

I love to steal awhile away. 

Jesus, my all, to heaven is gone. 

Jerusalem, my happy home. 

My soul, be on thy guard. 

My country, 'tis of thee. 

Oh ! for a thousand tongues to sing. 

O thou ! who driest the mourner's tears. 

Once more, my soul, the rising day. 

Show pity, Lord ! Lord ! forgive. 

The day is past and gone. 

There is a fountain filled with blood. 

There is a land of pure delight. 

Whilst thee I seek, protecting power. 

When all thy mercies, my God ! 

When I can read my title clear. 

Where will be the birds that sing, a hundred years to come ? 

Ye sons of freedom, wake to glory, (the Marseillaise Hymn.) 

It should be remembered that almost all the soldiers are the 
children of parents, who accustomed them to meet in public 
worship on the Sabbath-day ; very many of them are members 
of the church and Christian men, and to all these, the memo- 
ries associated with those dear familiar hymns are inexpress- 
ibly dear when away from home, when suffering in an hospital, 
or among the wounded on the battle-field. It was for this 
reason they were selected, and not merely ¥ to fill up the book." 
This world is not the last of man. The preservation of his 
mortal body is not his chief concern. -There is something of 
immeasurably greater importance than saving life. For " what 
shall a man be profited if he shall gain the whole world, and 
lose his own soul ?" and to be hurried from the fierce fight into 
the presence of the Infinite, or to languish in a dreary hospital, 
for hours, and days, and weeks, and to have no verse or line to 
help the laboring mind to thoughts of its Maker, is fearful to 


think of ; hence our little volume, which is literally the soldier's 
" vade mecum" a thing which he may well command to go with 
him wherever he goes himself. It is such a book as the volun- 
teers, who have been brought up in Christian homes, have a 
right to demand of the Government ; and in the language of the 
Boston Atlas and JBse, " fifty thousand ought to be sent at 
once to Washington." "We took occasion to say that Christian 
men were the most reliable patriots, and made the bravest sol- 
diers, the most enduring ; for such specially we wrote the book, 
and they will prize it most. A great deal of most valuable 
information is given, which does not pertain to health or re- 
ligion, and this was put in, in order to make those take care 
of the book, for the sake of this, who would not have done so, 
merely for the matters of health, morals, or religion. We say, 
distinctly, that thousands of lives would be saved, and millions 
of money, within the present year, if the suggestions of the 
book were followed, in reference to early breakfast, camp- 
fires, and the practicable prevention of the three great diseases 
of armies, to wit : fever, diarrhea, and dysentery : their pre- 
vention and their cure, in most cases by means which the poor- 
est soldier in the most out-of-the-way place can command; 
and such is the characteristic of most of the directions given 
as to health and wounds. The book was not written in the 
presumption that the soldier was in a drug-store ; or in the 
midst -of a large city. Lint will staunch a bleeding wound, but 
lint may not be had when gunpowder and spider's- web may. 
A tourniquet may stop a bleeding artery, where death would 
follow in ten minutes, or less, if not arrested ; but tourniquets 
don't grow in the woods, or out of a sand-bank ; but every sol- 
dier can command a stick or ramrod, and a handkerchief or a 
strip of shirt, and without a surgeon or a tourniquet, he can 
save his life himself. Hartshorn will cure almost every poison- 
ous sting or bite, but hartshorn does not bubble up at every 
spring, nor flow beside every river, but it is an alkali, and so is 
wood-ashes, made into a poultice with water, saliva, or a man's 
own blood, and where there is a stick of wood and a flint or a 
percussion-cap, wood-ashes can be made. A man may be at- 
tacked with wasting diarrhea, or threatened with cholera ; he 
may not have any blackberry cordial at hand, or Dover's pow- 
der, or sugar of lead, bat he has a trowser-leg or a flannel shirt, 
and he can lie down in perfect quietude, and these are a thou- 

176 hall's journal of health. 

sand times more certain of cure, and a thousand times more 
safe, and a thousand times less hurtful, than the "authorized" 
remedies named, as whole armies have found more than once 
before to-daj. So that the commendation which the American 
Presbyterian, of Philadelphia, has given of "Soldier Health," 
is timely, just, and judicious. 

" Dr. W. W. Hall, of New-York, has done good service for our soldiers in his 
little work on Soldier Health, which is full of direct, intelligible, and forcible hints 
to soldiers, by an experienced writer on such topics. It will be found greatly ser- 
viceable both in preventing and remedying disease, accident, and dissipation in 
this class of men, and it is written in a style which will not fail to command their 
attention. The book is indeed quite a vade mecum, containing religious reading, 
hymns, prayers, Soyer's Army Receipts, and selected information on military and 
other matters which soldiers especially would be interested in knowing." 

The main, in fact, the only objection that Andrew Jackson 
Davis, editor of the Pilgrim's Progress, makes to the book is, 
that there is a foot-note to one of the three prayers. Now, 
friend Andrew, we didn't intend the note to be prayed ; it was 
only to show the soldier how much our Eevolutionary sires 
endured when they fought for liberty, in order to encourage 
the volunteers of to-day to " grin and bear" bravely any little 
uncomfortablenesses which they might be called to encounter, 
such as having to dig without gloves, to march without parasols, 
or take their dinners without a.four-pronged silver fork. So we 
think our " foot-note" was very much to the point. To show 
the correctness, and also the importance of our statement, that 
fevers, diarrhea, and dysentery were the chief diseases of camp 
life, we give an official statement that, of the nine hundred and 
ninety-seven hospital cases at Cairo, in the two weeks ending 
with June 7th, 1861, seven hundred and twenty -seven were of 
those three diseases, nearly every one of which was certainly 
preventable without one dollar's extra expense, only with a lit- 
tle knowledge and a little attention. To give that knowledge, 
and to show how to pay that attention, is one of the great aims 
of the book, which will be furnished to individuals and soci- 
eties, for gratuitous distribution -among the soldiers, at a consid- 
erable per centage below half the retail price. 

As an evidence of the felt importance of our suggestions in 
reference to the preservation of the health of the soldiers, every 
book but one that we have seen of that kind, and there are 
several, copies our own, verbatim, et literatim, ei punctuatim, er- 
rors and all. 


Our Legitimate Scope is almost boundless : for whatever begets pleasurable 
and harmless feelings, promotes Health ; and whatever induces 
disagreeable sensations, engenders Disease. 


Vol. VIII.] AUGUST, 1861. [No. 8. 


Whex Archibald Alexander died, it was felt to be a loss to the 
whole Presbyterian Church, which could not be fully repaired ; he 
had no second in his sphere, and now that his son James W. has so 
soon followed him, the same feeling prevails, and his })eople esj)e- 
cially are deeply sensible of the fact that their loss can never be 
supplied, that his place will never be filled as he filled it. 

We were among the privileged attendants on his preaching, and 
an infirmity of one of the members of our household requiring a 
seat nearest the pulpit, opportunities of observation and hearing 
were afforded, which are the more highly valued, now that they 
are forever gone. 

Dr. James W. Alexander was a man who seemed to do every- 
thing at the right time, at the right place, and in the right manner. 
He was the most considerate of men. He appeared to be able to 
put himself in place of others, and to act just as they would have 
him do, as to all that was right. His heart was always overflow- 
ing with a wish to do everybody good. If he could not do a de- 
sired thing, he was able to show it so convincingly that the ap- 
plicant felt at once as if he no longer wanted him to do it. With 
his ever present willingness to do a good turn for others, the small- 
est item of attention or good will towards himself, wakened up the 
most lively expressions of obligation, as if his abiding feeling were 
that he was unworthy of anything from anybody, when at the 
same time he was working out his life in the service of others. 
His heart seemed to be always going up to heaven. When he was 



a hearer instead of a speaker, his favorite position was to have a 
hand resting towards the knee. We could always tell by the mo- 
tion of that hand, now cold in death, whether there was anything 
strikingly devotional in the person officiating, either as to the ser- 
mon or prayer. In the reading of the hymns by others it was the 
same thing ; he seemed to find constant causes of ejaculation to 
the Father of us all, whether in hymn, or sermon, or prayer, or 
speech, as if his heart was always with God, as if it could extract 
sweeter than angel's food from commonest things. 

It is very likely that no people ever had towards their pastor so 
large a feeling of affectionate reverence ; and never did a people 
have a more ceaseless, tearful, and tender solicitude for their welfare 
and happiness exercised towards them on the part of their minis- 

Not a man of them all will cease to remember his calm and 
quiet and unpresumptuous demeanor, as at the instant of the first 
note of the organ they were accustomed to turn their eye to the 
sacristy and note his ascent to the pulpit, so reverential, so all ab- 
sorbed, as if he was whelmed with a sense of his responsibility. 

He had no airs. It was impossible for him to do anything for 
mere effect. He never framed a grandiloquent sentence in our 
seven years' experience. Holy, humble fervor were the weapons 
of his warfare. 

Dr. Hodge, of Princeton, describes his sermons as being often 
" a string of pearls." Never was there a more appropriate ex- 
pression ; as proof, see notes of a sermon taken verbatim during the 
crisis of '57, in the February, '58, number of SaWs Journal of 
Health, under the title of " Careworn." 

Of all the sentiments expressed by him in the course of years, 
that which is most distinct, whether rendered so by its unexpected- 
ness, or by the pains which he took to prevent his hearers from be- 
ing surprised by it, was this : that the longer we lived, the severer 
would be our trials. He spoke this with an earnestness and so- 
lemnity which implied not only a uniform observation but a steady 
individual and personal experience ; this was several times present 
ed hi the course of a few months. 

" The Bible is the poor man's friend," was another sentiment, re- 
peated with a power of utterance, in connection with the subject 
under discussion, peculiar to himself. 

In speaking, on one occasion, of the value of the Scriptures in the 
application of their principles in successfully conducting the affairs 
of life, giving as an example the stern faith and general thrift of 


Scotch Presbyterians, whose distinctive characteristic it was to 
teach their children the Scriptures which inculcated rules of con- 
duct applicable to all times and circumstances, he repeated, "He 
that hateth suretyship is sure." The wisdom of the lesson was felt 
by every hearer. 

We have often contemplated with admiration, because of its lov- 
ingness and sincerity, the little gathering that would take place in 
front of the pulpit after each discourse, the meeting of the elders 
with their faithful and endeared minister, as if they said in the face 
of the whole assembly, " We'll stand by you in all that you have 
said to-day.-' One by one they would come up with their friendly 
and respectful smile, Halstead, and Irvin, and Smith, and Walker ; 
for a while there was another, who, in his great old age, seemed to 
receive something comforting every time he took his pastor's hand : 
it was old Mr. Auchincloss ; but he is dead years ago ; they have 
joined hands again in the upper sanctuary, and " they shall go no 
more out." But there was a more aged pilgrim still than they all, 
u and she was a widow," and yet surviving near her nineties. The 
Doctor never failed to meet Mrs. Bethune (the mother of a 
worthy and distinguished son) half way, and taking her time-worn 
hand in both of his, he seemed to feel as if he were the honored 
one, in being permitted thus to greet an aged saint on earth, who, 
any day, might be called to " go up higher." There was a respect- 
fulness and an affectionateness in his manner towards her which 
were well calculated to make her take her trembling yet eager 
steps, to get his greeting every time she was permitted to come up 
to the great congregation. 

Dr. Alexander was a man of liberal sentiments and a wide heart. 
In private and in public he has expressed his admiration of certain 
sentiments and practices of the Society of Friends. He had been 
thrown among them in early life, and seemed to speak with pleas- 
ure of the associations of the long departed past. 

An Episcopalian mother expressed a wish that Dr. Alexander, 
should christen her children. " No," said he, " I know your min- 
ister well, and respect and love him ; he will take good care of them, 
and I would not have him think that I interfered with his lambs." 

Shortly before he died, one of his own members, who, for 
nearness, had sent her small children to an Episcopal Sunday- 
school, asked him if she should continue to do so. " By all means 
for the present ; Dr. Tyng is my personal friend ; it is impossible 
for me to make my Sabbath-school as interesting as he does ; let 
them remain." 


The admiration with which his people regarded his preaching, 
may be inferred from the fact that there was a uniform and general 
feeling of disappointment the moment any other person appeared 
in the pulpit ; and we could frequently foretell that he was not to 
preach, on the moment of entering the church, by the comparative 
thinness of the audience, for, some how or other, the more inquisi- 
tive would find out when he was not to preach. His was perhaps 
the most uniformly filled church in New York. As a general 
thing, it was difficult to find a vacant seat for a stranger, in the 
afternoon. For more than a year before his death the lecture room 
on Thursday nights was crowded ; it held over four hundred per- 
sons, and chairs had to be brought in besides. We speak from 
observation, for we were seldom absent. His kindness of heart 
was such that he was uneasy if he saw a single person standing. 
We have seen him hand the only chair left in his desk, for some 
stranger or aged person. 

His humility and ungraspingness were strikingly exhibited in the 
year of the panic, in his persistent refusal to permit his salary to be 
increased by a thousand dollars, saying that for his habits of life 
his present pay was sufficient. But, without his knowledge, his 
considerate session invested the amount, to which a faithful people 
has promptly added enough to make the sum of twenty-five thou- 
sand dollars, to place his bereaved family in comfortable circum- 
stances as long as they live. They have done it out of love for him. 
" What a people and how unworthy am I of such demonstrations " 
would be his exclamation in the flesh. We sometimes feel as if 
we would like for him to know it, for it is too soon yet for us to 
" make him dead." 

If asked what was the most distinguished thing about him, we 
would most unhesitatingly say it was his prayers. Of all we have 
ever heard uttered, or read of the uninspired, Dr. Alexander's were 
the most devotional, the most heavenly. There was no human 
condition they did not reach. Sabbath after Sabbath for more than 
six months before his death, we debated whether we should not 
take down his prayers verbatim. If it could have been done with- 
out his observation or knowledge, we certainly should have done 
it. We next concluded to hire a reporter, but the difficulty in 
getting a faithful and conscientious one seemed to be insuperable 
in New York. His death found us inquiring for one. He seemed 
to get right at once into the presence of his Maker, and as if want- 
ing to improve his opportunity before he got away, his great broad 
heart would take all humanity within its folds. 


He seemed familiar with every phase of human sorrow. In a 
single prayer, and we made note of it at the time, he petitioned for 
those who were kept from the house of God by inclement weather, 
by the sickness of themselves or near relations, by the compulsion 
of others ; for those who were suffering in their good name in per- 
son, or in the person of others ; for those who were in actual want 
of food or raiment ; for those who were anticipating revealments 
which would affect their social position ; for those who were made 
bankrupt ; for those who were anticipating the loss of fortune ; for 
those who were writhing under the apprehension of failure to meet 
maturing pecuniary obligations ; for those who were hardened by 
worldly entanglements ; for those whose hearts were wrung by the 
mental derangement of friends, or of their own families ; for those 
who were afraid they should themselves go mad ; for those who felt 
they were castaways from God, and believed their perdition sealed. 
The impression made on our mind was so strong at the time, we 
felt almost ready to exclaim audibly, " What a miserable congrega- 
tion this is !" His prayers were uniformly most impressive. For- 
getting himself and his congregation, he would carry away at times 
in his great warm heart the wants of a world, and lay them right 
down at the mercy seat for God to look at, and pity and deliver. 

The influence which Dr. Alexander possessed over his people, 
without their feeling it, and in a certain sense, without his 
exercising it, may be inferred from the liberality of his congrega- 
tion. On the first Sabbath morning of each month he was accus- 
tomed to preach a sermon in reference to one of the leading bene- 
volences of the times, when checks would be thrown into the plate 
for five hundred, a thousand, "and three thousand dollars. The 
amount of a morning's contributions was from three to seven thou- 
sand dollars. The rapidity with which his influence and power 
grew in this regard, may be inferred from the fact, that in 1852, 
when he took charge of the Fifth Avenue Church, the contributions 
were less than four thousand dollars, while for several years past 
they have averaged over sixty thousand, besides many thousand 
more of private and unacknowledged charities. His membership 
more than doubled in seven years, numbering now over seven 
hundred. These are some of the tangible evidences that he lived 
to purpose ; and now that he is gone, at the early age of fifty-four, 
the waves of his influence will go out from his writings, benefiting 
and blessing wherever they roll, and many yet unborn will have 
reason to bless God throughout the ages that such a grand heart 
ever lived. 


Thus wrote we near two years ago, for the Fikeside Monthly, 
and reproduce it here to impress an important lesson in hygiene, 
by inquiring : Why did he die so soon ? There are clergy- 
men a score of years older than he was, who are still powerful 
and efficient workers in the great field of the world. It seems 
to us that an uncomputed wealth of influence for good was lost 
to the Church and to religion in general by his having passed 
away in the very meridian of his days. We can not say that 
it was by God's appointment ; at least we can not feel fully 
satisfied with resting in such a conclusion. It is safer and wiser 
to say that three-score years and ten should be the average- 
measure of our days, and that those who leave the stage sooner 
do so in consequence of their own conduct or that of their 
fellow-men ; the uncontrollable agencies of the " elements " 

Any one — the feeblest — can commit an error ; it requires a 
man to frankly acknowledge it. There is a greater courage 
than that of marching right in the face of belching cannon in 
the frenzy of battle ; it is that of enduring the agonies of the 
wheel and the stake for hours together, when a single word 
would cease the torment instantly. Only great minds and heroic 
hearts are capable of deeds like these. Last month a great 
name was mentioned who endured hunger in uncomplaining 
gentleness for two years. Within a dozen hours the common 
herd becomes fretful, passionate, and impatient of hunger. Not 
less great was the author of the Cause and Cure, than was 
the subject of this article, who, like too many Virginians, be- 
came extravagantly addicted to the use of tobacco, so much so 
that before he was thirty, it threatened his intellect, and that 
too before he became aware of the fact that it was owing to this 
species of intemperance that both mind and body were failing 
together. But no sooner was it distinctly placed before him, 
than by one heroic resolve he shattered the manacles which 
bound him, and never after took another " chew." But it was 
not done soon enough to save him from life-long sufferings. 
For years before his death, the palsied shaking of his head was 
apparent to all who heard him, while he was only kept out of 
the grave by frequent release from official duties and the recre- 
ations of travel. He repeated it to the writer, and had no hesi- 
tation in stating it to his friends, that his bodily infirmities were 


laid in the extravagant use of tobacco in his youth ; it robbed 
him of twenty years of life and of honorable usefulness to the 
church of his choice. Need another word be said to induce 
any young gentleman who is preparing for professional life and 
who is a slave to the weed, to rise in the might of his manhood 
and say : "I will never use it again ?" 

Tobacco in any form is not only a narcotic but it is a stimu- 
lant also ; it not only blunts the sensibilities, but it goads both 
mind and body to unnatural activities, and the machine made 
to run faster than was ever intended, wears out so much the 
sooner and long before its time, and stops forever! " Doctor, 
why do you use tobacco so?" said we a few months since to a 
physician whom we met on the street, whose whole mouth 
seemed to be so full of it that he was crunching it as persons 
do who have a mouthful of water-melon. " I must do it to keep 
down the pain in my teeth." We never saw him afterwards, 
and the record of his death reads thus in the American Medical 
Times : " He suffered from disease of the aortic valves of the 
heart, leading to dropsical effusion, resulting in mortification of 
the legs and feet, ending in tetanic symptoms and death." What 
a fearful concatenation of human maladies : heart disease, dropsy, 
mortification, and lockjaw ! any one of which ailments is enough 
to destroy an iron frame. But note : the disease began in the 
heart, that heart which had been kept in excess of excitement 
for so many years by the long, steady, and large use of tobacco. 

With beacon-lights like these shining full in his eyes, the 
man who persists in the employment of tobacco in any shape 
or form, and who, to all arguments against its employment, 
can only reply, " I can't," or " I won't," only confesses him- 
self a moral impotent or a reckless criminal ; for that it is a 
crime to knowingly persist in practices which are destructive 
to the body, can scarcely be denied. 

Tobacco does relieve pain, but it never cures, never removes, 
never eradicates pain ; it only blunts the sensibilities. Pain is 
nature's warning that something wrong is going on in the sys- 
tem, and urges its rectification ; tobacco suppresses the cry, by 
rendering the parts insensible to hurtful agencies, but those 
agencies do not cease, and as incessantly as before work away 
at the demolition of the body : a burning building is not the 
less in course of destruction because the inmates do not see or 

184 hall's journal of health. 

feel the fire. But tobacco excites; it stimulates to exertion 
which would not otherwise have been made. All exertion is at 
the expense of vital force, of life-power, of nervous energy, 
and in proportion as these are drawn upon in advance, a time 
must come, as with a balance in bank, when there are no assets 
to be drawn upon, and the life-power is bankrupt, the body fails 
and passes into the grave. Thus it is that when persons come 
to their final sickness, who have used stimulants largely, 
whether of tobacco, opium, or spirits, there is a lack of recu- 
perative power ; their disease is of the typhoid type ; there is 
no elasticity of mind or body ; the latter is weak, the former is 
asleep, and the patient lies for hours and days in an insensible 
state, or is only made conscious by shaking the body violently, 
by loud words, or by some acute pain, the death-throe of nature 
for existence. Mr. Webster died in this way, so did Mr. 
Douglas, and Count Cavour, and Dr. Eease, and multitudes 
of other eminent men, who by keeping the system stimulated 
beyond its natural condition, exhausted its vitality, its nervous 
power, in advance ; hence, when serious illness came, there was 
nothing to fall back upon, no recuperative power, and they 
now sleep in the grave! Webster and Douglas used alco- 
hol ; Choate used opium, as was said ; Eeese used tobacco ; 
Cavour was a gourmand, exhausted the life-power in advance, 
by overtaxing the powers of the stomach. It is notorious that 
the men who, working about the breweries of London, swill 
beer by the gallon daily, do, by the time they reach forty 
years, become so deficient in recuperative power that an abra- 
sion of the skin, a cut of the finger, and even the puncture of 
a splinter or the scratch of a pin, is almost as certainly fatal as 
a bullet through the brain or body. These are terrible teach- 
ings, but they are true. 


Much that is untrue has been communicated to the public as 
to the healthfullness and unhealthfulness of night-air, for want 
of enlarged information and opportunities of observation on the 
part of the writers. There is no one universal, safe rule ; what 
is a healthful practice in one latitude, or one locality, or one 
season, may be deadly in another. Peculiarity of constitution 
modifies all rules on this subject. The only safe plan, there- 


fore, is, to enunciate certain well-established principles, which 
the intelligent- reader mnst wisely apply in practice. 

There is nothing necessarily injurious in the night-air, even 
to feeble, delicate persons, in our latitude, or any season of the 
year, provided a hot meal has been taken, and the person exer- 
cises with sufficient activity to be comfortably warm, and keep 
off a feeling of fatigue ; but as soon as the exercise ceases, 
shelter should be taken in a house. With these precautions, 
exposure to the night-air is a positive good to sick and well, as 
a very general rule, because the in-door air is the out-door air 
mixed with various in-door sources of impurity. 

Except in the miasmatic season of the year, which, in lati- 
tudes north of thirty -five, may be embraced between the first 
days of August and October, most persons may sleep with im- 
punity, and even with advantage, in the open air, with the sky 
for a canopy, if there is enough covering to keep the body com- 
fortably warm. Whether in sleeping in a house, the windows 
should be open or closed, depends on the part of the house oc- 
cupied, and on the season of the year. Many a life is annually 
lost by not taking these points into account. In our book on 
11 Sleep," the laws of miasm are clearly stated ; and this can 
not be done too often, nor can they be too well or too gener- 
ally understood, because it is a subject of vital importance to 
every human being. 

When it is cool enough to keep fires in the house all day, 
and until the nights begin to get cool in the autumn, it is far 
better for both sick and well, whether sleeping in the cellar or 
in the garret, to have an abundant supply of out-door air 
coming into the chamber from windows let down at the top, 
and raised from the bottom, more or less, according to the 
size of the room, the number occupying it, and the season of 
the year ; always, however, arranging that a draught of air 
should not be on the sleeper. 

In the miasmatic season, a discrimination should be made 
and a sound judgment should be exercised. The general rule 
is, that during August and September, when the days are hot 
and the nights are cool, in flat localities, along watercourses, 
and near lakes and ponds, persons sleeping on the ground-floor 
should close all the outer doors and windows, but in the upper 
stories the windows may be opened, and the inner doors closed, 


because the cold keeps the miasm, the disease-engendering 
agency, near the earth's surface, within the first five or six feet, 
and lower in proportion to the greater coolness ; as you ascend 
above that point, the air becomes purer and purer. Some of 
this malignant air will enter the chamber through the crevices 
of the windows and doors, although they may be closed ; but it 
enters in such small quantities that it is immediately warmed, 
for it is ordinarily ten degrees warmer in-doors than without, at 
night, in the autumn ; and this greater warmth rarefies the in- 
coming air, and sends it at once to the ceiling, where it can not be 
breathed. As this bad air is below the upper stories of a build- 
ing, the windows may be opened ; yet, as inside the building, 
it seeks the upper portions, the inner doors should be closed, 
so that it should be admitted in as small quantities as possible. 
The great general fact is this : miasm and carbonic acid gas, 
mingled in the air we breathe, will cause death in a month, or 
in a minute, according to their concentration, according to the 
strength of the mixture. Cold causes them both to seek the 
surface of the earth or the floor ; hence in a cold chamber the 
nearer the ceiling you sleep the purer the air is ■; but in a warm 
chamber the purest air is on the floor, as the warmth sends the 
poisonous gases to the ceiling. At the first glance all this ap- 
pears vexatiously complex ; but when the natural law on the 
subject is clearly perceived, it is beautifully simple, as all God's 
laws are, and as wise and beneficent as they are beautiful and 


With all the earnestness of our nature we urge on every 
subscriber and every casual reader of this Journal to notice the 
article headed "Pay your Debts" in the last number; and 
when you have read it, have the manliness, the moral courage 
the humanity, the Christian consistency, to make out a list of 
every indebtedness, and let not one single dollar remain in your 
purse overnight, unless it be that you are saving it to make up 
an amount to meet an imperative engagement. It is an abso- 
lute cruelty for any man who owes another, in these times, to 
permit money to lie idle in his hands. There are times when a 
single dollar may lift a mountain weight from the heart of a 
man who is worth thousands. A publisher narrated in our 


office, not long ago, an incident in reference to himself. "For 
a long time I had been preparing to meet a bank debt ; it was 
a large sum to me — the only note in the world I had against 
me. Pay-day came, and I was not prepared. My wife and I 
had talked it over many times. She bravely denied herself 
even seasonable clothing, and arranged things in the kitchen so 
as to diminish the indispensable outlays to the smallest possible 
amount. Various persons who were owing had promised to do 
all in their power to help me in the emergency, for I went so 
far as to plainly state my case, and almost plead with them to 
do their best, their very best. But when the morning of the 
dreaded day came, the sun shone bright and beautiful, but 
there was no brightness nor beauty in it to me and mine. When 
the little children came to the breakfast- table there was such an 
ominous silence, that without any reference being made to the 
all-absorbing subject, even they seemed to feel the presence of 
an incubus. As is too often the case in . such emergencies, one 
reliance fails, then another, and finally what a man can't do 
himself must remain undone. However, there at length re- 
mained only one dollar, a single dollar literally was wanting, 
after gathering up every penny in the house, even entrenching 
on the little savings of the children. Three o'clock was rapidly 
approaching, and the dreaded protest. What imaginings of 
ruin crowded my brain, coming and going with each successive 
turn of events ! I could have borrowed the miserable dollar 
from any one of a multitude of friends ; but I didn't borrow 
money, that involves reciprocities, magnified with Lord Eoss's 
telescope ; besides, to ask a friend to lend me a dollar, to have 
to confess I needed a single dollar so much, I could not stand 
it ! A neighbor had owed me a dollar for a small book ; it had 
been due a year ; he had often told me to send for it, but I did 
not employ collectors, and to go myself to collect a dollar was 
" infra dig" I could not stay in the house any longer. The 
mind wanted relief. I went out into the street as aimlessly as 
any loafing saunterer that ever disgraced manhood. Would 
you believe it, I met the very man who owed me the im- 
mensely-desired dollar, and before he came in hailing distance, 
he began to feel for his pocket-book, and with apologies for his 
remissness, he handed the amount ! And what do you think I 
did ? Why, like many a— I don't know what — before, I made 


out as if it was of no sort of consequence ; that any other time 
would have done as well — in fact, if it had never been paid, it 
was of no moment whatever ; and no actor on the stage could 
have exceeded the inimitable indifference with which I put out 
my hand to receive the rag. But as soon as he turned the cor- 
ner, didn't I clutch .that paper* dollar ! didn't I heel it down to 
Wall-street at 2 : 40 — and " better," by a baker's dozen ? Didn't 
I take up that note, and vow most religiously that I never 
would give a note in hand again the longest day I lived ? Nor 
have I yet. But every time I think of it there is a sinking 
within my bosom, and an abasement at the remembrance that I 
was still full of poor weak human nature in that " I made be- 
lieve " I didn't care about that contemptible dollar. Eeader, 
there are multitudes of similar cases taking place in New- York 
and other large cities and towns every day. If every subscriber 
to a newspaper or magazine would but have the honesty to remit 
a due subscription the instant he lays down this paper, nay, 
more, if every such person who has the amount in his pocket, 
or at home, would do this at this juncture, an amount of de- 
pression, if not of agonizing anxiety, would be removed from a 
large class of industrious, hard-working, indulgent, and. honor- 
able publishers of newspapers, of books, and of magazines, that 
is utterly incalculable. Not a solitary subscriber owes us a 
dollar ; on the contrary, we owe them four more Journals ; but 
we are urging a plea for our exchanges, some of whom have 
stopped, others are in a deadly drag, and many more must fall 
into the same condemnation, some of them losing the products 
of the labor of a lifetime ; and all this because the men whom 
they have done so much to amuse and instruct and gratify, 
withhold the pittance of a dollar or two or three, which they 
could certainly pay, if they had but the will. Shame, a burn- 
ing shame, to all such ! 

The order of payment is of great practical importance. It 
is a ten-fold economy of happiness and health to pay ten debts 
averaging a dollar each, than to pay one of ten dollars ; for ten 
persons are gratified, ten holes are stopped, ten chances of 
being dunned are removed instead of one, ten annoyances are 
got rid of instead of one ; for what is a greater annoyance, a 
greater jar on a sensitive mind than to be dunned for a dollar 
when there is not a penny in the pocket ? You feel mean be- 

ckoup. 189 

cause you are so poor, and meaner still from the consciousness 
that your neighbor has found out that you can not pay a 
contemptible dollar, while if you know that he really needs it, 
mortification and regret are added to the catalogue. The 
smallest debts should be paid first, on the presumption that the 
smaller the debt, the poorer is your creditor, the less his ability 
to borrow, in case he is disappointed in getting what you owe 
him, and the less can he afford the time required in calling on 

CROUP is an inflammation of the inner surface of the wind- 
pipe. Inflammation implies heat, and that heat must be sub- 
dued or the patient will inevitably die. If prompt efforts, are 
made to cool the parts in case of an attack of croup, relief will 
be as prompt as it is surprising and delightful. All know that 
cold applied to a hot skin cools it, but all do not as well know 
and understand, that hot water applied to an inflamed skin will 
as certainly cool it off. Hence the application of ice-cold water 
with linen cloths, or of almost boiling water with woolen flan- 
nel, are very efficient in the cure of croup. Take two or three 
pieces of woolen flannel of two folds, large enough to cover the 
whole throat and upper part of the chest, put these in a pan of 
water as hot as the hand can bear, and keep it thus hot, by 
adding water from a boiling tea-kettle at hand ; let two of the 
flannels be in the hot water all the time, and one on the throat 
all the time, with a dry flannel covering the wet one, so as to 
keep the steam in to some extent ; the flannels should not be 
so wet, when put on, as to dribble the water, for it is important 
to keep the clothing as dry as possible, and the body and feet 
of the child comfortable and warm. As soon as one flannel 
gets a little cool, put on another hot one, with as little interval 
of exposure as possible, and keep up this process until the 
doctor comes, or until the phlegm is loose, the child easier, and 
begins to fall to sleep ; then gently wrap a dry flannel over the 
wet one which is on, so as to cover it up thoroughly, and the 
child is saved. When it wakes up, both flannels will be dry. 
The same results will follow if cold water is used, the colder 
the better ; the cloths should be of muslin or linen and of 
several folds thickness, large enough to cover the whole throat 
and the upper part of the breast. Hold a dry flannel over the wet 

190 r hall's jouenal of health. 

muslin, and as soon as the latter gets a very little warm, replace 
it with an ice-cold one. In this manner the most remarkable 
and grateful relief will be experienced within fifteen minutes, 
if the false membrane has not begun to form. If these appli- 
cations are commenced on the first approach of croupy symp- 
toms, they may be necessary for an hour or two ; if delayed 
until death is imminent, they should be continued for days, if 
necessary ; easier breathing, looser phlegm, and lessening rest- 
lessness being the certain signs of improvement, that danger 
is passing away. 

Thus hot and cold water are both efficacious, because heat is 
essential to inflammation ; if the heat is diminished, the inflam- 
mation must subside ; cold water applied to the skin with suc- 
cessive ice-cold cloths, or a stream of cold water, or by a cake 
of snow, or a piece or bag of ice, causes great coldness in a 
direct manner. Hot water cools the surface by becoming steam, 
which absorbs an immense amount of heat, and rising, carries 
it from the body. Water absorbs more than a thousand de- 
grees of heat before it becomes steam or vapor. Hot water is 
a more agreeable, a less shocking method of affording relief 
than cold, and is, perhaps, more generally accessible than ice- 
cold water. Linen cloths should be used with cold water, be- 
cause it is known that a piece of wet linen or muslin applied 
to the skin feels colder than a piece of wet flannel, both having 
been dipped in cold water. The linen is a better conductor, 
carries off heat more rapidly. In the use of hot water, on the 
other hand, woolen should be used, because the object is to in- 
crease the heat, or rather retain it so as the more speedily to 
convert the water into steam, which carries off heat with many 
times greater rapidity than an ice-cold linen cloth. The rea- 
sons of these things are mentioned so that their application may 
be made more understandingly, and consequently more effi- 
ciently. Croup is a disease of early childhood, and is always 
brought on by a cold, generally resulting from exposure to the 
raw, damp air of sundown in the early spring and later fall, 
March and November. 

S DREAM. 191 

The grandest, happiest hour of Jacob's life did not seem thus grand 
and happy, until it had departed, not to be repeated thus forever. 
And so are present hours of sunshine to us ever passing, but we 
recognize the sunshine only by the coming shade. Happy they 
who are wise enough to perceive and feel and enjoy life's sunshines 
while they are present. There ai^e many who not only have not 
enjoyed their sunshine, were not conscious of its presence, but when 
it has passed, make life miserable in the vain regrets of not having 
appreciated and improved it while it was passing. 

What heart-pangs daily seize on many a child (now grown to 
manhood) in memory of days departed, when father and mother 
were alive, in that they had not done more to make that father and 
mother happy ; in that they had not done more to consult their 
wishes, to soothe their sorrows, to smooth their pillows, and strew 
their later pathway with flowers and smiles and sweet caresses ; 
how sadly, and as vain as sad, do they remember thousands of op- 
portunities wherein by little attentions, costing nothing at the time 
worth naming, tney might have moved a stone out of their way and 
put a rose where was a thorn, or sung a song where there was a 

Many a time does the heart-breaking apostrophe leap from the 
bosom prison : My sister, why was I not kinder to thee ! Dear 
brother, why did I not lend you more of my sympathy, and by 
kindly counsel and more substantial aid, help you in the time of 
your discouragement and trouble ! And quite as often in the mar- 
ried relation is there a failure of proper appreciation of the hus- 
band or wife, until beyond all sympathy or praise ; then vain the 
apostrophe : Could I have you back but one hour, how would my in- 
most soul leap out in love and my eyes run rivers of penitential water ! 

To go down to the grave then without bitter remorses, to have 
an old age crowded with dear delightful memories, cultivate the 
habit of perceiving and enjoying the present sunshine, of appreci- 
ating present blessings and present happiness ; cultivate, sedulously 
cultivate a respectful affectionate attention to parental wishes, to 
the promotion of parental comfort and peace and quietude and 
gladness, and to all your kindred, especially to those nearest to 
you ; aim steadily, not merely to discharge your whole duty, for 
that is a cold word in this connection, but let your whole life go 
out to them in willing sympathies, in timely assistance, in generous 
allowances, and in forbearances loving, and long, and sweet. Such 
a course will bring present rewards, and will lay up for the future a 
store of delightful satisfactions to be feasted on till life's latest 



In June, 1842, I began the practice of transcribing any short 
impressive sentence which occurred in reading ; this habit is com- 
mended to the young as possessing very great advantages, requir- 
ing at times considerable moral courage, but affording ever after 
an enduring source of instruction and enjoyment. The work be- 
gan thus, with an occasional originality : 

" In miscellaneous reading some sentences strike the mind with 
peculiar force. The following appear to me to be very truthful, and 
may possibly indicate character : " 

Great devotion to literary pursuits, without active exertion, of- 
ten engenders indecision and want of manliness. 

The heart that has once unwisely confided may break in its lone- 
liness, but can never trust wholly again. 

The true education of each man should commence when his col- 
legiate studies are concluded. 

The happiness of the heart induces seriousness, not noise or mirth. 

Love is the sun of every society of the moral universe. 

The heart that has anything to love and is loved in return, can 
never be utterly and remedilessly wretched. 

One may feel as solitary in a crowd as in a desert. 

The remembrance of duties heartlessly performed gives little sat- 

It is easier to take away a good name than to restore it. 

Better to have chosen friends in the country than to be chosen 
friends in town. 

I scarcely ever knew an instance of the companions of one's boy- 
hood being agreeable to the tastes of one's manhood. 

A fool flatters himself, a wise man flatters a fool. 
Moments sometimes make the hues in which years are colored. 
Pride is a spring-board at one time, and a stumbling-block at 

O, once I loved another girl ! 

Her name it was Mariar, 
But Polly, dear, my love for you 
Is forty-five times higher ! 
Few accomplishments so much aid the charms of female beauty 
as a graceful and even utterance, while nothing so soon produces 


the disenchantment that necessarily follows discrepancy between 
appearance and manner, as a mean intonation of voice or a vulgar 
use of words. 

Men are seldom struck with incongruities in their own appear- 
ance any more than in their own conduct. 

Tears to many bring relief, but to the broken heart they only 
widen the wound. 

• A dreary thing it is to walk through the crowded street and see 
smiles wreathing around bright faces when they meet faces as 
bright as themselves, glad eyes lighting up at the sight of those 
whom they love, friend meeting friend, taking him by the hand 
with kind wishes and inquiries, and then look in upon your own 
lonely heart and feel that none of these are for you. 

JSTothing is so apt to disgust a feeling mind as a mistaken zeal. 

We may have a thousand resources of happiness, but without a 
consciousness of rectitude of purpose, not one of all of them will avail. 
Bolingbroke, impeached within twelve months for high treason 
both by whig andtory — whom he had alternately served — banished, 
confiscated, condemned, was found at last to make out happiness 
from a consciousness of his own designs, and to consider all the 
rest of mankind as uniting in a faction to oppress virtue, imper- 
sonated (as he imagined) in himself. 

An ambitious mind can never be fairly subdued, but will still 
seek for those gratifications which retirement can never supply. 

Things written on an occasion, seldom survive that occasion. 

"With what mingled pleasure and pride do we learn that some 
great man had some deficiency of which we ourselves feel conscious, 
then foolishly imagine that we are great from having one or more 
of the foibles of the great. They were great in spite of those 
foibles ; we are great in consequence of them. Because Goldsmith 
was a fool in mixed company, and Addison an ass, it does not fol- 
low that all fools and asses are Goldsmiths and Addisons.- 

He who assumes to be what he is not, will inevitably become 
nothing at all.. 

If a man becomes notable, he must make, not receive, an im- 

The surest and most speedy road to distinction is the diligent 
cultivation of natural tact. 

To be elucidated into obscurity. 


There are hours in which the mind of a literary man is unhinged, 
when the intellectual faculties lose all their elasticity, and when 
none but the simplest actions are adapted to their enfeebled state. 
At such times Bayle looked at clowns, and the Jewish Socrates, 
Moses Mendelssohn, stood, at his window and counted the shingles 
on his neighbor's house. 

Bayle said he could never comprehend the demonstration of 
Euclid's first problem. 

Reading without reflection will never make a man wise. 

Invention depends on patience ; contemplate your subject long ; 
it will gradually unfold until a sort of electric spark for a moment 
convulses the brain and spreads down to the very heart a glow of 
irritation, then come the luxuries of genius. 

Conscience, when once hushed to sleep, may rise to torture, but 
will wake no more to save. 

We darken our own lot, then call our sorrows destiny. 

Unruffled self-possession is the philosophy of society. 

From the follies of youth spring many of life's after sorrows. 

Every occurrence that awakens a new emotion in childhood, is the 
forerunner of everlasting consequences. 

History, at best, is in many respects a fable, a record of mistakes 
and prejudices. 

He who cannot conceal his vexation, makes himself a laughing- 
stock for his enemies. 


On the tenth day of December, 1799, " full of health and vigor, 
Washington looked forward to his long-cherished hope — the enjoy- 
ment of a serene old age at Mount Vernon, the home of his heart." 
On that day he completed a manuscript book of thirty pages, de- 
tailing a complete system for the management of his estate for 
many succeeding years, specifying the cultivation of the several 
farms, with tables designating the rotation of crops. This manu- 
script was accompanied by a letter to his manager ; this was on 
Wednesday ; on the Saturday following, Washington was dead. 

Multitudes are there whose existence is one, continued struggle 
for the means which will enable them to retire to the country and 
live at their ease for the remainder of life^. * How few of all that 


company succeed, need not be expressed here ; and of that small 
number more than half have their hearts so eaten out by the con- 
flicts of life, that no lusciousness is left, nx> zest for the pure and 
quiet joys of the country — nothing left but the dry, hard greed of 
gold, and bitter reflections as to the deep depravity of their fellow 
men ; no sunshine lights up their countenances ; no kindly words 
escape their lips ; no generous acts mark out their daily lives ; all 
humanity has died out in them ; they have only one joy, and it a 
semblance — the joy of clutching and hoarding money. Against a 
life so terrible as this there is a protection — there is a happy de- 
liverance ; it consists in wisely enjoying what we may of the 
present, instead of setting apart a future for it, which we may never, 
see ; all along aiming by word and deed and thought and prayer 
to secure a resting place in heaven. 


In the earliest ages the mode of imparting information was verb- 
al ; was by familiar communications. Later, Homer sung and 
philosophers recited in more set forms. Further on in time, the 
steel on the stone ; then the pen on papyrus ; next, books ; last, 
newspapers and the periodical press; this is an agency which 
stretches its arm over the habitable globe; no deep ravine, no 
mountain top ; nor broad savannas, nor shoreless seas ; no prairie, 
no forest which it does not reach ; it penetrates the prisoner's 
dungeon ; it reaches to the courts of kings ; not a page that does 
not make its mark, not a line but has its influence ; and whether 
for ill unending, or eternal good, depends on the character of that 
line or page, its falsehood or its truth ; one or the other it must be. 

The periodical press is now the chief educator of the masses of 
civilized lands, and it is always at work ; in the silence of night as 
well as in the glare of day ; in the hum of the city as well as in the 
secret closet ; and most, may-be, in the darkness and in the closet, 
for then and there reflection comes, aided by stillness and silence, 
to deepen impressions and fix ideas in the brain, ready for the ac- 
tion of the life. 

Water falling on the head drop by drop on the same unchanged 
spot, makes a man a raving maniac in very brief space ; so ideas, 
one by one, falling on the brain or impressing the heart, have an 
influence for the terrible or the blessed not less certain than the 


ceaseless falling drops, to craze that brain, to crush out that 
heart's affections, or to lighten, beatify, and bless. 

To supervise then the ideas, the reading which comes day by 
day in their tiny instalments of drop by drop upon the brains and 
hearts of the young, would seem to be among the first things of a 
father's duty, of a mother's care. And if in this age of bustle and 
hurry, parents and guardians have not the time to read first all 
that comes before the eyes of the young, the next best course is to 
purchase such books and patronize such publications as come from 
men whose past lives and writings give assurance that nothing 
can come from them which is not pure, profitable, and true ; dis- 
carding resolutely that large class of publications which panders to 
the prevailing opinions of to-day, which at one time is virtuous, at 
another vicious ; at one time on the side of law and order, at 
another standing shoulder to shoulder with disorganizes ; at one 
time for the Sabbath, at another against it ; at one time for the 
Bible and for religion, but ready at any hour, for a consideration, to 
lend temporary aid and comfort to the enemies of both. Let all 
the good, then, have to do with those who, in a true sense, are thfc 
same all the time. 



I believe it to be a much better piece of wisdom to think the 
best of men rather than the worst. I had rather be cheated, once 
in a while, and hold to the general tenor of this trust, than to wear 
a double magnifying lens of suspicion, and be always safe. Nay, 
am I not cheated in this way just as much, and more ? By adopt- 
ing this suspicious method, I both cheat and am cheated. I cheat 
many an honest man of his just claim upon my regard and confi- 
dence, and I am cheated out of the blessedness of whole-hearted 
love and kindly association. Therefore the unmerciful man is most 
certainly an unblessed man. His sympathies are all dried. up; 
he is afflicted with a chronic jaundice, and lives, timidly and darkly, 
in a little narrow rat-hole of distrust. He has no free use of the 
world ; he breathes no liberal and generous air ; he walks in no 
genial sunshine. He loses all the bliss" that comes from sympathy, 
from open-heartedness, from familiar and confiding association. 
More than this, such a theory of humanity is an open self-condemn- 
ation. Whence has he derived this theory ? Upon what premises 


has he built it up ? Surely, from his own self-consciousness, from 
his own personal experience. There is darkness within him, and so 
darkness falls upon everything. His own actions are sinister, and 
so all humanity squints. The suspicious man, the man who distrusts 
all other men, and so is unmerciful to all, reveals himself as a mean 
man. For I urge, that not only is this an unmerciful view of men 
in general — it is an unjust view. The goodness of people around us 
is not all a mask. There is much that is " sounding brass and tink- 
ling cymbal," but also there is sweet and true music. I believe those 
men who seem to us the worst, seem worse than they really are. I 
believe there is some vein of light in the darkest heart — some extenu- 
ating influence in the basest life. Now, it is well not to run into 
extremes, but to regard men as they are — creatures with mixed mo- 
tives and complex natures. But if an extreme we must have — if 
we will adopt a sweeping theory respecting mankind in general — 
I repeat, it is better to think the best of them rather than the worst, 
and run the risk. 



Where do men usually discover the women who afterwards be- 
come their wives ? — is a question we have occasionally heard dis- 
cussed, and the custom has invariably become of value to young 
lady readers. Chance has much to do in the affair, but then there 
are important and governing circumstances. It is certain that few 
men make a selection from ball-rooms, or any other places of pub- 
lic gayety, and nearly as few are influenced by what may be called 
" showing off " in the streets, or by any allurements of dress. Our 
conviction is, that ninety-nine hundred parts of all the finery with 
which women decorate or load their persons go for nothing, as far 
as husband-catching is concerned. Where, and how, then, do men 
find their wives ? In the quiet homes of their parents or guard- 
ians, at the fireside, where the domestic graces and feelings are 
alone demonstrated. These are the charms which most surely at- 
tract the high as well as the humble. Against these, all the finery 
and airs in the world sink into insignificance. We shall illustrate 
this by an anecdote. 

A certain gentleman, whose health was rapidly declining, was 
advised by his physicians to try a change of climate as a means for 
recovering his health. His daughters feared that those who had 


only motives entirely mercenary, would not pay him that attention 
which he might expect from those who, from dnty and affection 
united, would feel the greatest pleasure in ministering to his ease 
and comfort. They therefore resolved to accompany him. They 
proved that it was not a spirit of dissipation and gayety that led 
them to do this, for they were not to be seen in any of the gay and 
fashionable circles ; they were never out of their father's company, and 
never stirred from home except to attend him, either to take the air, 
or drink the waters. In a word they lived a recluse life in the midst 
of a town then the resort of the most illustrious and fashionable 
personages of Europe. This exemplary attention to their father 
procured these three amiable sisters the admiration of all the Eng- 
lish at S , and w r as the cause of their elevation to that rank 

in life to which their merits gave them so just a title. They were 

all married to noblemen — one to the Earl of B , another to the 

Duke of H , and afterwards to the Marquis of E , and a 

third to the Duke of 1ST ; and it is justice to them to say, that 

they reflected honor on their rank, rather than derived any from it. 


The late Duke of Buccleugh, in one of his walks, purchased a 
cow in the neighborhood of Dalkeith, which was to be sent to his 
palace on the following morning. The Duke in his morning dress 
espied a boy early ineffectually attempting to drive the animal for- 
ward to its destination. The boy not knowing the Duke, bawled 
out to him, " Hie, mun, come here, an' gie's a han' wi' this beast." 
The Duke walked on slowly, the boy still craving his assistance, 
and at last, in a tone of distress, exclaimed, " Come here, mun, an' 
help us, an' as sure as onything I'll gie you half I get !" The Duke 
went and lent a helping hand. " And now," said the Duke, as 
they trudged along, "how much do ye think ye'll get for this 
job ?" " I dinna ken," said the boy, " but I'm sure o' something, 
for the folk up by at the big house are gude to a' bodies." As 
they approached the house, the Duke disappeared from the boy, 
and entered by a different way. Calling a servant, he put a sover- 
eign into his hand, saying, " Give that to the boy who brought 
the cow." The Duke having returned to the avenue, was soon 
rejoined by the boy. "Well, how much did you get?" said the 
Duke. " A shilling," said the boy, " an' there's half o' it to ye." 
" But you surely got more than a shilling," said the Duke. " No," 


said the boy, " as sure as death that's a' I got — an' d'ye no think 
it's plenty ?" " I do not," said the Duke, " there must be some 
mistake ; and as I am acquainted with the Duke, if you return, I 
think I'll get you more." They went back, the Duke rang the 
bell, and ordered all the servants to be assembled. " Now," said 
the Duke to the boy, " point me out the person that' gave you the 
shilling." "It was that chap there with the apron" — pointing 
to the butler. The butler confessed, fell on his knees, and attempted 
an apology ; but the Duke indignantly ordered him to give the boy 
the sovereign, and quit his service instantly. "You have lost," 
said the Duke, " your money, your situation, and your character by 
your covetousness ; learn henceforth that honesty is the best policy." 
The boy by this time recognized his assistant in the person of the 
Duke ; and the Duke was so delighted with the sterling worth and 
honesty of the boy, that he ordered him to be sent to school, kept 
there, and provided for at his own expense. — Ano:n". 


Has its advantages and disadvantages, and there is reason to 
believe that, under the present order of things, it is proper and 
necessary that families should rent or own their pews, with modifi- 
cations according to circumstances. It might answer an excellent 
practical purpose for each pew owner to open the door (if there is 
a vacancy) as soon as he knows that all the members of the family 
to be expected on the occasion are in. Such an arrangement would 
relieve the sexton of a delicate duty, and would be a tacit invitation 
to those waiting for a seat at the threshold, and thus enable all to 
be accommodated within a few minutes of the commencement of 
the services. 

The Saturday newspapers regularly contain a column or more of 
notices of public service at particular places, with a direct or implied 
invitation to the public to attend ; and yet, in too many cases, when 
the public do attend, they are negligently, if not discourteously 
and insultingly treated. The daily press contained a notice lately, 
that on the last Sabbath of the month, the house on Fourth Av- 
enue where Dr. Bellows officiates, would be re-opened, when that 
gentleman would address the people. For a variety of reasons we 
attended with two ladies, one of them of great culture from a dis- 
tant State. Having a special desire to hear the distinguished 
speaker, we were there some minutes before the time. There was 


quite a crowd of persons at the vestibule ; perhaps a hundred were 
already seated. There was one sexton to show strangers to seats, 
but this was so slow a process that the crowd was steadily increas- 
ing. Those who were entitled to seats could scarce pass, and the 
impatient exclamation from a richly-dressed woman — " let me by " — 
was no more agreeable to hear than the voice of the sexton, which 
soon followed ; for, seeing that with all his efforts there was no vis- 
ible diminution of the number of those who were waiting, he made 
a kind of speech to the crowd, which, with a sweeping wave of the 
hand, seemed to mean that all were included, " there are plenty of 
good seats in the gallery ;" but whether for ladies, gentlemen, or 
pigs, was not stated. We concluded, under all the circumstances 
of the case, to withdraw to some more hospitable clime, and passed 
on to Calvary church, where the model sermonizer officiates. As 
no man can listen to Dr. Hawks five minutes without profit and in- 
struction, we determined to make some sacrifices, feeling sure, from 
very many previous occasions, that we would be fully compen- 
sated. We took the liberty of finding seats for the ladies at 
once, and retired among the undistinguishable crowd of waiters, to 
bide our time. A number of pews had but a single occupant. 
They were coming to the inimitable litany, and we had no seat. A 
lady in front of us had several times looked around, as if she were 
distressed at seeing so many persons standing so long, and taking 
it as an invitation, we made ourselves the second occupant of her 
pew ; and as she took some pains to show us all the places, and 
with great courtesy invited us nearer to her so that we could see 
and listen to the greatest advantage, we soon felt at home ; but at 
the commencement of the discourse there were ladies and gentle- 
men still standing. At the end of the service we paid for our 
seat in the way of a general collection. At the oj)era we pay first, 
and are promptly and deferentially conducted to a seat, without 
the penance of standing twenty minutes or half an hour. These 
things ought not to be. Considerate persons will wait patiently 
for many minutes, but the great majority are so ruffled in their 
minds if there is a longer waiting than five or ten minutes, that 
they are not benefited by anything that follows. It is therefore 

That one or two persons be stationed at the head of each 
aisle, from fifteen minutes before the service until the commence- 
ment of the second hymn, as at Mr. Chapin's, in Broadway, thus 
showing that his Gospel is literally for all, and not for those only 
who can purchase pews at one and two thousand dollars apiece. 


Our Legitimate Scope is almost boundless : for whatever begets pleasurable 
and harmless feelings, promotes Health ; and whatever induces 
disagreeable sensations, engenders Disease. 


Vol. VIII.] SEPTEMBER, 1861. [No. 9. 


0;n the wings of the viewless winds in September, the sick- 
liest month of the year, there is wafted an agency of disease 
and death, so ethereal in its nature, so intangible to mortal sense, 
so insinuating, so all-pervading, that no alembic can detect its 
presence, no prison-bar or palace-gate can prevent its entrance. 
It is called " Miasm ;" it is an emanation from the surface of 
the earth wherever there is vegetation, moisture, and heat equal 
to eighty degrees, and is the fruitful cause of many diseases 
which ravage whole communities at a time, such as agues, 
fevers, diarrhea, dysentery, cholera, pestilence, and plague. 
But its laws are known, (see September Joubnal, I860,) and 
its destructive agencies can be averted by avoiding exposure 
and fatigue in the out-door air for the hours including sunrise 
and sunset, at which times a hot breakfast and supper should 
be eaten, by a good fire, in all prairie, flat, water-course, and 
lake and sea-shore situations. If the common people could only 
be induced to take these simple, easy, practicable, and compre- 
hensible precautions, these diseases would be prevented as epi- 
demics, or averted in their progress, as certainly as that care 
can prevent the firing of a town, and that water will put it out. 
These are the teachings of science, and experiment has demon- 
strated their truth beyond a cavil. Yet who will take these 
precautions ? 




Health and Disease — a Book for the People. By Dr. W. W. Hall, author of 
"Bronchitis and Kindred Diseases ;" of " Consumption," and Editor of " Hall's 
Journal of Health." New York, A. D. 1859. 

This is one of the most valuable books on Health and Disease 
that has fallen into my hands. It is written in a vigorous and trans- 
parent style, and is especially invaluable to public speakers, whether 
in-door or out-door speakers, and most especially invaluable to those 
called " preachers of the Gospel." It should be read and re-read 
by every preacher of the Gospel, and especially by the out-door 
speakers, of which class so many every year fall a prey to their 
ignorance and suicidal mannerisms in the violent inspirations and 
expirations of their lungs, or in one word, to their unnatural respi- 
ration. We have, at present, space only for the following extract : 

" Public speakers, singers, auctioneers, etc., often bring on fatal 
diseases by the improper exercise of the vocal organs, and failing to 
protect them from cold immediately after. If a man speaks or sings 
in the air, or even in a house, where there is a current of air passing 
him, there are two causes of danger in operation. It requires more 
effort to speak in the open air, or in a draught, as in the hall, or pas- 
sage, or stairway of a building ; that effort debilitates the voice- 
organs sooner than he is aware, and with that effort and debility 
there is unnatural heat, while the current of air is constantly convey- 
ing the heat away from the body, depriving it of its natural amount, 
leaving the speaker or singer in the end weakened, exhausted, and 
if not really chilled,' soon becomes so after ceasing the exercise. In 
all public speaking there is considerable muscular exertion, and al- 
ways mental and bodily fatigue — sometimes almost exhaustion. 
The body perspires freely ; it is not unfrequently that the inner 
garment is wet with perspiration. In this condition the body is 
chilled by very slight exposures ; a very little wind, especially if the 
person stands still, or rides on horseback, or in a carriage, where 
there is no opportunity of muscular motion, is sufficient to bring 
on disease. To neglect the following precautions after exercising 
the vocal organs in a company, congregation, or other collection 
of persons, either in a parlor, public building, or in the open air, is 
suicidal. As soon as the exercises cease, put on an additional gar- 
ment — shawl, coat cloak, or hat — and before leaving the building, 


especially in fire-time of year, bundle up well, put on gloves, close 
the mouth, pass out and walk on quickly. When the weather is 
decidedly cold, or damp, or windy, it is important to remain in the 
house five or ten minutes after the exercise, so as to allow the body 
to part with some of its heat, and the perspiration to subside or 
evaporate. The object of walking is to keep the blood in circula- 
tion and prevent a feeling of chilliness. The mouth should be kept 
closed, so that the cold air shall not pass directly to the throat and 
voice-organs, but shall be sent through the nose and head around 
to the throat and lungs, thus allowing it to get a little warmed in 
its circuitous route, before it reaches the delicate organs of voice. 
Valuable lives and good men would be saved every year by atten- 
tion to these things. If a person feels the necessity of talking as 
lie passes homeward, or if he finds he cannot walk fast enough to 
keep himself warm with the mouth closed, then hold a handker- 
chief in one hand, and place it over the nose and open mouth, not very 
closely, but so as to leave a little chamber for the mingling of the 
cold air from without with the Avarm air just passed. It may sur- 
prise any one to notice how much longer he may be kept warm in 
walking this way than if he talked freely without the above appli- 
cation. We knew a small, frail-looking clergyman, one who 
preached every night for weeks, if not months, together, and often 
in the day, in winter, in a densely crowded assembly, and yet, with 
the above precaution, never had even the slightest hoarseness. 
He was careful, however, as to another point ; he always went to 
church and returned on foot and alone, so that there could be no 
temptation to neglect. The late Dr. Miller, that venerable and 
aged divine, Professor of Ecclesiastical History in the Theological 
Seminary of Princeton, New Jersey, while leaving his house to go 
to the seminary, in company with our brother, then a theological 
student, asked permission of him, on leaving his house, that he 
should be excused from " talking on the way,'-" and at the same 
time placed a handkerchief before his face as above described, 
which he did not remove until he entered the threshold of the 
seminary. The former clergyman especially avoided going with 
ladies, having found it sometimes prevented him from walking fast 
enough to keep him sufficiently warm. These may seem to some 
trifling things, and an insufferable bother to attend to so many 
small matters ; but nothing is trifling which saves human life, or 
averts years of sickness or suffering. The life of a single earnest 
worker in the ministry, fit for his place by education, piety, and a 
prudent mind, is worth more to the great world at large than the 


lives of a dozen senators, governors, or presidents. It is by the 
labors of such men that civilized governments stand. They ' are the 
salt of the earth ; its preservative power.' As a President General 
once said to the writer, 4 without religion this government cannot 
stand ; we cannot do without churches.' And although a poor man, 
he subscribed five hundred dollars on the spot for the erection of a 
house of worship. 

" Many valuable men are prematurely disabled, especially in the 
West and South-west, in consequence of having to ride a mile or 
two, or twenty, immediately after preaching ; they think it to be a 
necessity. As long as the world stands, and the human constitu- 
tion is under its present system of laws, this can never be done 
with impunity, and besides, the assertion that it is ' necessary,' is 
impertinent and untrue. Impertinent, because it implies that the 
Almighty cannot carry on the work of His kingdom without sacri- 
ficing His most efficient laborers. As to the ' necessity ' of it, it 
cannot be necessary that a man should risk his life to be at any 
place an hour sooner or later. But more, there is a wicked pre- 
sumption in such conduct, and a mawkish faith besides, in hoping 
that Providence will in some way or other preserve them from 
harm, inasmuch as they are about His work. 

" The days of physical miracles have passed, and we may be very 
certain that the Almighty is not going to suspend a law of Nature 
to accommodate a preacher who is an hour behind his time. We 
cannot exactly see the ' necessity ' for such a transaction. No law 
of Nature is a l little thing,' nor is a violation of it ' little.' The 
theft of a pin, and the theft of a thousand dollars, are equally thefts. 
We many times do little things, subject ourselves to trifling expo- 
sures, with impunity, but that does not justify us in repeating such 
a thing deliberately. The reason that harm did not follow in every 
single case was simply because the effect was counteracted by some 
contingency. A man takes cold a dozen times, fifty or a hundred 
times, and it passes off without any striking consequences. The 
next time he takes a cold he expects it will pass off like the others ; 
but sometimes it does not, it settles on the lungs, and he dies ; yet 
he may have had worse colds before. Our highest wisdom and our 
only safety is in living up to the laws of our being all the time, ha- 
bitually, and such are the persons who live to a good old age, in 
health of body, and in that cheerfulness of spirit which is a natural 
fruit of habitual health. 

" For a zealous, warm-hearted, efficient minister of the Gospel to be 
4 laid on the shelf,' to be incompetent for ministerial labor in the 

"health and disease." 205 

very prime of life, amidst his usefulness, when the fields are already 
1 white to the harvest,' and the Macedonian cry, ' Come over and 
help us,' echoes from every quarter, like the wail of perishing mor. 
tals, is a i burden hard to be borne,' even when incapacitated by 
causes wholly beyond his control. Charles Sumner, in writing from 
Aix, says : ' It is with a pang unspeakable that I find myself thus 
arrested in the labors of life, and in the duties of my position. This 
is harder to bear than the fire. I do not hear of friends engaged in 
active service without envy.' If a laborer for his country thus feels 
when incapacitated by violence from another's hands, how much 
more keenly must a laborer for the great God feel, when he must 
remain idle, while he sees others 'go in .and possess the land.' 
Charles Sumner felt it to be a torture greater than of irons heated 
more than red hot, and applied to his naked flesh, with a view to 
his restoration, and that even in the service of an earthly master. 
But a torture how much more intense must it be to a single-hearted 
minister of the Gospel, and aggravated to a deeper depth, if his in- 
capacity is the result of his own carelessness ! 

" Voice-organs. ]STo experienced traveller or trainer of a race- 
horse starts his animal at full speed. He first walks, then trots, 
then gallops, as the animal thus holds out longer. All the muscles 
of all men and animals are under the same laws. It is by the move- 
ment of a variety of muscles about the throat that we speak. If, 
then, a person begins a song, or sermon, or harangue, on a high 
key, he will begin to cough and hem, and break down most rapid- 
ly ; but if the same person begins in a low tone, in a conversational 
manner, and is at least eight or ten minutes in reaching the powers 
of his voice, he will speak much longer, and with scarcely apprecia- 
ble fatigue. There is no need of commencing a sermon on a high 
key. A congregation instinctively adapts itself to the tone of the 
speaker, while their very effort at quietness favors their attention to 
the subject. 

" A judge on the bench does not screech when he gives an opin- 
ion which consigns a fellow-man to a prison or a gibbet. The im- 
portance of the occasion produces an awe that stills every movement, 
silences every tongue, and makes the heart almost cease its beating. 
But greater interests than these are at stake when the minister of 
heaven stands up in the sacred desk, an ambassador of God as to 
things immortal. But he loses much of these advantages if he mere- 
ly raves. Besides, in beginning boisterously he shoots off* ahead of 
his hearers ; they are not in sympathy with him, and the effect is 
in a measure lost. We should see daily much larger results from 


a preached Gospel if ministers could begin their services in a low 
tone, gradually increasing it, and then warm up more in unison 
with the people, it being always understood that the speaker has 
first thoroughly mastered his subject, as a distant object before his 
mind, his heart ' bound up ' in the accomplishment of the object, 
with a feeling of deep and affectionate responsibility, in case that 
object is not accomplished from short-comings of his own. 

" It is certainly a fact, that a man speaks with ease and effective- 
ness in proportion to his comprehension of his subject, and his inter- 
est in its promotion. It is said of one of the profoundest theolo- 
gians and most effective preachers of a past age, that he spoke in a 
soft, slow, and low voice ; the stillness made it awful, yet every 
hearer heard, while the waves of his eloquence swept across every 
heart. It is true he had a great mind to back him. We cannot 
say how mediocrity would fare in the premises. 

"It is believed that an immeasurable amount of sickness, disease, 
and the weary suffering of weeks and months would be averted 
from multitudes every year, if the habitual precaution were taken, 
in weather even moderately cold, to close the mouth and breathe 
through the nose on going into a cooler atmosphere, and walking 
briskly for a few minutes, until the circulation has a little quickened, 
so as to get the blood started outwards, and gain momentum enough 
to resist the tendencies of the cold without, to drive it inward, and 
clog the machinery of life. 

" This is a very little thing to remember, and an act very easily 
performed ; while the omission of it, especially when coming out of 
a crowded apartment, warm to perspiration, and passing directly into 
a cold, raw, chilly atmosphere, brings death to many. But our 
recklessness of death does not allow us to hope that any considera- 
ble number of persons will take the trifling precaution which has 
been suggested." 

We regard this extract worth more to every public speaker than 
the price of the volume. See pages 169 to 181. A. C. 

William Cullen Beyant, on his return from Europe, and after 
describing the small private residences of Paris, London, Boston, 
and Philadelphia, says, that " Fifth-avenue and Fourteenth-street 
(New York) are absolutely unsurpassed anywhere for the magnifi- 

cence of their nrivate dwellings. 



We certainly admire the thoroughness, promptness, and effi- 
ciency with which several of the public schools of New York City 
are conducted. With the girls' school in Twelfth-street, number 
forty-seven, and in Twentieth-street, number fifty, we are some- 
what acquainted, and are persuaded that no one can spend an hour 
in either of them without being carried away with admiration and 
thankfulness, that such high privileges and opportunities are within 
the reach of every child in the city, costing nothing. To some of 
the features of the public schools there are strong objections. It 
is nothing short of a barbarism to keep children at study from nine 
until three, many of whom are but four or five years old. This 
enormity is palliated somewhat by recreations or bodily activities 
every forty-five minutes ; still, it would be greatly better for chil- 
dren, under ten, not to be kept at study longer than two hours at 
a time, twice a day, and to have nothing at all to learn in the inter- 
vals of school time. Not only are they kept in six hours a day, 
but have such a variety and length of lessons to learn at home, 
that play or rest is out of the question, except between three and 
five o'clock, when it becomes too late to be out in winter ; and in 
those two hours they have to come home and take their dinners, 
leaving in reality but a single hour out of the twenty-four for joy- 
ous out-door play. And. when it is remembered that of a winter's 
morning, breakfast cannot be over sooner than eight o'clock, and at 
half past eight they must start for school, the conviction must force 
itself on the mind, that to some children, at least, it is a species of 
martyrdom. The true system is, let the children learn while they 
are in school some four hours a day ; but when out of school, let 
not the hours of glorious play be half-blighted by constant thought 
of the unlearned task. But even here there is some apology for 
the course pursued. The unfortunate poor cannot afford to be 
without the services of their children later than twelve or fourteen, 
and all the education they ever get must be had before that time ; 
hence they must be driven some. Under the circumstances, we 
advise those who are -better off in the world, to discourage the 
" promotion " of their children, and by taking them from school 
about the first of June, allow their class to pass up higher, while 
they remain to go on in the regular line, with the long interval from 
June to September for a perfect abandon of recreation in the 


We earnestly trust that " reception days " and " public examina- 
tion days " will be universally abolished ; they are nothing but a 
sham ; they are literally a " vain show ;" they glorify the teach- 
ers at the sacrifice of the health and time and enjoyment of the 
children, who are unwholesomely stimulated, and to an extent 
sometimes which perils life itself. 

As to the reading of the Bible in the public schools, there can 
be but one opinion in the mind of any man of common-sense and 
moderate intelligence, and that is, it ought not to be dispensed 
with, and ought to be enforced. But then there ought to be a 
just liberality in this regard, and it is suggested with considerable 
diffidence, that a spirit of accommodation be cultivated. In some 
respects the Protestant Bible differs from the Roman Catholic 
Bible. Let certain schools be set apart for the children whose pa- 
rents prefer they should hear the Roman Catholic version. No 
Protestant would submit to have his children hear the Roman 
Catholic version by compulsion, nor should he wish to place his 
Roman Catholic fellow citizen in a position which he could not en- 
dure himself. Right-minded men can scarcely object to this modi- 
fication, and we trust that something of the kind will be adopted 
speedily, in a generous, compromising spirit, and let all go on har- 
moniously in the common war against ignorance and degradation 
and unthrift. 

In former years the public schools were patronized only by the 
acknowledged poor ; but when their thoroughness and efficient ad- 
ministration became known to families of position, education, and 
wealth, they one by one began to lay aside their prejudices 
against conjectured contaminations arising from associations with 
the " vulgar herd," and became willing to risk them for the sake 
of the advantages of an impartial, systematic, and thorough mode 
of instruction ; they could look under the surface and see that it 
was not without a benefit for their children to be thrown into cir- 
cumstances where correct deportment and scholarship would enti- 
tle them to distinction, instead of family names, expensive dress, 
and useless ornaments. So that now the anomaly is seen of the 
children of the richest standing in the same class with those of the 
poorest, while the middle classes — those who have to rent their 
own house, who are trying to climb, or do not feel secure of their 
position — are afraid to send to the public schools, and are reduced 
to painful stintings and screwings to meet the tax of full two hun- 
dred dollars a year, as the cost of the privileges of a fashionable 
city school. 


That the last year or two, especially of girls, might be profitably 
speDt at the first-class private schools of the city, is not to be de- 
nied ; but let the first years be spent at the public schools, and let 
the children of the rich, by their better conduct, bring the children 
of the poor up to them, and thus be to them an encouragement 
and a blessing; for a calico dress or a patched jacket full often 
covers a noble heart, and the chances are even that in a genera- 
tion the calico and the patch will be " at the top of the heap." 


When a congregation or parish becomes vacant, it is the dictate 
of the highest wisdom to select an incumbent at the earliest day 
practicable. In all vacancies, time is the fruitful fomenter of differ- 
ence, discord, dissension, anarchy. A people without a stated 
preacher will wander away to hear various speakers, which is a 
fruitful source of differences of opinion ; and different members of 
the same congregation, hearing the same preacher at different 
times, will disagree in their estimates of the same man, as no one is 
equally able on all occasions. 

In making a choice, each one should cultivate a determination to 
abide by the will of the majority ; and when a man is once fairly 
elected, stand by and sustain him, as if such choice were his own. 

A compromising spirit should be sedulously cherished by every 
lover of " peace and concord." There should be an humble mistrust 
of one's own wisdom, and a becoming deference to that of others. 
Each one should tremble in view of taking the responsibility of a 
choice on himself, and say, " not as I will, but as ye ;" thus gener- 
ously sacrificing his own preferences to those of others. A minister 
selected with such feelings and sentiments, could scarcely fail to be 
a blessing to any community, the end being that all will come home 
as the day of life wanes, "bringing their sheaves with them." 


Deserved eminence in any calling can be attained only by years 
of patient study and unremitting toil. We have known a man for 
over fifteen years who for all their summers has bent over the fiery 
furnace heated to whiteness, and for many long winter nights re • 
tired not to his rest until the small hours of the morning came, 
only to rise again as soon as there was daylight to work by, spend- 


ing money the meanwhile by tens of thousands, to find himself poor 
at last. This man is Professor Allen, of Bond-street, New York, 
who occupied at one time the highest chair in the Dental College 
of Ohio, president of the late Dental Convention of New York, 
and the industrious and able correspondent of the principal dental 
journals of the United States. To professional ability there is 
added a disposition too generous and too kind to escape imposi- 
tions and injustices enough to quench all human sympathy, and yet 
he bears on his face the very impress of unsuspicious benevolence 
and unclouded hopefulness of a fruitful future. 

It is almost incredible, but it is true, as Ave know for ourself, that 
now, for a week at a time, he scarcely sleeps four hours in the 
twenty-four, in the admiration he has for his improvements, and the 
wish to fill the urgent calls for immediate work which press upon 
him ; for there are met in his office men Avho are themselves eminent 
in the dental profession by means of a devoted service to it for 
twenty and thirty years, and who have come to him for themselves 
or families, whose names and residences we know. 

These statements are made more specially in reference to the in- 
valuable benefits which Dr. Allen's improvements are able to con- 
fer on clergymen whose enunciation is imperfect from loss of teeth, 
and for those who, by reason of their cheeks falling in, look prema- 
turely old. The difference in Dr. Allen's own appearance, when 
his improvements are in and out, is simply and unexaggeratedly 
wonderful. Clergymen whose legitimate profession is their only 
source of income are charged very little beyond the actual cost of 
the materials used and the time expended on them. Those who 
are in good circumstances are expected to pay liberally. Visitors 
are shown the photographs of persons whose teeth, gums, or 
cheeks are defective, and of the same after Allen's adjustments 
have been made. The inspection of these cannot but fill the be- 
holder with admiration, as much at the perfection of the work as 
of the genius and indomitable perseverance of the man w T hose skill 
has accomplished it all ; and we are highly gratified to know that 
he is beginning to reap a rich pecuniary harvest from the work of 
his hands, and quite as much so that there is no reasonable pros- 
pect of his professional services being required for our single self 
or double self for man}?" a long, long year to come. To those of our 
readers who arc curious to know what human art can accomplish 
in the way of rejuvenating the cheeks, and of making whole sets 
of teeth and gums in one solid piece, and so near nature in color, 
tint, and beauty, a visit to the Professor's rooms, in Bond-street, 
will be attended with the highest satisfaction. 


RHEUMATISM.— Common rheumatism is a disease which 
affects the joints, the hinges of the body, in such a way, that 
the slightest motion of the ailing part gives pain. A creaking 
hinge is dry, and turns hard. A single drop of oil to moisten 
it makes a wonderful change, and it instantly moves on itself 
with the utmost facility. All kinds of rheumatism are an in- 
flammation of the surface of the joints. Inflammation is heat; 
this heat dries their surfaces ; hence, the very slightest effort at 
motion gives piercing pain. In a healthy condition of the 
parts, nature is constantly throwing out a lubricating oil, which 
keeps the joints in a perfectly smooth and easy- working condi- 
tion. Rheumatism is almost always caused — indeed, it may be 
nearer the truth to say, that it is always the result of a cold 
dampness. A dry cold, or a warm dampness, does not induce 
rheumatism. A garment, wetted by perspiration or rain, or 
water in any other form, about a joint, and allowed to dry 
while the person is in a state of rest, is the most common way 
of causing rheumatism. A partial wetting of a garment is 
more apt to induce an attack than if the entire clothing were 
wetted ; because, in the latter case, it would be certainly and 
speedily exchanged for dry garments. There are two very cer- 
tain methods of preventing rheumatism. The very moment a 
garment is wetted in whole or in part, change it, or keep in mo- 
tion sufficient to maintain a very slight perspiration, until the 
clothing is perfectly dried. 

The failure to wear woolen flannel next the skin, is the most 
frequent cause of rheumatism ; for a common muslin or linen 
or silk shirt of a person in a perspiration, becomes damp and 
cold the instant a puff of air strikes it, even in mid-summer. 
This is not the case when woolen flannel is worn next the skin. 

The easiest, most certain, and least hurtful way of curing this 
troublesome affection is, first, to keep the joint affected wound 
around with several folds of woolen flannel ; second, live en- 
tirely on the lightest kind of food, such as coarse breads, ripe 
fruits, berries, boiled turnips, stewed apples, and the like. If 
such things were eaten to the extent of keeping the system 
freely open, and exercise were taken, so that a slight moisture 
should be on the surface of the skin all the time ; or if, in 
bed, the same thing were accomplished by hot teas and plentiful 
bed-clothing, a grateful relief and an ultimate cure will very 

212 hall's journal of health. 

certainly result in a reasonably short time. Without this soft 
and moist and warm condition of the skin, and an open state 
of the system, the disease will continue to torture for weeks and 
months and years. 

Inflammatory rheumatism may, for all practical purposes, 
be regarded as an aggravated form of the common kind, ex- 
tended to all the joints of the body, instead of implicating only 
one or two. For all kinds, time, flannel, warmth, with a light 
and cooling diet, are the great remedies. 

HEALTH OP SOLDIERS.— A watch-fob, five-by-six, three- 
ounce flexible-covered volume was published in June, which is 
worth all the books yet issued for the army for its moral, phy- 
sical, and religious interests. The editor wrote the book, but 
feels no hesitancy in giving it this high praise, because it was 
taken mainly from the Bible, Watts's Hymns, and the Scientific 
American — all good authority. In addition, it contained a com- 
plete system of cookery, of which the world-renowned Soyer 
was the author. The remainder of the little volume is made 
up of practical suggestions taken from standard medical writers. 
We claim nothing in it for ourself, as our own, except the 
wording of some things in such a way that the most unedu- 
cated person might understand them, without giving him the 
headache. Every soldier ought to have one of these books. 
Every reader of this Journal, who has a friend or relative in 
the army, should order one for such friend or kinsman ; the 
cost, post-paid, is twenty-five cents. And for the not a few who 
are alone in the world, homeless, friendless, fatherless, some 
man of means should purchase a few hundred or thousand at 
ten cents, for gratuitous distribution. 

We feel perfectly assured that the same amount of money 
which has been expended in purchasing hymn-books, " soldiers' 
libraries," etc., would have done a hundred-fold more good to 
the army and the country in the gratuitous distribution of our 
book on "Soldier-Health," because its first object was to keep 
the soldier well, and to teach him how to manage when left 
alone, or lost, wounded or sick. Nine tenths of the men in the 
army have had more or less of a religious education, and already 
understand in some small measure the fundamental principles 
of our holy religion ; but as to the method of preserving their 


health, and thus keeping themselves in the very highest state 
of military efficiency, and the means of meeting the various 
casualties of war, when thrown upon their own resources, they 
are most profoundly ignorant ; hence our book meets the first, 
fifth, and fiftieth want of the times. 

Very recently, a poor soldier was found to have bled to 
death in the woods, from a wound in the thigh. He had crawl- 
ed to a little shelter a few rods distant from the battle-field, yet 
the knowledge imparted in four lines of our book would have 
shown him how easily life might have been preserved with a 
little stick, or bayonet, or ramrod, and a string or piece of 
shirt or trowser. And there are fifty-eight other short items 
of instruction as to the best means of action in emergencies. 
The book earnestly advises that before a march, or battle, or 
other hard day's work, an early breakfast should be given to 
the men, and each canteen should be filled with cold coffee. 
The neglect of this on the part of the men — for three days' 
provision had been dealt out to each soldier the evening before — 
was a main cause of the panic at Bull Run, for the army be- 
gan their march before daylight, each individual man having 
neglected to prepare his breakfast or coffee, and no opportunity 
for doing so occurring during the march, a battle was fought 
and really won on an empty stomach ; but, when famishing for 
food, and the physical energies were exhausted by a twelve 
hours' march and fight on one of the hottest days of midsummer, 
the very best preparation possible was made for the excitement 
of an uncontrollable consternation, by the occurrence of any 
one of a million trivial but very possible incidents. Besides 
the hunger, there was the more urgent and tormenting thirst, 
which the flat water of a canteen could not satisfy, even if there 
had been a plenty of that ; while a sip of strong coffee would 
not only have slaked the thirst in a measure, but would have 
imparted invigoration, and encouragement, and confidence to 
the men, for want of which the victory was lost. 

As an argument for not touching alcohol in any form, at 
least not until the work was done, it was stated on page 37, 
that an important revolutionary battle was lost by the drunken- 
ness of a single man, as reported in some histories. On the 
29th of July, the morning papers stated, without contradiction 
since, that an officer of high grade was found so drunk at Bull 

214 hall's journal of health. 

Bun, that he was superseded on the field; and that having 
failed to do a certain work with the seven thousand men un- 
der him previous to the battle, the use of these men was lost ; 
and had the work assigned been done, the panic would have 
been promptly arrested. 

On the same day, documentary evidence was presented in 
Congress, that several millions of dollars' worth of property 
had been lost to the nation, by the apparent " drunkenness" of 
a navy officer. 

The Press for many weeks has been teeming with accounts 
of the discomfort, and privation, and actual sufferings of the 
men, in consequence of the almost universal ignorance of cook- 
ery. Our book directed special attention to this most important 
subject, and embodied the experience of the best cook in the 
world, in the British Army, so that no man need be at a loss 
to cook for himself, for his mess, or for a hundred or thousand 
men, without making any material mistake. 

An evil to come, and which will come with the inevitability 
of the sun's shining, is provided against with the most perfect 
certainty in " Soldier Health;" it is epidemic autumnal dis- 
eases, diarrhea and dysentery, which will begin to make their ap- 
proach when hot days are followed by cool nights. These maladies 
have been known to frustrate campaigns and paralyze whole 
armies in a night, but which could have been avoided by en- 
camping a little higher up the mountain, or on the other side 
of a stream. 

An intelligent officer stated that he left his native city with 
a thousand and fifty men, and returned within a year with bare- 
ly five hundred, from Mexico, the remainder having been left 
in hospitals, or died on the march, for they never came in sight 
of an enemy. These things show that the health of the sol- 
diers is emphatically of the very first importance ; hence a 
watch-fob volume, which can be taken into the battle-field 
without its being an appreciable inconvenience, containing, as 
" Soldier Health" does, so much instruction, (moral, medical, 
and surgical,) applicable to such a situation, especially in the 
event of being wounded and left behind or for dead, when such 
is not the case, such a volume, we say, can be made, under a 
multitude of possible contingencies, worth more than its weight 
in gold to the suffering soldier. And now that a new army is 


collecting "for three years or during the war," the book be- 
comes of multifold more importance, especially at this juncture 
when attention to one single recommendation would prevent an 
incalculable amount of disease and suffering and very many 
deaths ; that is, the wearing around the abdomen (belly) a 
woolen flannel bandage about fourteen inches broad, and long 
enough to be double in front, as a means of supporting the 
strength, imparting warmth, and of averting cold on the bow- 
els, thus keeping off diarrhea, dysentery, and cholera, which 
are the diseases of all armies, especially in the fall of the year. 
That this simple expedient will do it, some of the foreign regi- 
ments who have experienced its efficacy in their own persons, 
it being a standing regulation in Germany, especially in Prussia, 
have adopted it almost to a man, of their own accord. 

Having given as many of our books to the army as we felt 
able to do, it is now offered by the hundred to those who wish 
to distribute it gratuitously in the army, for ten dollars, or ten 
cents each ; two dollars a dozen, twenty-five cents singly. As 
a coincidence, it may be mentioned that of the whole Bible the 
portion selected for the soldier's reading in times of peril or 
deliverance was that which Luther always sang when rocked in 
storms, to wit, the forty -sixth psalm. 

WONDERFUL.— According to the latest and most authentic 
advices on the subject, the greatest, if not the only, wonder that 
ever appeared in heaven, was a — woman. (See Kevelation, 
12 : 1.) There was "another wonder," a great red dragon, 
but it didn't attract particular attention; the "great" wonder 
was the — "woman." Per contra, the greatest mundane won- 
der we ever met with in the whole course of our life, was a 
woman, too ! This very day, and on this wise : Wifey is out of 
town, and feeling free-and-easy like, just as we used to in 
happy days departed, in good old New-Orleans, we thought it 
no harm to make an appointment to meet a lady in the pre- 
cincts of "the Avenoo." The clock tolled the hour and the 
minute as the hand was laid on the bell-pull. The door opened, 
and there she was on the stair, all ready for the Branch, her 
husband being out of town. Said she : " My husband was never 
kept waiting for me a single minute in his life." 

In the most serious manner possible, if a man can be serious 

216 hall's journal of health. 

when there is nobody around to keep things so everlastingly 
prim and strait-jackety, we repeat, reiterate, and reaffirm the 
sentiment, idea, fact and faith, that there is not another woman 
in the whole universal world who can lay her hand on the 
place where the heart ought to be, and truthfully asseverate, 
declare and affirm that she never kept her husband waiting for 
her a minute. We confidently appeal to Barnum, and the 
rest of mankind, if there is a second to the phenomenon dis- 
covered by us at three p.m. this thirtieth day of July, Anno 
Domini eighteen hundred and sixty- one. Away out West, 
where we used to navigate round a long time ago, the measure 
of a man's "how," in the question, " How do you do to-day?" 
was his being more or less "Bilious!" If " very bilious," he 
was sure to be as sick as a dog, or as cross as a female bear who 
had lost her cubs ; and he was dangerous. We have seen men 
as mad as a March hare, and, what was more, obliged to keep 
mum, and appear very affectionate and polite, while waiting for 
their wives, who had been " coming in a minute " for the last 

But about the bile and the legitimate connection of this 
article with a Journal of Health and the lady who never kept 
her husband waiting. By the way, our governor can say the 
same thing: She is "another wonder," (verse 3,) but the reader 
will please understand " no connection with " the personage 
named in the next line. It is meant simply to say she is " an- 
other wonder," in that she " never kept her husband waiting a 
minute." "We don't do things that way in Ningpoo," as the 
"Japs" used to say, when some of our follies or stupidities 
attracted their attention. If the very minute comes, and no- 
body comes with it, Time and I trot on, for it is better for only 
one to be too late than two. But, as we were saying about the 
connection between woman, biliousness and health, it is simply 
this — violent anger has made a man as " yellow as a pumpkin " 
in an hour : choler causes bile, and bile causes disease. So that 
if a man wants to avoid an important cause of disease, let him 
marry a woman who won't "keep him waiting" when they 
have occasion to go out any where ; and we will assure him 
that the exercise necessary to be taken in order to secure such 
a phenomenon, will keep him in good health the longest day 
he lives. Hence, to make the whole thing unmistakably clear, 


if you don't want to get bilious, don't get mad ; if you don't 
wan't to get mad, get a wife who is always ready, who never 
keeps her husband waiting a minute. By the way, as this 
September number may not be out of date before the upper 
house returns to town, and in order to bring up all things on 
the square, we desire to say that the lady wonder aforesaid was 
a grandmother. 

MAD-DOGGERY.— European statisticians have said that as 
many persons die of hydrophobia in winter as in summer. Per- 
sons frequently become hydrophobic after having been bitten 
by dogs who were supposed by their owners to have been per- 
fectly sound and well. In many cases the animal is killed 
instantly on having bitten a person, which person sometimes 
became hydrophobic, and sometimes not ; sometimes within a 
month, at others not until two years have passed away. See 
Journal of Health for July, 1857, where a man had been bitten 
by a dog nine months before, and had forgotten all about it, 
until reminded of it accidentally on Tuesday, May 26 : on 
Friday following he died in horrible agonies from hydrophobia. 
From these statements important practical inferences should be 
drawn : First, never allude to hydrophobia in the presence of 
one who has been bitten by a dog ; second, if bitten by any 
dog, at any season of the year, under any circumstances, 
whether the skin be penetrated or imperceptibly grazed by the 
animal's tooth, let the part be instantly sucked for one hour by 
one or a succession of persons, who are most perfectly certain 
that there is not the slightest sore or abrasion any where about 
the lips or tongue. Meanwhile, administer an enema, wash the 
parts freely in spirits of hartshorn every half-hour for three 
hours, and then every hour for the remainder of the day, put- 
ting fresh hartshorn in a clean saucer on each occasion ; if any 
thing at all is eaten, let it be of the lightest, simplest kind. 
The object of the hartshorn, which is the strongest alkali, is to 
neutralize the poison, which, like almost, if not all, bites, is 
acid. One of the objects in eating but little, is not to use the 
strength of the system in digesting the food, but rather let it be 
employed in repelling diseased influences. In the mean time, 
send for a physician. 




At the close of the last century, a poor, awkward, uncouth 
boy entered London, but he was so long, lank, and ungainly, 
that he seemed fit only to be the drudge of a printing-office ; 
run errands, bring water, sweep the floor, and the like. Already 
had poverty and the hardness of the world made him sour, un- 
hopeful, and despondent. Under less discouragements, many a 
youth has abandoned himself to a thriftless life, having no 
higher aim than to live but for the day; or, worse still, has 
plunged headlong into all the extravagances and indulgences 
connected with thrift! essness and crime. But the boy had vig- 
orous health; this imparted to him a mental vim, a moral 
power, which soon showed itself to his employer. He was 
prompt, persevering, and painstaking ; and with these three 
qualities, in spite of the fact that he was good at nothing, in 
every thing tolerable only, he made his patient way, step by 
step, to the woolsack of England, and lately died, (worth a 
million of dollars,) among the most honored men of his nation 
and age — Lord Chief-Justice Campbell. In this case, vigorous 
health was a mine of wealth ; a better fortune than if he had 
been the heir of many thousands. And certain is it, that the 
world would be a happier world, and the men in it would 
be happier, better, and greater, if one tithe of the time, and 
care, and study which parents bestow on the accumulation of 
money to leave to their children, were devoted to the physi- 
cal education and training necessary to secure a vigorous consti- 
tution. Of any two young men starting on the race of life, one 
poor but healthy, the other rich and effeminate, other things 
being equal, the chances for usefulness, honor, and a well-re- 
membered name, are manifold in favor of the former. Every 
man of the least observation and reflection knows this to be 
an indisputable truth. Yet, in view of the fact that vigorous 
health is a better and safer fortune than stocks and bonds, how 
many in each hundred parents who read this article will lay it 
down and resolve : "I will do more to leave to my children a 
vigorous constitution !" 

Another element in the success of Lord Chief Justice Camp- 
bell was, that his employer seeing his dull nature, but noticing 


at the same time that when he had any thing to do, he went at 
it promptly, and with great painstaking kept at it until the 
work in hand was done, although done painfully slow, he pat* 
ted him on the shoulder, always spoke cheerfully to him, and 
with considerate consistency, threw little jobs in the way by 
which the heavy boy might earn a little money, and be stim- 
ulated to greater activities. How many a youth at school, how 
many an apprentice in the shop, how many a child in the fam- 
ily, has gone out in the night of a blighted life, who, with 
humane encouragements might have lived usefully and died 
famous, let the passionate teacher and master and parent in- 
quire, and do a little more patting on the shoulder. 

COFFEE-DRINKING.— How strong should coffee be taken? 
is an inquiry of much practical importance. How much should 
be taken at a meal ? is scarcely of less moment. Coffee, like 
any other beverage, may wholly ruin the health ; the very 
use of it tends to this ruin, as certainly as does the use of wine, 
cider, beer, or any other unnatural, stimulating drink. There 
is only one safe plan of using coffee, and that is, never, under 
any circumstances, except of an extraordinary character, exceed 
in quantity, frequency, or strength ; take only one cup at the 
regular meal, and of a given, unvarying strength. In this way 
it may be used every day for a lifetime, not only without in- 
jury but with greater advantage than an equal amount of cold 
water, and for the . simple reason that nothing cold should be 
drank at a regular meal, except by persons in vigorous health. 

One pound of the bean should make sixty cups of the very 
best coffee. If a man takes coffee for breakfast only, one 
pound should last him two months, or six pounds a year. 

One pound of coffee should be made to last a family of ten 
persons, young and old, one week. Put about two ounces of 
ground coffee in a quart of water, or rather divide the pound 
into seven portions, one for each breakfast in the week, and 
make a quart of coffee out of it, which will be sixty-four table- 
spoons. Give the youngest two table-spoonfuls and the oldest 
a dozen ; the remainder of the one cup being filled up with 
boiled milk. This will give a cup of coffee sufficiently strong 
for all healthful purposes, for the respective ages ; and for various 
reasons, pecuniary as well as physical, some such systematic 


plan as this should be adopted in every family in the land. How 
to make the cup of good coffee ? is a third question. It is per- 
haps as good and as easy a plan as any to buy the coffee in the 
grain, pick out those that are imperfect, wash it, parch as much 
as will last a day or two, with your eye upon it all the time 
until it is of a rich brown, with no approach of black about 
it. Grind only enough for the day's use ; grind it fine, for the 
greater the surface exposed to the hot water the more of the 
essence you will have ; pour the boiling water on the coffee, 
close it up, boil it ten minutes, let it stand to clear ten minutes, 
then use. 

There are additional devices for husbanding the aroma, but 
as people who are so very particular about every thing they 
eat being done to the nicest shade, are but a shade above the 
brutes, and generally die twenty years before their time of in- 
anition, of chronic diarrhea, it is not thought important to in- 
itiate the readers of this Journal any further into the mysteries 
of coffee-making and drinking. 


On one occasion an English family became ill in mid- winter. 
Medical advice was obtained, and the usual remedies applied for 
a long time, without producing any marked favorable change. 
All the physicians who heard of the circumstances were greatly 
puzzled to explain the case satisfactorily, even to themselves. 
At length, a pane of glass was accidentally broken in the only 
room of the house, and the inmates were so much taken up 
with their troubles, that it was either not noticed or .there was 
not time or disposition or ability to repair the damage. All at 
once, however, the sick began to improve ; the doctor's eyes 
were simultaneously opened a little wider, and he gave orders 
to let the window alone, with the result that in a short time 
evety member was entirely well. 

Let every invalid who is as " 'fraid as death" of a puff of 
pure air, bear this suggestive incident in wise remembrance, the 
balance of his days ; or if an open door or window is not prac- 
ticable, at least keep open the fire-place, and either have a little 
fire in it, or a liberal lamp or a brisk jet of gas burning in it ; 
this causes a draft up the chimney, and is a safe, easy, and effi- 
cient way of ventilating any sick-room ; a ventilation which 
would save valuable lives, in multitudes of instances. 



As the proof-reader was nodding, will the reader please wake 
up, and correct the nonsense, and read on first page, fifth line 
from the bottom, " arrested" ? 

Missing. — Subscribers who have failed to receive any num- 
ber by mail, from January to date, will have the same supplied 
without charge, by notification. We sometimes miss our most 
valued exchanges, for weeks and months at a time, such as the 
Country Gentleman, at Albany ; which, by the way, does not 
look as much like a gentleman as it used to ; the coat does not 
look so neat and prim as formerly ; it has become dingy. 
The favorite agricultural weekly of the times deserves a better 
dress. In eighteen months we have received about half-a-doz- 
en of Goderfs Lady's Book. Mr. Grodey assured us "he didn't 
do it a purpose," that it was certainly and regularly mailed. 
The inferences are, that valuable publications are appropriated 
between the publisher and those who have paid for them. 

Danville Quarterly Review, published for $3 a year, by Eichard 
H. Collins, 25 West Fourth street, Cincinnati, Ohio, ought to 
be sustained, not only by the Old School Presbyterian Church, 
but by the whole Presbyterian family of whatever name. 
Robert J. Breckinridge, the John Knox of modern Presbytery, 
is a permanent contributor. 

Thomas Jefferson, his Home-Life, by President H. W. 
Pierson, D.D., is in preparation, the materials having been ob- 
tained from a gentleman of position and great wealth, now liv- 
ing, who spent twenty years of his life, including the presiden- 
tial terms, in the family of Mr. Jefferson, as his confidential 
adviser and business- agent. These materials are wholly new, 
and will give a view of the inner family life of the distinguish- 
ed statesman, which all who admire him will greatly desire to 

Letter - Paper. — A new kind ; one unfolded half-sheet, 
being at once an economy of fifty per cent to those writing 
short letters, and avoiding the inconvenience of short lines and 
the numerous foldings and creases of note-paper. Address, 
" Mount Holly Paper Company," at Mount Holly Springs, 
Pennsylvania. Besides its economy and convenience, the qual- 
ity of the paper and its beauty of finish are not surpassed. 

A Sermon, " Church of the Living G-od," a discourse deliv- 

222 hall's journal of health. 

ered at Syracuse, New- York, July 16th, 1861, to the General 
Assembly of the Presbyterian Church, (N. S.,) by its Modera- 
tor, Kev. Thornton A. Mills, D.D., of Kentucky. We have 
not, in a lifetime, read a sermon which surpasses this in the 
depth of its thoughts, in the grandeur of its ideas, in the com- 
prehensiveness of its suggestions, and the power of its enforce- 
ments ; the whole pervaded by a spirit of nnostentatiousness, 
earnestness, and piety, well worthy to be a model for all pulpit 

The South. — We have no credit subscribers. All subscrip- 
tions are paid for up to December, and end with that number. 
We will carefully preserve the numbers belonging to our 
Southern friends, and will forward them as soon as peace is es- 
tablished in honor and right. God speed the hour when we all 
shall become brethren in feelings, in interests, in aspirations, by 
mutual sacrifices, by the mutual exercise of just, liberal, and 
lofty views in the light of the present, and of an eternal future ; 
such views as will insure national harmony for all time to come, 
and the permanent possession of the blessings which belong to 
that " nation whose God is the Lord." 

We commend to our readers, the patronage of a valuable 
monthly on health, Lewis's New Gymnastics, $1 a year, 20 Essex 
street, Boston, Mass. It is the next best thing to Hall's Jour- 
nal of Health, published for $1 a year, at 42 Irving Place, 
New -York. 

Notice to Exchanges. — Of the budget of exchanges re- 
ceived yesterday, six of the very best of them, as it so happen- 
ed, had extracts from our Journal without any credit what- 
ever, from a paragraph, up to two columns in length, to wit : 
True Union, of Baltimore, The Country Gentleman, of Albany, 
ST. Y., The Christian Times, of Chicago, Lutheran Observer, of 
Baltimore, etc. It won't take much time or space, brudern, to 
say: " From Hall's Journal of Health." We preserve 
and circulate, and have for years, all our agricultural and reli- 
gious exchanges, and at some cost and trouble, with a view to 
do good and make them known. 

Advice. — Persons who write for a written opinion of their 
case, can have it for five dollars, and one general letter of ad- 
vice for five dollars in addition, the amount to accompany each 

A WARNING ! ! ! 


Hundreds of thousands of dollars have been made out of boys from 
fourteen to twenty, and silly married men, by the authors of books on 
physiology, with plates to stimulate prurient curiosity to an ungovernable 
pitch. Hundreds of thousands of these publications are sold and given 
away. Scarcely any youth can read one of them without imbibing the im- 
pression that he is the victim of certain things, which unless promptly 
corrected will soon and surely lead to results of the most appalling cha- 
racter. We are in the frequent receipt of letters from mere boys, who have 
spent from five to five hundred dollars, without having derived a " particle 
of benefit from the treatment," and in terms of the most abject' self-abase- 
ment and almost utter hopelessness, inquiring if it is too late for them to 
be saved. Letters come in from all parts of the country, inquiring if we 
know any thing of this, that, and the other one who has written such a 
book, or of some "company," "association," or "society," with benevo- 
lent names, whose advertisements are found in village newspapers all over 
the land. Some of our exchanges have them, which would not insert them 
at any price, if their true nature were known. It may save us the trouble 
of answering divers letters, and the cost of divers postage-stamps, envel- 
opes, and sheets of paper, to state, that this subject is connected with the 
hours of sleep, and sixty pages are devoted to its consideration, and its 
only safe remedy, costing nothing but the exercise of a vigorous will, in 
the observance of certain specified habits and modes of life, in our book 
entitled " Sleep," $1.25, or sent post-paid for $1.37. In very many cases 
the fears and imaginations of youth are so wrought upon that they are led 
to steal the money requisite to fee the harpies who wrote the books. We 
know an individual who in a very few years has laid up a hundred and 
seventy-one thousand dollars in this connection. The main portion of our 
book, however, is devoted to sleep proper ; the importance of sleeping 
soundly, in a pure atmosphere, and how to do it ; the advantage to old 
and young of sleeping alone, on single beds in large rooms ; the injury to 
a family's thrift and happiness resulting from the mother having her rest 
broken by infant children, and how to remedy it, healthfully and happily, 
for all parties. We wish we were able to give one of these books on 
" Sleep " to every family in the nation, and place it on the shelf of all the 
libraries in Christendom, for certain are we that humanity would be hap- 
pier thereby, and years would be added to the average of life, if the sug- 
gestions were carried out as to 

1st. Securing sound, connected, and refreshing sleep every night. 

2d. As to the best means of ventilating a sleeping-room, in which full 
one third of our entire existence is passed. 



43 Irving 3?lace, New-York. 
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Miasm, 201 

Public Speaking, 202 

Our Public Schools, 207 

Choosing a Minister, 209 

Teeth for the Old, 209 

Rheumatism, 211 

Health of Soldiers, 212 

Wonderful, 215 

Mad Doggery, 217 

The Three P's, 218 

Coffee Drinking, 219 

Pure Air a Medicine, 220 

Notices for September, 221 

A Warning, 223 

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Normal Institute for Physical Education, 


The first term of this Institute will open on the 4th day of July, 1861. It is fully 
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Vol. VIII.] OCTOBER, 1861. [No. 10. 


Nearly a hundred years ago, there lived a young man on the 
frontiers of Virginia, without money, and without a name, depend- 
ent on his daily labor for a living ; and in the absence of any other 
special aim in life, he concluded to undertake to educate, at his own 
expense, a youth who seemed to him to be one of more than ordinary 
promise. What were the thoughts of Gideon Richie, when plow- 
ing, and hoeing corn, and chopping wood, and mauling rails ; what 
visions of the future he indulged in during the hours of weary 
labor, we may never know. He must have covered a warm heart, 
and a high purpose, and a stern resolve, in that homespun dress of 
wool, and moccasin, and hunting-shirt, which characterized those 
who lived on the farthest frontiers of a semi-civilization; for he 
worked on, without faltering, until he saw his protege a minister of 
the gospel, who rose like a star hi the western firmament, casting 
its beams of light into the wigwam of the Indians of the West, and 
away back again into the saloons of the elite about "Boston Common." 
Young Richie died, and but for the shining of his adopted son, his 
name would long since have passed from the memory of man. But 
he was placed here for a purpose, in the providence of God ; and hav- 
ing answered that purpose with a will, his heart being in the right 
place, he has, doubtless, gone up higher, for an enduring reward 
among the blessed. Had he been an unwilling instrument, still the 
purpose would have been subserved in some way, but he would 
have lost the reward. 

The young minister became the founder of churches, and schools, 
and academies. Now, a leader of the soldiers of his country, and 
then of soldiers of the cross ; now, at the head of a church, then at 
the head of a college. Now, as we have heard him say, banqueting 
with the merchant princes of the East ; then, wrapped in his saddle 
blanket, sleeping across logs of wood, while deluging rains were 
driving their gathering currents under him in the wilderness of the 
savage. Now, the benignant listener to the religious experiences 
of the Indian and the Negro ; then, himself the listened to, by wrapt 

You are Wanted. 

thousands, as they looked to the gestures of his pointed finger, or 
hung upon entrancing words as they fell from his lips. His heart 
so stern, that, like his eagle eye, it never quailed before mortal 
man ; and yet of such womanly softness, that there was a well- 
spring of tears within it, which overflowed at the first cry of depend- 
ence or of pity. In a contest, face to face, with the old hero of the 
Hermitage, of might with right, even General Jackson was the 
vanquished, and Gideon Blackburn became the acknowledged con- 
queror. Of the hundreds, if not thousands, of young men whom 
Dr. Blackburn has aided by his teachings, his counsels, and his 
money, to reach the ministry, not a man of them now living is there, 
who will not rise up and call his memory blessed. Of his pupils at 
college, who have been, or are to-day, in the high places of law, 
medicine, and divinity — as Governors of States, or Members of 
Congress ; as professors or presidents in academies, colleges, and 
universities — there is not a man of them who can, by any possibility, 
look backward thirty years, and not remember in Dr. Blackburn the 
personification of the patriarch, the man, the Christian gentleman. 
The last work of his life was the establishment of a Theological 
Seminary in the West, known by his name, and which bids fair to 
be a fountain from which streams of ministers shall flow, to found, 
and feed, and fructify churches, until the end of time. Man of 
immortality, mortal of an hour, yet destined, by your acts, to exert 
influences on the world for all time — influences for good or for evil — 
for happifying your race, or for degrading it — if you can, by any 
work, save a dime or two a day, go this moment, and resolve to be 
another Gideon Richie, and raise another Blackburn ! 

Young man, fatherless, motherless, penniless, wake up, and 
remember, you may be a Blackburn, too ! 


In the great battle between light and darkness, between truth 
and falsehood, between sin and holiness, every human being bears 
his part ; is for, or against. There is no neutral position in that war. 
To do nothing, is to be against ; and to be against the right, is to 
be lost. Idleness is a crime ; indifference, a fatuity. There is much 
to do, and little time to do it in ; for, " The night cometh, when no 
man can work." Work while the day lasts ; work hard, work 
well ; these should be the resolves of all the friends of a true Chris- 
tianity, some of whom can do a great deal — all can do something, 


little though it may be ; yet, that little is essential to the comple- 
tion of the great work ; as in a magnificent engine, it might as well 
lack a driving-wheel, as the smallest pin or most diminutive screw. 
Every temptation resisted, every passion curbed, every lust morti- 
fied, every pure desire cherished, every good deed done, every 
kind word spoken, every benignant look, every cheering smile, 
every sympathetic throb for a brother's sorrow or a sister's tear, is 
something done towards the elevation of humanity to its high seat, 
hard by the Throne of God. And as there is not a human being 
but can do some of these things, there is work for all, and work 
that all can do. What magnificent encouragement is there, then, 
in the consciousness that the creature can become a co-worker with 
his Creator ; a worm be made a fellow-laborer with the Omnipo- 
tent. That Omnipotence is the embodiment of Love, for " God is 
Love ;" " his loving kindness is over all his works," and, most of all, 
over man, whose happiness here and hereafter, is an object of his 
care, to the extent of giving his only and well-beloved Son to 
become an adjudged culprit on the cross, that man thereby might 
be made immortally blessed. 

If, then, humanly speaking, the Father of us all has made such 
sacrifices to promote the happiness of man, his child, and has put it 
in our power to engage with him in that work, securing eternal 
life as the wages for it, there is no nobler spectacle in the universe, 
than that of a man, every outgoing of whose heart is in loving 
kindness towards all of woman born, and in so doing, is learning 
here to assimilate himself to his Maker, coming nearer and nearer 
the pattern of the great Original every day, until life's latest hour, 
when he goes upward, to " be like Him," to " see Him as He is." 


" Revolutions never go backward," said some renowned name. 
Multitudes have repeated the sentiment since, and it has almost 
become an axiom. It is a great untruth. Revolutions often have 
a reactive power, and the people are left in a worse condition than 
before they revolved ; they turned up, and then they turned down. 
" Reform " is another name for revolution, more modest, less start- 
ling ; meaning to intimate that the foundation will be left, first 
principles will remain undisturbed, but will be modified in their 
application. Once upon a time, Presbytery got up a revolution, and 
bestrode the high horse of reform as to Episcopacy and Papacy, and 


so sturdy were they in their work, so thorough, they made such 
" a clean sweep," as to matters and things in general, that they re- 
formed some things which had, perhaps, have been better let alone. 
This is not a theological article — it relates specially to practical life, 
as will be presently seen. One of the things against which the 
battering-rams theologic were particularly directed, was the abolition 
of fast days, and feast days, and saints' days ; they left not a single 
day standing — not even " old father Christmas " day. They won't 
even have a sermon on that day, unless it should happen to come 
on Sunday. The fact is, the sober Presbyterian has no day at all, 
from Genesis to December. Many of them won't allow their chil- 
dren to set off squibs or fire-crackers on the Fourth of July. They 
are so sober, so sedate, Presbyterians are, they seldom crack a 
smile on the street or highways. No doubt they at times let off 
the bottled mirth, else consequences might be disastrous. In fact, 
we remember a " case," as doctors say. 

There is a seat in a church we know of, which is almost never 
vacant, occupied by a sober Protestant ; his eye is fixed on the 
minister, from beginning to end — we do not remember ever to 
have seen it winked ; the chapter and verse are always hunted out, 
and the psalms sung with an unction, especially the doxology. So 
we gradually gave to the gentleman our most respectful considera- 
tion. Later on in the history of things, we happened to be one of 
about a hundred men, brought together by design. As far as we 
could judge, they all seemed to be eminent men in their line ; 
there were generals, and governors, and commodores, and million- 
aires, and, with the exception of a doctor or two, there was nothing 
less than a senator present. There were Astor, and Scott, and 
Seward, and Brooks, and Greeley, and Morgan, and Vanderbilt, and 
Cooper, and Cyrus W., &c. When the oysters came, and the 
champagne and the brandy, about eleven o'clock, there was 
exceeding joy. We watched. There was one gentleman who 
took the lead. Didn't he tip and twirl his hat to the loud hip, hip, 
hurrah, at Seward's speech, and louder still at the call for 
" Brooks ;" and what hearty mirth at the exhaustion of each 
goblet! We had always heard that the most mirthful people 
before folks, were the most solemncholy when alone, and here was 
a " case" at hand, for we recognized the lineaments of the dutiful 
hearer before alluded to. And now we come to the point : Protes- 
tants reformed all feast days and saints' days out of the calendar. 
But is not the revolution going backward with a vengeance? 
Instead of remembering the birthday of persons remarkable for their 


piety, witn reverence for their virtues, with humility for our short- 
comings of them, and with penitential resolves to be more like 
what they were reputed to be — we repeat it — instead of saints' 
days for fastings, we have sinners' nights for feastings. Tom 
Paine's birthday is celebrated by feasts and liquor-drinking, by 
descendants of the Pilgrim Fathers. And, later still, over this 
whole land, men of all creeds and parties have laid aside their 
differences ; men of high social position, men who have wives 
and daughters and sons, lawyers and literateurs, all tip the glass to 
the same sentiments, and hurrah at the same speeches, and eat and 
drink and carouse until the small hours of the morning ; and in 
memory of what? — that, a hundred years earlier, was born a 
drunkard and a debauchee, a man who wasted his great powers of 
poetry, of wit, of sarcasm — worse than wasted them ; he prosti- 
tuted them, as far as lay in his power, to purposes of ridicule 
against the religion of his fathers, and of his country. A blasphe- 
mous man was he ; and whether his hypocrisy, his inconsistencies, 
or his maudlin sentimentalities were greatest, we cannot say. A 
man abuses himself with liquor and license, and then turns round and 
abuses the world for not taking him in its arms, and providing for 
all his wants. If he had been treated with less attention, he would 
have been less a drunkard. The poet of Ayr and of Bonny Doon 
was great in senthnent. There is a sweetness in his lines above all 
others ever written. As to these same sentiments, and for their 
sweet things, let an honorable and respectful remembrance be 
had by all who have been thrilled with his poesy. But when it 
comes to a semi-deification of the virtues of a man who had no 
virtue at all, simply because he made delightful poetry, that is 
going rather far ; it is reform run mad ; it is revolution gone to 
seed; it is the glorification of the profane, with idolatry and wine, 
instead of the remembrance of the good, with profitable humili- 

When it comes to this, that, after a dinner and a dram, eminent 
men get up, not in the light of day, but in the glare of gas, and 
apologize for beastly drunkenness, and for the debauchery of 
women, as the overflowing hilarity of a genial soul, the outbreakings 
of an affectionate nature — bah ! At the bacchanal of Burns, in 
Boston, great men asserted that drunkenness and licentiousness, 
after the manner of their hero, were " symbols of the highest type 
of manhood ;" that " men who controlled their passions and led 
virtuous lives, might win respect, but could not excite love." Such 
language as this, at the homestead of the Puritans, where wealth, 


and refinement, and cultivation, and high scholarship, make their 
home, may well " cause us pause," and inquire whither are we 
drifting ? 


What a dear, delightful feeling it must be to have an humble 
heart. It is a thing about which a man can weep delicious tears 
by the hour, to feel that he is nothing — less than the least of every- 
body else — and yet have an eager willingness to do what he can for 
his Saviour. 

In a moment, the crowded steamboat was on fire. Stranger and 
friend, maid and mistress, master and servant, dignitary and 
menial, were, all together, whelmed in the common disaster ; some 
on fire, others drowning, many already dead. The only distinctions 
in that terrible hour were two — the ability of self-helping, and the 
will to help others. There was a colored man there ; a planter's 
slave. He saved himself, and then his master ; the many perished. 
When it was all over, the planter promptly offered the slave his 
freedom, and asked him what else he wanted. " Nothing ; all for 
the love of God to-day," said the noble negro, and he must have 
had a heart for a king. 

When we go into a house of worship on a Sabbath night, 
and cast our eye over the congregated thousands, we feel that they 
have como to hear the preacher ; that is the great attraction of the 
evening. But while waiting for his words, a single, solitary man 
rises from the crowd and comes forward to the lights. Nobody 
knows who he is ; nobody asks ; nobody cares to know. All this 
he is aware of. Yet there is an intermediate part to be performed, 
comparatively trifling. He can do it, and he is willing to do it. It 
is a small office ; yet, as it helps on the good cause, he says, Here 
am I ; send me. He sings the tune, and falls back to make one of 
the undistinguished crowd again. His only talent, it may be, is to 
" raise the tune," and he does it. Another man is a member of 
some country church ; his ideas seldom rise higher than the clods 
which his plow turns up in its furrow, and yet he knows enough to 
try to be a Christian. He has neither money nor influence ; no 
gift of speech or of prayer ; nor gift of conversation has he, much 
beyond the answer to a question by a monosyllable. What can he 
do without money, without influence, without gifts ? Above all, 


what can he do for God, for that Redeemer who died for him ? He 
can open a door, and sweep the church, and make a fire ; and he 
does them all, as a means of furthering the work of his Master. 
He takes no pay for it ; claims no merit for it. His pay and claim 
is the privilege of doing something to help on the " good cause." 
We do love this doing what one may for the love of the Master. 
Such people must be happy. They have meat to eat which the 
great world knows not of. But the singer and the sexton have 
brothers abroad ; nobler, in many respects, but in lovingness 
equal ; men of giant minds, who have grown old and weary and 
physically helpless in the Master's service. We know some of 
them. But, like the war-horse, on a perpetual and honorable fur- 
lough, by reason of age, they answer to the trumpet's call " to 
arms," with the willing alacrity of youth in mind ; but the body is 
wanting. These are the noble clergymen who, physically incapaci- 
tated from active service, are spending their time in feeding the 
" lambs " of the flock, and the doubting and the wayward, by writing 
little books, or shorter and more transient things for the magazine 
and the newspaper. Some of them do these things in bodily wea- 
riness and pain, which might well excuse them from the labor ; but, 
faint, yet pursuing, they are working while they may. They can't 
do much ; but, little as it is, it is done willingly and lovingly, in the 
sweet consciousness that they are working " for Jesus," not for 
human applause ; not for money, but " for the love of God." 


Passing along Sixteenth Street, some time ago, at the close of a 
Summer's day, we noticed a man walking before us in the common- 
est clothes of a laborer. He must have been over fifty years of 
age, and weary, too, for he walked with a weary gait, slow, and 
tottering. A few feet before him, near the centre of the smooth 
pavement, in front of Mr. Hoe's dwelling, there laid an ugly stone, 
not large, but just such an one as an unobservant, or old person, or 
little child, might stumble over. He took up the stone, carried it 
to the curb, laid it in the gutter, and passed along. " There's a 
grand heart in that poor little old man's body, in spite of its humble 
covering," said we to a lady with us. And it will be a lifelong re- 
gret to us that we did not overtake him and speak to him some 
word of cheer. That act was recognized in Heaven, for it was one 


of a pure benevolence, and it ought to have been recognized on 
earth ; for, next to a good deed done, is its open, manly, and sym- 
pathizing approbation. This poor old man, in the lovingness of a 
kindly nature, without the stimulus of a present object of sympathy, 
which may move any one to help his brother, performed an act of 
only possible kindness, and that towards some unknown individual. 
It was a kindness to humanity in general. 

Perhaps this incident may have made a deeper impression on us, 
from its having carried us back to our childhood ; for one of its 
earliest memories is that of seeing our mother getting out of the 
carriage to remove some stones out of the road, which interfered 
with a clear way, the driver, meanwhile, looking complacently on 
from his seat. This act was one of spontaneous kindness, to save 
some after-comer, she knew not who, an uncomfortable jolt, or the 
annoyance of a break-down. 

Within a few days, as if from inheritance, we found ourselves, 
before we were aware of it, removing a large stone from the centre 
of a narrow flag-way in the outskirts of the city. It must have 
been in that spot for months, for a smooth semicircular path had 
been made about it by the multitudes of feet which passed it daily; 
and yet, of all the crowds which thronged that way, for all that 
time, not a man, or woman, or child, had "moved away the stone." 

Reader ! what stones have you removed from the great pathway 
of life, with the wish, thereby, to remove hindrances to some after- 
coming brother? "What thou doest, do quickly," for "-the time 
is short," and the day of life to many " is far spent." 


" Theee was an old man," says an Eastern parable, " who had 
abundance of gold ; the sound of it was pleasant to his ears, and 
his eye delighted in its brightness. By day he thought of gold, 
and his dreams were of gold by night. His hands were full of 
gold, and he rejoiced in the multitude of his chests ; but he was 
faint from hunger, and his trembling limbs shivered beneath his 
rags. No kind hand ministered to him, nor cheerful voices made 
music in his home. And there came a child to him, and said : 
c Father, I have found a secret. We are rich. You shall not be 
hungry and miserable any more. Gold will buy all things.' Then 
the old man was wroth, and said : ' Would you take from me my 

Greed of Gold. 

The soul-destroying greed of gold is not a crime confined to the 
rich, to those who count their hoards by tens of thousands. The 
penniless idler may sell his soul for a dollar ; many a wretch has 
committed murder for a less sum. Some will read the parable 
quoted, with a feeling of impatience and indignation, that joy arid 
comfort and health and life should be all sacrificed in the passion 
of accumulating money. But it is the miser's pleasure ; it is his 
meat and his drink ; it is to him the sweetest satisfaction on earth, 
and he indulges in it. To hinder that indulgence, would be to ruin 
his body, or to blast his mind ; the grave or the asylum would 
soon have another occupant. 

But the loss of body and heart and soul together, by the 
destructive indulgence of any passion, or any appetite, is also a 
crime ; and yet, in that indulgence, there may be a sweetness to 
the reveller passing computation. The habitual dram drinker, or 
opium eater, or tobacco user, or gourmand, or "roue," so have 
their habits fixed upon them, that they would pour out the miser's 
gold as freely as water, to gratify their craving appetites — to these, 
would sacrifice all they possessed ; and we who are not slaves to 
these lusts, stand by and wonder at the infatuation. The glutton 
pronounces the miser a fool, and the miser pronounces the drunk- 
ard a beast. But, to all, their favorite indulgences are sweet as 
" honey and the honey-comb," and to break them away from them, 
is like taking away their life's blood — more, it is literal death. 

But just as sweet, and purer far, higher and more noble, is it to 
cultivate and cherish and feed upon the acquisition of truth, the 
practice of benevolence, the promotion of our holy religion, when 
once the heart is in it. And as no one is a greater adept in devis- 
ing ways and means for increasing his treasure, than the inveterate 
miser, because his whole soul is absorbed in his work, so will the 
searcher for truth, and the worker for its dissemination — he who lives 
for humanity and for Christ — be able to find out new truths, new 
ways of expressing them, new modes of distribution. Newton 
loved his studies, literally, more than his daily food. Multitudes 
of men are there, who so much love study, that the call to dinner 
is often regarded as an unpleasant interruption, and the meal is 
taken mechanically, while the soul is feeding at another table. 
The great Howard, and the greater — because far wider reaching — 
Dorothea Dix, loved benevolences so well, that the sacrifices of 
bodily comfort and bodily ease, for long years in succession, were 
counted as nothing, compared with the consciousness of " spending, 
and being spent " in the service of the unfortunates of their kind. 


The respective rewards, even in a world of sin, how widely differ- 
ent ! The difference between honor and infamy here ; between the 
saved and lost hereafter, are the portions, respectively, of those who 
cultivate the higher passions of love for humanity and truth, and 
those who revel in selfish pleasures, passions, and beastly appetites. 
They who are wise, then, will, for themselves and their children, 
give an early direction to the higher feelings of our nature towards 
those channels which will pour out their influences of truth, 
humanity, and religion, to fructify and bless the world for all time. 


Small minds spend a good deal of time in deciding, as to a par- 
ticular course of conduct ; whether " they can afford to do it." 
"What will Mrs. Grundy say?" is a question of momentous 
interest. To do anything which Mrs. Upstart or "the Smiths" 
would consider " mean," is no more to be thought of, than commit- 
ting a petty larceny, and being found out. It is known that any 
of the Wanttobe's would almost as lief be found coming out of 
a hen-roost at midnight, as to live in any street having " East " at- 
tached to it ; while there are those who feel forty feet higher, by 
reason of their being able to say, " I live in Fifth Avenue ;" and. for 
such to be seen with a bundle or package in the hand on Broadway ! 
they would fairly tremble in their shoes, lest they might be recog- 
nized by some one into whose " set " they were aiming to obtain 
an entree. 

A Baltimore Buonaparte surprised a friend one day, by carrying 
a broom homeward. " Why, it belongs to me !" was the reply to a 
question and look of incredulity. Says a Washington letter writer, 
" Yesterday, I saw Sam Houston carrying, like Lord Napier, his 
own small bundle, with its clean shirt and towel, its piece of soap 
and hair-brush." Let the young and all remember, that it is the 
motive which constitutes the meanness, or otherwise, of an act 
which is not in itself dishonorable. Better is it for a man to do a 
thing for himself, than to have another do it for him, when he can- 
not afford to pay for the service. The first step towards implant- 
ing in the mind of a child, a feeling of self-reliance and a manly 
independence, is to teach that child to help himself whenever it is 



Parents who do not exercise a careful supervision over the read- 
ing matter of their children, omit a duty of vital importance, and 
may reasonably anticipate subsequent disappointment, mortification, 
and sorrow, in the failure of those children to meet the expectations 
which had been formed of them. Aaron Burr revelled in the 
reading of infidel books in early youth ; and yet, with talents to 
have made him a second "Washington, he went down to his grave 
with the reputation of a corrupter of his land, a traitor, and a 

The son of the immortal John Howard, the friend of man, with 
all the advantages of a superior education and high social position, 
left to himself, to read what he listed — his mother being dead, and 
Ms father in foreign lands— fell into debauchery, and died a drunken 
madman, in the lunatic asylum of Leicester, before he was thirty- 

It is recorded of the Emperor Paul, the Nero of modern times, 
one of the most execrable of men, if received histories are true, 
that he took the utmost delight in reading horrible tales of every 
description, in contemplating pictures of rapine, murder, and blood, 
only to practice them all when, a little later, he was placed on the 
throne of all the Pussias. 

Children can read and hear moral poison ; and moral death is as 
certain to follow, as will physical death, if the poison of the apo- 
thecary is swallowed. A grain of strychnine is not the less fatal 
from being enveloped in sugar, or mingled with a hundred times its 
bulk in a teaspoonful of molasses. 

A " splendid lecture " from a " splendid man," is rather the more 
pernicious, from having a single idea — atheistic, infidel, or impure ; 
and a newspaper, a monthly, or a quarterly, may be, in the main, 
conducted with singular ability ; but if a roue, or pantheist, or 
deist, have it under control, its very ability only adds to the 
malignancy of occasional propositions, in more or less direct conso- 
nance with the individual sentiments of the editor. We undertake 
to say, that this occasional jactatory exhibition of sentiments, 
radically subversive of moral purity and true religion, is a part and 
parcel of the design of too many of the monthly magazines and 
city newspapers, to some of which there is no responsible name — 
no distinct editor ; while many of the various writers, taking 
advantage of their impersonality, shoot in the dark, and stab from 

A Great Want. 

behind, with the spirit of an assassin and the malignity of a 

An exchange says of a certain lecturer, and a most popular con- 
tributor to a magazine, which is loudly lauded every month by too 
many religious newspapers, for getting it for nothing as an ex- 
change, and for the real good things that are in its pages : " In his 
lecture, he opposed the idea that a large part of mankind are to be 
eternally damned, and used the expression, in describing the gallant 
act of a fireman : 

" c He knows full well, from what he was taught on his mother's 
knees, that, if he perishes, he will go to a place so hot that all the 
fire-engines in the world cannot give him a drop of water to cool 
his parched tongue.' " 

On the above, another paper remarks : " We can give no lan- 
guage to express our sense of the outrage committed on the 
religious feelings of the audience, crashing through all the finest 
sensibilities of his hearers, as unconscious, apparently, of what he 
was doing, as a wild boar tearing through a garden of flowers." 

Any man who could have the effrontery thus ruthlessly to insult, 
by an impious jest, the religious sentiments of a majority of his 
audience, and of his country, is unfit to write for the families of 
that majority; and yet, for a long time, this lecturer has been the 
most attractive feature in one of the most popular monthlies in the 
country, and which has other contributors to shoot out their infi- 
delities, as occasion offers. 

" A great want " is it, then, to have a monthly publication visit 
our families, which will displace such a " literature," as it is inaptly 
termed ; a monthly contributed to by men of better hearts, of 
sounder heads, and deeper and more varied learning; a monthly 
which shall, by the power of language, make fact more interesting 
than fiction ; whose every page shall announce some physical, or 
moral, or social, or natural truth, in a manner so pleasing, or so 
profound, yet clear, as shall make it looked for, from month to 
month, with the eagerness with which, now, the drunken revellers 
in fiction anticipate the coming of the next installment of crazing 
and corrupting stimulants ; for that the vast mass of fictitious read- 
ing found in the newspapers and magazines of the day, does but 
craze and corrupt the heads and hearts of those who indulge in 
them, can not be denied. If this suggestion shall prove to be a 
first foundation stone, the nucleus around which shall gather men 
of a true religion, as well as men of might, who shall build upon 
it, it is well. 



Burke relates that, for a long time, he had been under the 
necessity of frequenting a certain place every day, and that, so far 
from finding a pleasure in it, he was affected with a sort of uneasi- 
ness and disgust ; and yet, if by any means he passed by the usual 
time of going thither, he felt remarkably uneasy, and was not 
quieted until he was in his usual track. 

Persons who use snuff soon deaden the sensibility of smell, so 
that a pinch is taken unconsciously, and without any sensation 
being exerted thereby, sharp though the stimulus may be. 

After a series of years' winding up a watch at a certain hour, it 
becomes so much a routine as to be done in utter unconsciousness ; 
meanwhile, the mind and body, also, are engaged in something 
wholly different. 

An old man is reported to have scolded his maid-servant very 
severely, for not having placed his glass in the proper position for 
shaving. u Why sir," replied the girl, " I have not done so for 
months, and I thought you could shave just as well without it." 

We all are creatures of habit ; and the doing of disagreeable 
things may become more pleasant than omissions : showing to the 
young the importance of forming correct habits in early life, to the 
end that they may be carried out without an effort, even although, 
at first, it may have required some self-denial, some considerable 
resolution, to have fallen into them. 

But, if doing disagreeable things does, by custom, become more 
pleasurable than their omission, then the doing right, because 
we love to do what is right, becomes a double pleasure to the 
performer, in the consciousness that, while he is yielding allegiance 
to his Maker, he benefits his fellow man, and cannot get out of the 
habit of well-doing without an effort and a pang. Thus are the 
truly good hedged round about, and are more confirmed in their 
good doing, and its practice becomes easier and more delightful, 
the longer they live, helping them to go down to the grave " like 
as a shock of corn cometh in his season." 

But if there is something in the fixedness of good habits which 
binds us to them, there is the same thing as to the evil. Thus it is, 
that, when a man has arrived at the age of forty-five years, he 
seldom changes his opinions or his practices, which, if they are 
evil, become more and more fixed. Thus, what a man believes and 
practices at forty-five, he is likely to believe and practice till he 
dies, and there is small hope of his conversion to different views or 


different deeds, and the Ethiop's skin or the leopard's spots are 
his forever. The man, therefore, who is not a Christian by princi- 
ple and profession and practice, at that age, should regard his 
condition " with fear and trembling," for it is most likely that he 
never will be one. 

Springfield Republican has become famous of late, by the many 
extracts of a wholesome practical nature taken from its editorial 
columns, the writer being an educated physician ; among others is 
an item on The Trials of Married Life : 

" Married life has its trials and its sorrows. Tempers may prove 
incompatible, and call for forbearance. Fortune may be chary of 
its favors, and enforce self-denial. Children may be ungrateful, and 
sting the poor heart that has pillowed them. Sickness may come, 
and haunt a household for years. But ask the poor man, struggling 
along with his debts, and the weary woman, toiling early and late, 
accomplishing the ruin of her beauty and her buoyancy, if they 
would be placed apart, could competence be given them, and all 
their trials be brought to an end. The answer would be: "There 
is something sweeter in this companionship of suffering, than any- 
thing the world can offer from its storehouse of joys outside of it, 
and something which would make even severer trials than ours only 
iron bands to draw us more firmly together." 


A dollar buys the poor man a dinner, and he passes it off. To- 
morrow the same dollar does the same thing for some other man, 
and so it goes on, passing from hand to hand, feeding multitudes ; 
and, so far from growing less in value, it is brightened by the hand- 
ling, and, at the end of months and years of service, is worth as 
much as ever, while its very glistening makes it more tempting than 
one blackened by age and disuse. 

" Every new idea is worth a silver dollar, young gentlemen," was 
a favorite stimulus to study, with our loved and venerated teacher, 
Ebenezer Sharp, long since in his Christian grave, and whose 
memory we bless. 

Later on, we elsewhere learned, that there was a striking and 
practical resemblance between good ideas and good dollars ; both 
grew more shining by use, for rust corrupted not, and disuse did 
not canker them away. Genuine dollars, like genuine ideas, increase 
the sum total, by circulation, by being passed around. Let us 
drop the dollar, and take up the idea. Truth is used by conversa- 
tion and writing, and the oftener it is used thus, the brighter does 
it become, the more readily can it be applied, and the wider will be 
the range of uses which can be made of it. That which makes all 


the difference between the empty head and the crowded one, 
between a full man and a fool, is the facility with which things 
known can be made use of. It is not the mere fact of having money 
on hand, that makes a successful operator in Wall-street ; it is 
the having it at command at an hour's notice, with the frequent 
judicious use of it : and that very use gives more power. 

We take up a dollar, coined in the infancy of our Republic ; the 
man who moulded it has been dead for half a century. And yet, 
how many throbs of gratification has it excited, as it has been laid 
in the hand ; and how many a hungry mouth has it fed ; and yet it is 
as good as ever, and may continue to gladden the joyless, and feed 
the hungry, for a hundred years to come. But there is a remarkable 
difference between a good idea and a good dollar. The dollar is 
always received with pleasure ; but it is parted with, with a pang. 
But a good idea, well coined in words, gratifies him who gives, as 
well as him who receives. 

One sterling truth, clothed in words of vigor, keenness, or sweet- 
ness, spoken or printed, passes from mouth to mouth, from paper to 
paper, from page to page, and will happify a million hearts. The 
dollar can be used by only one at a time, and but at one place 
in the same instant ; but the mental coin, by the art of all arts, can 
be used by multitudes, in all lands, at the same instant, distilling its 
sweetness on both giver and receiver everywhere, to be perpetuated 
for generations yet unborn. 

The responsibilities of the press, of a writer, how amazing, how 
imperative, in the great contest of ages, between ignorance and 
error ! And the privilege of an ability to clothe our ideas in words 
that burn or bless ; in resistless power, or in honied sweetness, to 
wake up the sleepy and the lazy, or help up the weary, the lonely, 
or desponding, how high, how dear ! Men of Israel ! men of mind ! 
help ! These fields are open to you. Use them with power, with 
love ; and lay out yourselves to coin a moral dollar once a month — 
clear, bright, beautiful, well defined — which shall instruct or gladden 
many a living heart, and continue to do the same, long after " the 
harvest is ended" for you, and the clods have rested on your grave. 
Do it now, and do it till you die, for " The night cometh when no 
man can work." 

238 hall's jouknal of health. 


In the name of humanity, this article is addressed to the 
thoughtful and affectionate consideration of those who have 
children at the public schools, of which New- York City may 
well be proud, because they are conducted generally with a 
system, a vigor, a thoroughness, and an efficiency, which merit 
our admiration, to say nothing of the gratitude due from this 
whole community to the company of teachers, whose literary 
ability and conscientious efforts to discharge fully the responsi- 
ble duties of their station, have made these schools what they 
are. For the unmitigated barbarity and most consummate 
stupidity of keeping children from eight years old and upward, 
six mortal hours at a time, on hard benches, breathing a con- 
taminated atmosphere, with only a few minutes' interval, now 
and then, with the addition of lessons to be learned at home, 
which we personally know, require from two to three hours 
more, on the part of those not particularly bright, the teachers 
are not responsible. But the Board of Education are. And 
any one of them who passively permits the continuation of the 
enormity another day, ought to be incontinently ejected from 
the Board, neck and heels. Such a man has not the sympathy, 
consideration, and intelligence, necessary to the management 
of a drove of Barnum's monkeys. He would kill the hippo- 
potamus in a week. Old Adams's California giant bear would 
wither to a skeleton; every member of the "Happy Family," 
and every inhabitant of the multitudinous and beautiful aqua- 
ria, (all to be seen for only twenty -five cents !) would dwindle 
down to a bag of bones. We would not be surprised to learn 
that the keeper who killed off the two Labrador whales, was a 
public school commissioner. The law ought to be instantane- 
ous and imperative, that no pupil under the junior class, should 
be allowed to take a book home, or to study one single moment 
out of the insufferable six hours. Until New- York can rise to 
the intelligence of the Boston Board, some plan like the follow- 
ing should be adopted in order to prevent the children from 
falling into habitual constipation, which lays the foundation for 
brain-fever ; or the slower, but life-long calamity of a residence 
in some lunatic asylum ; or, the brain, stimulated into diseased 
action, loses its power, and the unfortunate child, however 


bright and promising at first, soon reaches the acme of its ca- 
pabilities, beyond which it can not go, and falls into jejune me- 

Constipation, Dyspepsia, and Brain-Fever are the three great 
dangers of children at school. When a child gets to pass a day 
or two without an action of the bowels, it becomes at once ex- 
posed to every disease that is abroad ; if there is any prevalent 
sickness whatever, a constipated child is sure to suffer from it ; 
while it takes cold from the slightest of all causes, and thus be- 
comes tinder for diphtheria, scarlet fever, and putrid sore-throat. 
Hence, breakfast should be taken early, long enough before half- 
past eight o'clock, to allow them to have abundant time to go to 
the privy ; and to promote this, they should be required to re- 
pair to the family-room or parlor, from the breakfast-table ; be- 
cause, by the mind being composed, the call of nature is more 
certainly noticed. It is a criminal neglect, not to clearly ex- 
jDlain to each child, the inevitable ill results and danger to life, 
which attend going over twenty -four hours, without an evacu- 
ation of the bowels. 

A good many give their children money to buy cakes, can- 
dies, nuts, and other trash, to be eaten as lunch at the twelve 
o'clock recess. It is positively certain, that in every case such 
children will become dyspeptic in a few weeks, or otherwise 
disabled from attending school. The very best, and an abund- 
ant lunch, is one slice of light bread, made of what is called 
Graham or unbolted flour, mixed with molasses enough to 
make it slightly sweet. This will appease hunger, for it is very 
nutritious, will promote a free condition of the bowels, and yet 
allow the child to have a moderate but good appetite for dinner 
at three and a half clock, after which, nothing should be 
eaten but a couple of oranges. But as too indulgent parents 
may not be easily brought to this, a piece of cold bread and 
butter, or an equivalent of stirabout or cracked wheat, with a 
little molasses, is amply sufficient. The importunities of the 
little Olivers for "more," should be firmly and kindly resisted; 
then, instead of seeing the children come to the breakfast-table 
with a listless, weary, unrefreshed look, only nibbling at a bit 
of bread, or sipping a little water, they will be bright ; cheerful, 
and able to eat almost any thing placed before them — provided 
they have had the utmost abundance of sleep ; for if this is not 

240 hall's journal of health. 

allowed a child, not one in ten will see thirty years ; and even 
those, from the day of marriage and on, will be years of annoy- 
ing if not miserable invalidism. To ascertain what is sufficient 
sleep without mistake, and as some naturally require more sleep 
than others, there is only one safe plan of procedure, and that 
is as infallible as nature herself. Make the child go to bed at 
an earlier and earlier hour, until he wakes up of himself, about 
six o'clock ; until nature wakes him up ; which she will never 
fail to do as soon as enough sleep has been taken to repair the 
muscular and mental wear and tear of the preceding day. 

If a child is put to bed at nine o'clock in the evening, and 
does not wake at six, after a week's trial, then try eight or 
seven, and when the proper hours are ascertained, adhere to 
them pretty rigidly ; do not make any inflexible rule. If, 
from unavoidable irregularity, a child has to be waked up, do 
not trust a servant to do it. The parent should do it mildly, 
gently, pleasantly, encouragingly. Servants are very apt to do 
it with a shock, or scowl, or scold, or other exhibition of impa- 
tience, and the day of the child begins with a feeling of irrita- 
tion which is very apt to color the whole of that day's conduct. 

Two rules as to eating are of incalculable importance. If a 
child is under ten years of age, every particle of food should be 
cut up by one of the parents, in pieces almost as small as a pea, 
with a sharp knife ; or if the servant does it, it should be 
brought to the parent for inspection, before it is placed before 
the child, and nothing should be eaten between meals but a 
piece of dry bread, or an orange, or ripe fruit, about midway 
between. Children over ten should not be allowed to eat any 
thing between meals except on some special occasion. Nothing 
so soon and so certainly wears out the stomach of a child as 
eating something every two or three hours. 

By the time the public-school scholar gets through with din- 
ner, it is about four o'clock. Let it be rigidly understood that 
they must keep on their feet out of doors, if not raining or oth- 
erwise inclement, until it is dark enough to come in, and then 
let them be busied in plays or games, or some household occu- 
pation which requires them to be actively employed on their 
feet until tea ; after which let them have some amusement until 
retiring ; always timing things so that they shall be ready to 
get into bed within five minutes of the regular hour ; arrang- 


ing all in such a way that not a single moment shall be em- 
ployed in study, or reading, or sewing by gas, or candle, or 
other artificial light. Whatever lessons can not be learned be- 
tween rising in the morning and the time for starting to school, 
let them remain unlearned. If, on application to the teachers, 
the out-of-school task can not be modified, then insist that the 
child be put in a lower class. It is infinitely better that a child 
shall remain a year longer at school, or to have no schooling at 
all, (excepting always a religious training,) and grow up with 
good health, than by incessant and painful stimulations have 
the brain over- strained with the inevitable result of a constitu- 
tion blighted in its budding, to be a burden or a torture to life's 
latest hour. 

Finally, parents, as you can never tell that any night shall 
not be the last on earth, however well the child may seem on 
retiring, and that it shall not wake up to a brain-fever, or 
dreaded croup, or the more fearful diphtheria, or putrid sore- 
throat, be persuaded to make a habitual and systematic arrang- 
ment by which each child shall retire to its little bed with a 
feeling of affectionate lovingness toward you ; that no harsh 
word, or look, or inconsiderate act of yours shall ruffle its little 
heart, and cause it to turn its face to the wall against you. 
Your indifferent, stereotyped, matter-of-course kiss is a cruel 
hypocrisy. The little creatures perceive it by an instinct, and 
they lie down with an undefined unsatisfaction. If you do not 
feel a kiss, do not commit the atrocity of a mere form, but go 
and pray Grod to give you a better heart. 

TAKING PHYSIC— A certain doctor, who has made a 
mountebank of himself in theology as well as in medicine, has 
uttered a magnificent lie in the words of an undeniable truth, 
that "medicine has done more harm than good." He meant to 
be witty at the expense of his brethren. It is not the medicine 
advised by the educated physician which has done the world so 
much injury, but it is the physic which the people swallow on 
their own responsibility. When a narrow-minded ninny gets 
sick, he " calculates " the saving it will be to him to give twenty- 
five cents for a box of pills, instead of "employing a physician," 
besides avoiding the discomfort of "a course of medicine," as 
it is called. This answers for a while in many cases, but it is 


ultimately disastrous, and health and life are the fearful forfeit. 
A gentleman had been a dyspeptic, and hearing that a prepara- 
tion of soda was " good for dyspepsia," he " tried it ;" it acted 
"like a charm," and for the next six months he was so enrap- 
tured with its effects that he considered it a duty as well as a 
humanity to recommend it to every person who seemed to be 
affected as he had been. Not long thereafter, as he was stand- 
ing at the gate of his newly-married daughter, in London, in a 
passing call on his way to business, he dropped down dead. On 
examination, the cause was found in several ounces of soda im- 
pacted in the bowels. 

Not long ago, a young lady of wealth called for a prescrip- 
tion at a Quaker druggist's. Being a conscientious man, he said 
to her very kindly that if she continued to take it in such 
quantities, it would destroy her. It was a preparation of mor- 
phine, chloroform, and ether, which had an instantaneous and 
powerful effect on the whole system, and in her case excited 
the brain and kept it in that condition, requiring constantly in- 
creased doses. Within a month she was attacked with a very 
familiar disease, cured every day in its more peculiar seat. In 
her case, the brain having been so weakened by the continual 
over-excitement to which it had been subjected, became the 
point of metastasis. In familiar phrase, "it went to the brain." 
She was a model of unobtrusive, self-denying piety, so retiring, 
so pure, as to be the admiration of those who knew her inner 
life. In an hour the malady made a wreck of the mind. No 
man could hold her. Her profanity was shocking to every at- 
tendant. A day or two more and she died. We personally 
know that her sister perished a year earlier in consequence of 
a condition of the system induced by taking daity, for months 
a popular ■" cough-lozenge," or "troche." In these last two 
cases, economy was no object, for they had always been the 
pampered and petted children of lavish wealth. But it was so 
much easier to get rid of an ailment in this way than by the 
formality of calling in the family physician ; besides parental 
solicitudes need not be uselessly excited ; this, no doubt, was 
the ruling motive. The experienced practitioner well under- 
stands that the habitual takng of any efficient medicine is the 
certain road to a premature and very often a violent or agoniz- 
ing death. 



" When ought I to begin to use spectacles ? " is the inquiry 
of all who, having passed the up-hill of life, are making their 
way downward on the other side. The necessity of glasses 
comes sooner to some than others, according to the variety of 
circumstances and conditions which are allotted to human 
kind; hence it would be nnwise to name any particular age. 
The sad necessity, however, comes with timely warnings, each 
successive one becoming more and more decisive. To the 
hearty, healthy, temperate and strong, the " symptoms" of 
needed spectacles begin to make their nnwelcome appearance 
about the age of fifty years. To our wives, so unwisely indus- 
trious as to stitch, stitch, stitch, nntil the bell strikes midnight, 
under the unanswerable plea, "I have to do it," the indica- 
tions of failing eyesight are ten years earlier ; but whether at 
fifty or forty, they are the same. Among the very first is an 
instinctive preference for the larger print; next, and before we 
are aware of it, it is fonnd that a habit has been formed of 
selecting the lightest spot in the room for reading or fine sew- 
ing ; after a while, a year or more, there is either a disposition 
to put the newspaper farther from the eye, or there is some little 
adjustment of it necessary in order to enable one to read with 
entire comfort ; after a while, there is a disposition to stop read- 
ing for a second or two, and wink the eyes several times, or to 
rest them by looking at something at a distance, as if to gain 
more strength to see distinctly the lines • and letters read ; then 
comes the feeling of aid given to the eye by placing the finger 
near the line read, as if to steady the paper, or as if to enable 
the eye to get at the line more readily. Reader, when you 
find yourself reading by the aid of your finger, thus, you are 
beginning to be an old man ; " gray hairs are upon you ;" your 
sight has begun to fail you, and yon should at once purchase 
glasses. Those made of Brazilian pebble, being natural glass 
are the best, because they are not so easily broken, are not 
readily scratched, and do not gather moisture so soon, hence 
do not need to be so often wiped ; they are more expensive 
than the common kind. Common glasses, in blue steel frames, 
cost from one to three dollars ; pebble glasses, six dollars. 

When spectacles are first worn, they should not be employed 
steadily, only in the early morning or a dim light, or with fine 
print or sewing. 


It is a very bad practice to keep the spectacles on all the 
time, in order to save trouble, for the eyesight fails much 
more rapidly under such circumstances, and those of greater 
power must be more speedily used. When the sight is begin- 
ning to fail, the eyes should be favored as much as possible ; 
this can be done, 

1st. By sitting in such a position as will allow the light to 
fall upon the page or sewing obliquely over the shoulder. 

2d. By not using the eyes for such purposes by any artificial 
light, or before sunrise, or after sunset. 

3d. By avoiding the special use of the eyes in the morning 
before breakfast. 

4th. By resting them for half a minute or so, while reading or 
sewing, or looking at small objects, by looking at things at a 
distance or up to the sky, relief is immediately felt by so doing. 

5th. Never pick any collected matter from the eye-lashes or 
corners of the eyes with the finger-nails ; rather moisten it with 
the saliva and rub it away with the ball of the finger. 

6th. Frequently pass the balls of the lingers over the closed 
eyelids, towards the nose ; this carries off any excess of water 
into the nose itself by means of the little canal which leads 
into the nostril from each inner corner of the eye, which canal 
tends to close up in consequence of the slight inflammation 
which attends weakness of eyes. 

7th. Keep the feet always dry and warm, so as to draw any 
excess of blood from the other end of the body. 

8th. Use eye-glasses at first, carried in the vest-pocket, at- 
tached to a guard, for they are instantly adjusted to the eye 
with very little trouble ; whereas, if common spectacles are 
used, such a process is required to get them ready, that to save 
trouble, the eyes are often strained to answer a purpose. 

9th. Wash the eyes abundantly every morning. If cold 
water is used, let it be flapped against the closed eye with the 
fingers of the hand, not striking hard against the balls of the 
eyes. But it would seem a better plan to open the eyes in pure 
warm water, because warm water is more penetrating than 
cold ; it dissolves much more readily and rapidly any hardened 
matter that may be about the lids, and is more soothing and 
more natural. 

10th. The moment the eyes feel tired, the very moment you 
are conscious of an effort to read or sew, lay aside the book or 
needle, and take a walk for an hour, or employ yourself in some 
active exercise not requiring the close use of the eyes. 


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of said publication and the place of issue, without writing the name of the editor or publisher, as these 
are changing. In all cases, inclose the money ; seal the letter ; put it in the office yourself, having 
addressed it plainly. If you hand your subscription to a bookseller or postmaster, or other publisher, 
they generally retain 33} per cent, for their trouble, which is a clear loss to the publication you patron- 
ize ; besides, passing through various hands, it is very liable to be lost to all parties. 


Astor Library, free to all from 9 A.M. until sunset. Attendants -will hand any book called 
for, to be used in the room. Lafayette Place, near Eighth Street, one block east of Broadway. 
116,000 volumes. 

Barnum's Museum:, 222 Broadway, near Astor House. Twenty-five cents admission. Open 
from 8 A.M. until 10 P.M. 

Bible House, on Fourth Avenue, one block east of Broadway, through Eighth Street, 
seven stories, occupying one whole block of ground, having cost $310,000. It employs three 
hundred persons, pays out four hundred and fifty thousand dollars a year, and in a year issued 
eight hundred and fifteen thousand Bibles and Testaments, in every variety of style and binding, 
from thirty cents for a complete Bible, up to twenty dollars each. The paper is received on the 
pavement, and is delivered in the seventh story a complete Bible. 

Book-Making. — The most extensive printing-establishment in America is that of John A. 
Gray, Esq., on Frankfort Street, three blocks east of the City Hall, six stories, running twenty- 
six printing-presses, employing between two and three hundred men, women, boys and girls, 
within the building, and turning out every day an incredible amount of work, from a common 
pasteboard card up to bills, pamphlets, newspapers, magazines, and books in every style ; and 
every thing well done, under the direction of one man, through that ceaseless vigilance, energy, 
firmness, and equanimity essential to all important positions ; the pledge for even a temporary 
employment in the mammoth establishment being an engagement to be punctual , industrious, 
careful, quiet, clean, obedient, just and gentle in speech — qualities fit to be enumerated daily at 
the breakfast-table of every family in the land. Let them be "learned by heart" by every child 
that lives. 

Central Park, reached by city cars, from Astor House, for five cents, by Third, Sixth, and 
Eighth Avenue lines; 844 acres; cost, to January 1, 1861, $7,600,000; appropriation for 1860, 
$2,500,000; total cost of purchase and improvements, up to January 1, 1861, $10,100,000. It 
is five miles from the Battery, is two and a half miles long, and half a mile broad ; laid out by 
Frederick Law Olmsted, born in Conn., Lieutenant E. L. Viele, Engineer-in-Chief. 

Cooper Institute, junction of Third and Fourth Avenues, built at an expense, including the 
ground, of over $630,000, by Peter Cooper, born in New- York City, Feb. 12, 1791. When com- 
pleted, the noble man gave it to the city, to be devoted to the elevation of the working-classes of 
his birthplace, by instruction, without charge, in ordinary daily occupations, in sanitary, social, 
agricultural, and political science, and teaching addressed to the eye, the ear, and the imagina- 
tion. The rents of the ground-floor are intended to pay all the expenses of keeping the building 
in perfect order. He was born poor, worked hard in a hatter's shop until he was seventeen, then 
learned coach-making. He built, at Baltimore, after his own design, the first locomotive engine 
ever used on this continent. Peter Cooper still lives. His name will be held in affectionate and 
respectful remembrance by millions yet unborn. Library and reading-room free to males and 

Greenwood Cemetery is visited by great numbers. Most of the omnibuses convey you to 
South Ferry for six cents ; ferriage, two cents ; by Hamilton Avenue boats, from which horse- 
cars take you to the cemetery, five miles, for six cents. Carriages can be had at the gates, for 
one dollar an hour, for one or four persons. Intelligent drivers will point out the most striking 
monuments, with items of their history. Opened September 5, 1840, and up to Dec. 31, 1860, 
had received 81,325 of the dead. 

Paintings, by the great masters, ancient and modern, from the twelfth century to the present 
time, at The Institute of Fine Arts, 625 Broadway. It includes the celebrated Dusseldorf 
Gallery, and the Jarves Collection, and is the largest and most recherche collection of paintings 
on this continent. Valuable additions are being constantly made. Admission, twenty-five 

Photographic Galleries are free to all, and will afford visitors the means of passing an 
hour with the highest satisfaction. The most prominent, in alphabetical order, are, Anson, Brady, 
Frederick, Gurney, Johnson, and Mead, all on Broadway. 

Printing. — One of the greatest wonders of the city, and of the world, is the printing-press at 
Tfoc World's office, 37 Park Row, nearly opposite the Astor House. It can turn off twenty-five 
thousand impressions in an hour. It is made up of fourteen thousand seven hundred and thirty 
distinct pieces, weighs fifty thousand pounds, is fifteen feet broad, sixteen feet high, forty feet 
long, and cost thirty thousand dollars. Fifty years ago, it required two men nearly one hour to 
print a hundred newspapers. Any gentleman or lady, on application at the office, will have its 
working shown them. 


Our Legitimate Scope is almost boundless : for whatever begets pleasurable 
and harmless feelings, promotes Health ; and whatever induces 
disagreeable sensations, engenders Disease. 


Vol. VIII.] NOVEMBER, 1861. [No. 11. 


Dkuggeey is not the only physic. There are means of 
curing disease and averting sickness, quite as efficient as any 
pill or potion ever sold over the apothecary's counter. The 
medicine of the mind is as powerful for life and death, as the 
flash of the lightning, or the bullet of the carbine. The thun- 
der-bolt kills instantly ; so may a mental emotion. There are 
slow poisons which eat out the life, piece-meal, in the agonies 
of years ; and many an unrevealed sorrow has there been, to 
waste away its victim in the tedious progress of weary weeks 
and months of grief. There is no stimulant more full of health 
than a hearty laugh. There is not a tonic in all creation which 
gives such perennial vigor as that of a conscience void of of- 
fence toward God and man. Better than any balm of ancient 
Gilead are the reflections of a well-spent life ; of a conscious 
integrity of purpose pervading every business transaction from 
early joyous youth to a genial old age. 

Let the reader, then, turn again to the pages of the October 
number, and experiment for himself as to the virtue there is in 
"Living to Purpose." Let him feel that he " is wanted " to do 
somewhat toward raising humanity from its low estate to 
greater hights, and that without his aid, the grand work will 
be proportionally retarded. Let him be admonished in his 
progress down the river of time, lest he be unconsciously 
"drifting" upon sunken shoals or more treacherous quick- 
sands. Let him feel that there is no moth known on earth, 
which so effectually eats out all that is noble, and generous, and 
manly in the heart, as the "greed of gold." Thus let his 
eye run from article to article, and see if in the practice of them 
there is not an enduring virtue beyond that of the pestle and 
the spatula ; more subtle and life-inspiring than Chemistry ever 


From Hall's Journal of Health, $1 a year, New-York. 


When a piece of land is exhausted of the element which is the principal 
ingredient of a certain crop, that ingredient must be supplied, or the crop 
will fail in quantity and in quality ; hence the thrifty farmer ascertains the 
wants of the soil, and supplies it with the needed manure every year. The 
human body is exhausted of its elements day by day, and day by day must 
these elements be supplied by what we eat and drink ; but the required pro- 
portion of these elements changes with the seasons, with the temperature of 
the weather, and he who eats the same in quantity and quality in July as at 
Christmas, will die in a month, because the adult eats for two reasons — to 
warm and to nourish. All food contains two chief principles : Carbon, to keep 
from freezing ; Nitrogen, to keep from famishing. The proportion of these 
elements varies with the food. Those who work a great deal, require a 
great deal of nourishment, of nitrogen, for it is the flesh-forming principle. 
Those who are exposed a great deal to the cold should eat the carbonaceous, 
the heat-supplying food. Butter and fat are three fourths carbon ; vegeta- 
bles have but little, berries none. Hence Greenlanders in their icy homes 
luxuriate in blubber and whale-oil, while the people of the sunny South 
revel in oranges and bananas, on the plantain and the peach, on dates and 
figs, on lemons, tamarinds, pine-apples, etc. We who live in latitudes 
between, are permitted the diet of the Polar Sea and the tropics, in their 
season. A wise man will take but little carbonaceous food on a suddenly 
hot day ; but if suddenly cold, it is best for him to eat more of fuel-making 
food. An infinite number of fevers and of colds would be avoided if timely 
attention were paid to these things. By the aid of these statements, the 
following tables may be used to great advantage, showing the amount of 
carbon, or heat-forming principle, in several articles of food. There is not 
one per cent of nitrogen, or flesh-forming principle, in fruits, berries, and 
the more common vegetables. Meats have about fifteen per cent. The 
meats average twenty-five per cent of nutriment, that is, including both 
carbon and nitrogen. Of all meats, mutton is the most nutritious— thirty 
per cent ; fish least, twenty per cent. Of all vegetables, white beans are 
the most nutritious, ninety-five per cent; wheat-flour, ninety per cent; 
turnips, the least, five per cent. Of fruits, plums are the most nutritious, 
thirty per cent ; apples, seventeen ; melons and cucumbers, three, the rest 
being mere water and waste. The more waste, the more open the bowels are. 





Turnips, 3 

Artichokes, . , 9 

Blood, 10 

Milk 10 

Percentage Percentage Percentage 

of Carbon. of Carbon. of Carbon. 

Potatoes, 11 

Lean Meat, 13 

Eye Bread, 31 

Gum Arabic, 36 

Arrow-Root, 36 

Green Peas, 36 

Starch, 37 

Lentils 37 

Wheat Bread, 40 

Sugar, 42 

Apples, 45 

Meats, Pat, 53 

Butter, 65 

Soup, 75 

Lard, 80 

Beans, 88 


From Hairs Journal of Health, 42 Irving Place, New-York. $1 a year. 


Is sickness at stomach, a tendency to vomit, combined with pain in some part of 
the head, generally the left side. It is caused by there being too much bile in the 
system, from the fact that this bile is manufactured too rapidly, or is not worked 
out of the system fast enough by steady, active exercise. Hence sedentary per- 
sons, those who do not walk about a great deal, but are seated in the house nearly 
all the time, are almost exclusively the victims of this distressing malady. It 
usually begins soon after waking up in the morning, and lasts a day or two or 
more. There are many causes ; the most frequent is, derangement of the stomach 
by late and hearty suppers ; by eating too soon after a regular meal, (five hours 
should, at least, intervene ;) eating without an appetite ; forcing food ; eating after 
one is conscious of having had enough ; eating too much of any favorite dish ; 
eating something which the stomach can not digest, or sour stomach. Any of these 
things may induce sick head-ache ; all of them can be avoided. Over-fatigue or 
great mental emotion of any kind, or severe mental application, have brought on 
sick head-ache, of the most distressing character, in an hour ; it is caused by in- 
dulgence in spirituous liquors. When a person has sick head-ache, there is no ap- 
petite ; the very sight of food is hateful ; the tongue is furred ; the feet and hands 
are cold, and there is a feeling of universal discomfort, with an utter indisposition 
to do any thing whatever. A glass of warm water, into which has been rapidly 
stirred a heaping tea-spoon each of salt and kitchen mustard, by causing instanta- 
neous vomiting, empties the stomach of the bile or undigested sour food, and a 
grateful relief is often experienced on the spot ; and rest, with a few hours of 
sound, refreshing sleep, completes the cure, especially if the principal part of the 
next day or two i3 spent in mental diversion and out-door activities, not eating an 
atom of food (but drinking freely of cold water or hot teas) until you feel as if a piece 
of plain, cold bread and butter would " taste really good." Nine times in ten the 
cause of sick head-ache is in the fact, that the stomach was not able to digest the 
food last introduced into it, either from its having been unsuitable, or excessive in 
quantity. When the stomach is weak, a spoonful of the mildest, blandest food 
would cause an attack of sick head-ache, when ten times the amount might have 
been taken in health, not only with impunity but with positive advantage. 

Those who are " subject to sick head-ache " eat too much and exercise too little, 
and have cold feet and constipation. (See Health Tracts Nbs. 21 and 22.) A diet 
of cold bread and butter, and ripe fruits or berries, with moderate continuous exer- 
cise in the open air, sufficient to keep up a very gentle perspiration, would, of 
themselves, cure almost every case within thirty-six hours. 


From, ZTaWs Journal of Health, 42 Irving Place, New- York, $1 a year. 


All who are now in health can keep well, and three out of four of those suffer- 
ing from the common transient ailments of life can be perfectly cured by giving a 
steady, judicious attention to the three following rules : 


Never eat between meals, nor take any thing for supper but a single piece of 
cold bread and butter, and a glass of water, or one cup of any kind of hot drink. 


Secure one regular, free, and full daily action of the bowels every morning after 
breakfast, by the use of your ordinary food ; (see Health Tract No. 22 ;) and 
to this end, do not leave your home under any pretense, for a single moment, until 
there is an inclination to stool ; then, as you value a long and healthful life, do not 
defer the call for a single second of time, for any thing short of a fire or a fit ; 
rather cherish the inclination. If it does not come within half-an-hour of the regu- 
lar time, solicit nature. If unsuccessful, do not eat an atom of any thing until the 
passage is secured, or at least until next morning. Meanwhile, drink as much cold 
water, or hot tea, as you desire, and keep exercising (tenfold better if in the open 
air) to the extent of sustaining a scarcely perceptible perspiration for the greater 
part of the day ; for it must strike you, that if food is steadily passed into the 
mouth, and there is no corresponding outlet, harm is absolutely inevitable. If, 
during the second day, the bowels do not move, call in a regularly educated phy- 


Cool off very slowly after all forms of exercise ; the neglect of this lights up the 
fires of three fourths of all the diseases which afflict humanity. Cool off slowly by 
putting on more clothing than while exercising, instead of laying aside some, even 
a hat or a bonnet ; go to a closed room rather than sit or stand out of doors ; sit 
by a good fire rather than an open window ; at all events keep in motion in such 
a way as to allow the perspiration, or any extra warmth, to disappear very gradu- 
ally indeed. 

If a fourth rule were added, it should be to keep one end of the body, the feet, 
always dry and warm, (see Health Tract No. 21,) and the other, the head, cool and 
clean, by spending two minutes in midwinter, and five or more in midsummer, in 
washing, with* ordinary cold water, the scalp, if the hair is short, the ears, neck, 
throat, arm-pits, upper part of chest and arms ; rub dry briskly, dress quickly, 
and go to breakfast. 

These same observances (the first three) will incalculably mitigate every disease 
to which mortal man is subject— will moderate every pain, and will soothe every 
sigh ; and a pity is it beyond expression, that every human creature does not know 
and habitually practice them. 


From Hall's Journal of Health, $1 a year, New-York. 


An incalculable amount of sickness, suffering, and premature death would be 
avoided every year, if we could be induced to heed the warnings, the premonitions, 
which kindly nature gives of the coming on of the great enemy, disease. Many a 
mother especially, has lost a darling child, to her life-long sorrow, by failing to 
observe the approach of disease, in some unusual act or circumstance connected 
with her offspring. 

1. If an adult or child wakes up thirsty in the morning, however apparently well 
at the moment, or the preceding evening, there will be illness before noon always, 
infallibly. It is generally averted by remaining warm in bed, in a cool, well-ven- 
tilated room, eating nothing, but drinking plentifully of some hot tea all day ; some 
little may be eaten in the afternoon by a child. But as long as a person wakes 
with thirst in the morning, there is an absence of health — there is fever. 

2. If, when not habitual to him, one is waked up early in the morning by an in- 
clination to stool, especially if there is a feeling of debility afterwards, it is the pre- 
monition of diarrhea, summer complaint, dysentery, or cholera. There should be 
perfect quietude, etc., as above ; in addition, a piece of warm, thick, woolen flan- 
nel should be wrapped tightly around the abdomen, (belly ;) the drink should be 
boiled milk ; or far better, eat pieces of ice all the time, and thus keep the thirst 
perfectly subdued ; eat nothing but boiled rice, corn starch, sago, or tapioca, and 
continue all these until the tiredness and thirst are gone, the strength returned, 
and the bowels have been quiet for twelve hours, returning slowly to the usual ac- 
tivities and diet. 

3. If a child is silent, or hangs around its mother to lay its head on her lap, or 
is most unusually fretful, or takes no interest in its former amusements, except for 
a fitful moment at a time, it is certainly sick, and not slightly so. Send at once for 
a physician, for you can't tell where or in what form the malady will break out ; 
and in children especially, you can never tell where any particular ailment will end. 

4. When there is little or no appetite for breakfast, the contrary having been 
the case, the child is sick, and should be put to bed, drinking nothing but warm 
teas, eating not an atom until noon, then act according to developments. 

5. If a child manifests a most unusual heartiness for supper, for several nights 
in succession, it will certainly be sick within a week, unless controlled. 

6. If there is an instantaneous sensation of sickness at stomach, during a meal, 
eat not a particle more ; if just before a meal, omit it ; if after a meal, go out of 
doors, and keep out in active exercise for several hours, and omit the next meal, 
for all these things indicate an excess of blood or bile, and exercise should be taken 
to work it off, and abstinence, to cut off an additional supply, until the healthful 
equilibrium is restored. 

7. A kind of glimmer before the eyes, making reading or sewing an effort, how- 
ever well you may feel, will certainly be followed by head-ache or other discom- 
fort, for there is too much blood, or it is impure ; exercise it off in the open air, 
and omit a meal or two. 

8. If you are not called to stool at the accustomed hour, (except when travel- 
ing, then let things take care of themselves — do nothing,) eat not an atom until it 
is done, for loss of appetite, or nausea, or loose bowels, or biliousness, is certainly 
impending. Exercise freely out of doors, and drink cold water or hot teas to the 
fullest desired extent. 

9. If there is a most unnatural indisposition to exertion, you need rest, quiet, 
and abstinence ; exercise in weariness never does any good, always harm. But if 
causelessly despondent, or there is a general feeling of discomfort, the blood is bad, 
warm the feet, unload the bowels, eat nothing for twelve hours, and be out of 
doors all day. 

10. If, without any known cause, or special pain, you are exceedingly restless, 
can not sleep, or if you do, it is dreamy, disturbed, or distressing, you have eaten 
too much, or are on the verge of some illness. Take nothing next day but hot 
drinks and toasted bread, and a plenty of out-door exercise. In all these cases, a 
thorough washing with soap and hot water, and vigorous bodily friction, greatly ex- 
pedite restoration. 



From two Greek words, Neuros, nerve, and Algos, pain ; means nerve-pain ; but as 
there is no pain except in connection with the nerves, every pain or ache in the 
body is really "neuralgia." Ailments are generally named from the part affected, 
or the nature of the malady. " Head-ache," because the pain is in the head. 
" Pleuritis," or pleurisy, because there is inflammation, too much arterial blood in 
the pleura, or covering of the lungs. Neuralgia is always caused by bad blood; 
bad, because too poor or too much of it ; too poor, because there is not exercise 
and pure air enough to secure a good digestion, and the person is thin and pale ; 
too much blood, because there is too much eating, and the bowels not acting every 
day, more is taken into the system than passes from it, and it is too full. The 
person may be fleshy enough, and does not appear sick at all. For a week, live on 
cold bread and butter, fruits, and cold water. Take an enema of a pint or more 
of tepid water daily, and spend the whole of daylight in active exercise in the open 
air, and the neuralgia will be gone in three cases out of four — the feet being kept 
warm, and the whole body most perfectly clean. There are two kinds of neuralgia, 
sharp and dull ; both caused by there being too much blood in or about the nerve. 
Perhaps arterial blood gives the sharp, venous blood the dull or heavy pain. In 
either case, the pain is of all forms of intensity, from simple discomfort to an agony 
almost unendurable. In the more fleshy parts, the pain is less severe, since the 
soft flesh yields before the distending nerve ; distended by more and more blood 
getting into it, until it is occasionally three times its usual size ; but when the 
nerve is in a tooth, or between two bones, or passes through a small hole in the bone, 
as in the face, or "facial neuralgia," which is neuralgia proper, or the Tic Dol- 
ereux of the French, the suffering is fearful, because there is no room for disten- 
sion, and every instant, the heart, by its beating, plugs more blood into the invisi- 
ble blood-vessels of the nerves. But in any such case, open a blood-vessel in the 
arm or elsewhere, until the person is on the very point of fainting, and the most 
excruciating neuralgia is gone in an instant, because the heart ceases to send on 
blood, and the blood already in a part, as naturally, flows out of it, as water natur- 
ally flows out of an uncorked bottle, on its side. Hence, a skin kept clean by ju- 
dicious washings and frictions, helps, by its open pores, to unload the system of its 
surplus; the bowels kept free by fruits, berries, coarse bread, and cold water, is 
another source of deliverance of excess. While these articles of food supply but- a 
moderate amount of nourishment, in addition, active exercise still more rapidly 
works off the surplusage of the system, and the man is well ; not as soon as by the 
bleeding, but by a process more effective, more certain, more enduring, and with- 
out harm or danger. Hence, there is no form of mere neuralgia, which is not 
safely and permanently cured in a reasonable time by strict personal cleanliness, by 
cooling, loosening food, as named, and by breathing a pure air in resting in our 
chambers at night, and in moderate labor out of doors during the hours of day- 
light. Those who prefer uncertain physic or stimulants to these more natural rem- 
edies, are unwise, and ought to have neuralgia — a little. Half a dram (or half a tea- 
spoonful or thirty drops) of sal ammoniac, in one ounce (or two table-spoonfuls) 
of camphor-water. Dose: one tea-spoonful every five minutes until relieved, or 
from one to three tea-spoonfuls of valeriatae of ammonia thrice a day, are valua- 
ble temporary remedies. 


From " Sleep," by Dr. W. W. Hall, 42 Irving Place, New-York. $1.25. 


If the urine is retained too long, the bladder becomes heated and inflamed, and loses its power ; 
the inflammation then becomes more and more intense, and death takes place in two or three 
days. Hence, children should be taught to urinate the last thing before going to bed at night, and 
before leaving home for several hours, or going on a journey. The modesty of persons riding in 
stages has repeatedly resulted in death in this connection. As persons grow older, the call to 
urinate becomes more and more frequent. As early as fifty, it is necessary to arise several times 
during the night for that purpose ; hence a vessel in the chamber of a guest is as Indispensable as 
bed-clothing. The warmer the weather, the less the urine, and the more high colored, because so 
much of the water of the system escapes by perspiration through the pores of the skin ; hence, 
they who labor most, urinate less than the sedentary. The color and quantity of urine depend so 
much on the greater or less amount of exercise, on the relative amount of food and drink, the 
quantity and quality of the latter, and the temperature of the weather, that none but a physician 
should draw conclusioas therefrom as to the state of the health. Hence, do not inspect the urine ; 
and make it an imperative rule to give instant attention to a call. In males, attempts to urinate 
when the parts are turgid from any cause, rupture or stricture may result — a life-long calamity. 


Every moment an even slight inclination to stool is resisted, the more watery particles begin to 
be absorbed into the blood again— a most filthy idea ; and going on, that which is left behind be- 
comes so dry and hard that it is impossible to void it, and the physician has to be called to spade 
it out with the handle of a spoon. The world-renowned surgeon, Dr. Valentine Mott, reports on 
one occasion having taken out eleven pounds from one individual. Costiveness is induced by 
deferring a call to stool to-day ; to-morrow it comes later and later, until it occurs only two or 
three times a week. By this time health is impaired, piles are induced, falling of the bowels comes 
apace, so that whenever a passage occurs the pain is so insufferable, that it is necessary to lie 
down for several hours ; or fistula or anal-fissures form, by which the excrements can not be con- 
trolled, and come away incessantly — a deplorable and disgusting condition ! 

Anal-fissure may be represented by cutting the rim of a purse, when the contents fall out of 
their own weight, often caused by straining too much, or remaining too long at stool, (five minutes 
are enough,) or by straining too suddenly when in a hurry. If a person finds, while on the privy- 
seat, that the excrements have begun to come, but there is reason to think that they are large and 
hard, it is infinitely best to introduce the finger carefully and gouge it out ; there is nothing else 
you can do ; a knife or stick would endanger wounding, while to strain on, would end in fissure. 

The most consummate fools in nature are those who indulge outside of honorable wedlock, for 
lost self-respect and a blighted conscience to the end of life are inevitable results, while character 
is degraded, and in every case, even from a single fault, there is most imminent risk of a loathsome 
disease, which carries its baleful and degrading effects to generations yet unborn. The reflection 
is terrible. Self-indulgence brings on horrible bodily ailments, and destruction of the mind itself. 
See prevention and remedy in book above. 



A New-Yoke merchant noticed, in the progress of years, that 
each successive book-keeper gradually lost his health, and finally 
died of consumption, however vigorous and robust he was on 
entering his service. At length it occurred to him that the little 
rear-room where the books were kept opened in a back-yard, so 
surrounded by high walls, that no sunshine came into it from one 
year's end to another. • An upper room, well lighted, was immedi- 
ately prepared, and his clerks had uniform good health ever after. 

A familiar case to general readers is derived from medical works, 
where an entire English family became ill, and all remedies seemed 
to fail of their usual results, when accidentally a window-glass of 
the family-room was broken, in cold weather. It was not repaired, 
and forthwith there was a marked improvement in the health of 
the inmates. The physician at once traced the connection, discon- 
tinued his medicines, and ordered that the window-pane should 
not be replaced. 

A French lady became ill. The most eminent physicians of her 
time were called in, but failed to restore her. At length Dupey- 
tren, the Napoleon of physic, was consulted. He noticed that she 
lived in a dim room, into which the sun never shone ; the house 
being situated in one of the narrow streets, or rather lanes of 
Paris. He at once ordered more airy and cheerful apartments, and 
" all her complaints vanished." 

The lungs of a dog become tuberculated (consumptive) in a few 
weeks, if kept confined in a dark cellar. The most common plant 
grows spindly, pale, and scraggling, if no sunlight falls upon it. 
The greatest medical names in France, of the last century, re- 
garded sunshine and pure air as equal agents in restoring and 
maintaining health. 

From these facts, which can not be disputed, the most common 
mind should conclude that cellars, and rooms on the northern side 
of buildings, or apartments into which the sun does not immedi- 
ately shine, should never be occupied as family-rooms or chambers 
or as libraries or " studies." Such apartments are only fit for " stow- 
age," or purposes which never require persons to remain in them 
over a few minutes at a time. And every intelligent and humane pa- 
rent will arrange that the family-room and the chambers shall be the 
most commodious, lightest and brightest apartments in his dwelling. 

This whole subject is treated at length in the book on " Sleep," by Dr. 
W. W. Hall, 42 Irving Place, New-York. $1.25, or, post-paid, $1.37. 



From HaWs Journal of Health, 42 Irving Place, New- York. 

It is utterly impossible to get well or keep well, unless 
the feet are kept dry and warm all the time. If they are 
for the most part cold, there is cough or sore throat, or 
hoarseness, or sick headache, or some other annoyance. 

If cold and dry, the feet should be soaked in hot water 
for ten minutes every night, and when wiped and dried, 
rub into them well, ten or fifteen drops of sweet oil ; clo 
this patiently with the hands, rubbing the oil into the soles 
of the feet particularly. 

On getting up in the morning, dip both feet at once into 
water, as cold as the air of the room, half ankle deep, for 
a minute in Summer ; half a minute or less in Winter, rub- 
bing one foot with the other, then wipe dry, and if 
convenient, hold them to the fire, rubbing them with the 
hand until perfectly dry and warm in every part. 

If the feet are damp and cold, attend only to the morn- 
ing washings, but always at night remove the stockings, 
and hold the feet to the fire, rubbing them with the hands 
for fifteen minutes, and get immediately into bed. 

Under any circumstances, as often as the feet are cold 
enough to attract attention, draw off the stockings, and 
hold them to the fire ; if the feet are much inclined to damp- 
ness, put on a pair of dry stockings, leaving the damp ones 
before the fire to be ready for another change. 

Some person's feet are more comfortable, even in Winter, 
in cotton, others in woolen stockings. Each must be guided 
by his own feelings. Sometimes two pair of thin stockings 
keep the feet warmer, than one pair which is thicker than 
both. The thin pair may be of the same or of different 
materials, and that which is best next the foot, should be 
determined by the feelings of the person. 

Sometimes the feet are rendered more comfortable by 
basting half an inch thickness of curled hair on a piece of 
thick cloth, slipping this into the stocking, with the hair 
next the skin, to be removed at night, and placed before 
the fire to be perfectly dried by morning. 

Persons who walk a great deal during the day, should, 
od coming home for the night, remove their shoes and 
stockings, hold the feet to the fire until perfectly dry ; put 
on a dry pair, and wear slippers for the remainder of the 

Boots and gaiters keep the feet damp, cold and unclean, 
by preventing the escape of that insensible perspiration 
which is always escaping from a healthy foot, and condens- 
ing it ; hence the old-fashioned low shoe is best for health. 



From HalVs Journal of Health, 42 Irving Place, New- York. 

It is best that the bowels should act every morning after 
breakfast ; therefore, quietly remain in the house, and 
promptly attend to the first inclination. If the time passes, 
do not eat an atom until they do act ; at least not until break 
fast next day, and even then, do not take anything except a 
single cup of weak coffee or tea, and some cold bread and 
butter, or dry toast, or ship-biscuit. 

Meanwhile, arrange to walk or work moderately, for an 
hour or two, each forenoon and afternoon, to the extent of 
keeping up a moisture on the skin, drinking as freely as 
desired as much clear water as will satisfy the thirst, taking 
special pains, as soon as the exercise is over, to go to a good 
fire or very warm room in Winter, or, if in Summer, to a 
place entirely sheltered from any draught of air, so as to 
cool off very slowly indeed, and thus avoid taking cold or 
feeling a " soreness " all over next day. 

Remember, that without a regular daily healthful action 
of the bowels, it is impossible to maintain health, or to 
regain it, if lost. The coarser the food, the more freely 
will the bowels act, such as corn (Indian,) bread eaten hot ; 
hominy ; wheaten grits ; bread made from coarse flour, 
or " shorts ;" Graham bread ; boiled turnips, or stirabout. 

If the bowels act oftener than twice a day, live for a 
short time on boiled rice, farina, starch, or boiled milk. 
In more aggrevated cases, keep as quiet as possible on a 
bed, take nothing but rice, parched brown like coffee, 
then boiled and eaten in the usual way ; meanwhile drink 
nothing whatever, but eat to your fullest desire bits of ice 
swallowed nearly whole, or swallow ice cream before en- 
tirely melted in the mouth ; if necessary, wear a bandage 
of thick woolen flannel, a foot or more broad bound tightly 
around the abdomen ; this is especially necessary if the pa- 
tient has to be on the feet much. All locomotion should 
be avoided when the bowels are thin, watery or weakening. 
The habitual use of pills, or drops or any kind of medicine 
whatever, for the regulation of the bowels, is a sure means 
of ultimately undermining the health ; in almost all cases 
laying the foundation for some of the most distressing of 
chronic maladies, hence all the pains possible, should be 
taken to keep them regulated by natural agencies, such as 
the coarse foods and exercises above named. 



Inability to sleep is the first step toward madness, while sound and sufficient 
sleep imparts a vigor to the mind, and a feeling of wellness and activity to the 
body, which are beyond price. To be able to go to sleep within a few minutes of 
reaching the pillow, and to sleep soundly until the morning breaks, and to do this 
for weeks and months together, is perfectly delightful. How such a thing may be 
brought about, and kept up, as a general rule, is certainly well worth knowing, and 
will be appreciated, even by those who have lost but half a night's sleep. The 
reader can study out the reasons of the suggestions at his leisure. 

Both in city and country the chamber should be on the second, third or higher 
floor ; its windows should face the east or south, so as to have the drying and puri- 
fying influences of the blessed sunlight ; there should be no curtains to the bed or 
windows, nor should there be any hanging garments or other woven fabrics except 
the clothes worn during the day, each article of which should be spread out by it- 
self, for the purpose of thorough airing. There should be no carpet on the floor 
of a sleeping-room, except a single strip by the side of the bed, to prevent a sud- 
den shock by the warm foot coming in contact with a cold floor. Carpets collect 
dust and dirt and filth and dampness, and are the invention of laziness to save 
labor and hide uncleanness. 

Ordinarily, mattresses of shucks, chaff", straw, or curled hair are best to sleep 
upon. For old persons and those of feeble vitality, there is nothing better than a 
clean feather bed. No one can sleep well if cold. Have as little covering as pos- 
nible from just above the knees upwards, but cover the legs and feet abundantly, 
for by keeping them warm, the blood is withdrawn from the brain, and to that ex- 
tent, dreaming is prevented. 

There should be no standing fluid of any description, nor a particle of food or 
vegetation or any decayable substance allowed to remain in a bed-room for a mo- 
ment ; nor should any light be kept burning, except from necessity, as all these 
things corrupt the air which is breathed while sleeping. 

The entire furniture of a chamber should be the bed, two or three wooden chairs, 
a table and a bureau or chest of drawers. Every article of bed-clothing should 
be thrown over a chair or table by itself, and the mattress remain exposed, until 
the middle of the afternoon ; not later, lest the damps of the evening should im- 
pregnate them. From morning until afternoon of every nunshiny day, the win- 
dows of the chamber should be hoisted fully. The fire-place should be kept open, 
at least during the night, thus affording a draft from the crevices of doors and win- 
dows. As foul air is lightest in warm weather, it is best that the sash should be 
let down at the top half an inch or more, and the lower one elevated several inches • 
by this means the pure and cool air from without enters and drives the heated 
impure air upwards and outwards. 

In a very cold room, without a good draught or ventilation, carbonic acid being 
generated by the sleeper, becomes heavy and falls to the floor ; thin gas has no nour- 


ishment for the lungs, and to breathe it wholly for two minutes, is to die ; it is thia 
which causes suffocation in descending some wells. In summer it goes to the ceil- 
ing, in winter to the floor ; hence it is more important that a sleeping-room should 
have a very gentle current of air in winter than in summer. 

Never go to bed with cold or damp feet, else refreshing sleep is impossible ; but 
spend the last five or ten minutes before bed-time, at least in firetime of year, in 
drying and heating the feet before the fire, with the stockings off. Indians and 
hunters sleep with their feet towards the camp-fire. 

Different persons require different amounts of sleep, according to age, sex, and 
occupation. Nature must make the apportionment, and will always do it wisely 
and safely ; and there is only one method of doing it. Do not sleep a moment in 
the day, or if essential do not exceed ten minutes, for this will refresh more man 
if you sleep an hour, or longer. Go to bed at a regular early hour, not later than 
ten, and get up as soon as you wake of yourself in the morning ; follow this up for a 
week or two, and if there is no actual disease, nature will always arouse the sleeper 
as soon as enough sleep has been taken to repair the expenditures of the preced- 
ing day, a little more or less in proportion to the amount of bodily and mental 
effort made the day before. Commonly there will be but a few minutes' difference 
fir weeks together. It is not absolutely necessary to get up and dress, but only to 
a\ oid a second nap. Sometimes it is advantageous to remain in bed until the 
feeling of tiredness, with which most persons are familiar, has passed from the 
limbs. It is safest and best for all to take breakfast before going out of doors in 
the morning, whether in summer or winter, most especially in new, flat or damp 
countries, as a preventive of chill and fever. 

If from any cause you get up during the night, throw open the bed-clothes, so 
a3 to give the bedding an airing, and also with the hands give the whole body a 
good rubbing for a minute or two ; the effect will be an immediate feeling of re- 
freshment, and a more speedy falling to sleep again. This was Franklin's remedy 
in case of restlessness at night. 

When it is remembered that one third of our whole time is spent in our cham- 
bers, and that only uncorrupted air can complete the process of digestion and as- 
similation and purify the blood, it is most apparent that the utmost pains should 
be taken to secure the breathing of a pure atmosphere during the hours of sleep ; 
and that the most diligent attention in this regard is indispensable to high health. 


A Medical Library which never advises a dose of medicine, except in cholera, may be found ia 
the following works, written by Dr. W. W. Hall, of 42 Irving Place, New-York, after having spent 
many years in special and exclusive attention to diseases of the throat and lungs : 

Hall's Journal of Health, six volumes, $1.25 each : whole set, $7.00 

Health and Disease, a Book for the People, third edition, 298 pages, 1.00 

Bronchitis and Kindred Diseases, ninth edition, 382 pages, 1.00 

Consumption, second edition, 280 pages, 1859, 1.00 

The object of these books is to show, to the young especially, how health may be preserved by 
natural agencies, and how, by the same means, to remedy ordinary ailments, such as cold feet, sick- 
headache, constipation, neuralgia, dyspepsia, etc. 

Hall's Journal of Health is published monthly, for one dollar a year, specimen numbers ten 

The Fireside Monthly is $1.50 a year, specimens twelve cents ; it excludes fiction, and is de. 
voted to science, literature, and practical life. This, with the Journal of Health, will be sent fir 
two dollars a year. 

The Health Tracts are furnished at 30 cents a hundred, assorted. 


From Hall's Journal of Health, 42 Irving Place. $1 a year. 


Is a name given by the Greeks to ailments which throw off fluids in unnatural 
quantities ; it means a "flowing from." These catarrhs are always originated by a 
cold taken in some way ; and upon whatever part of the system the cold " falls," 
it is called a " catarrh " of that part Hence, " catarrh of the head " when the 
eyes water a great deal ; " nasal " catarrh when the " nose runs ;" " catarrh of the 
chest " when a cold settles on the lungs and a large expectoration follows. Some 
persons who have "weak bowels" always have diarrhea; thin, watery, light-col- 
ored passages, or catarrh of the bowels, when a cold is taken. 

The action of a catarrh is curative, and should be let alone, for it is nature's ef- 
fort to carry off the disease ; to wash it away, as it were. If nature were only left 
to herself in these cases, an incredible amount of suffering would be prevented, 
especially if nothing were eaten until relieved but bread and water ; and if two or 
three hours in the forenoon and afternoon were spent in the open air, in bodily 
activities sufficient to promote and keep up a very gentle perspiration. But when 
there is a cough, or a troublesome running at the nose, or a watering of the eyes, 
with a fullness about the head and all over the body, indicating that a general cold 
has been taken, there is almost a mania for " taking something •" or, if the person 
has some medical knowledge, and even a small amount of common-sense, leading 
him to wait on nature, while he endeavors to aid her as just indicated, every second 
person he meets, exclaims, " Why don't you do something for it?" and he is brave 
indeed who resists steadfastly to the end. 

A lady had a troublesome itching and running at the nose, and being advised to 
snuff up cold water freely, she did so and was "cured " in a day; but in twenty- 
four hours she nearly died of asthma ; for, although the "flowing" from the nose 
was checked, the disease fell upon the lungs ; nature would have vent some where. 

In the diarrheas of children, summer complaints, etc., which so often arise from 
colds settling on the bowels, paregoric is given, and " soothing syrups," (in all 
cases made of molasses and laudanum, never made without sugar and opium.) The 
great effort of ignorance is to " stop the diarrhea." This is done ; the parents are 
charmed, write out a certificate in great gratitude ; this is published in the morn- 
ing papers of the same week, as also in another column the death of the " cured" 
child of "convulsions" or "water on the brain." 

The cough of consumption, and the large amount of glairy or multi-colored 
"matter" discharged from the lungs in bronchitis, are the curative "Sowings," 
catarrhs of nature, and the checking of them by cough-drops, lozenges, troches, 
syrups, snuffs, etc., always, always, ALWAYS makes death more certain, more 
speedy, and more dreadful. In all catarrhs, in all Sowings, keep the bowels free ; 
keep up a very general perspiration, and eat but very little for forty-eight hours, 
and if not better, send for a respectable physician. 


From HalVs Journal of Ifealth, 42 Irving Place. $1 a year. 


1. To think that the more a man eats the fatter and stronger he will become. 

2. To believe that the more hours children study at school the faster they 

3. To conclude that if exercise is good for the health, the more violent and ex- 
hausting it is, the more good is done. 

4. To imagine that every hour taken from sleep is an hour gained. 

5. To act on the presumption that the smallest room in the house is large enough 
to sleep in. 

6. To argue that whatever remedy causes one to feel immediately better, is 
" good for " the system without regard to more ulterior effects. The " soothing 
syrup," for example, does stop the cough of children, and does arrest diarrhea, 
only to cause, a little later, alarming convulsions, or the more fatal inflammation of 
the brain, or water on the brain ; at least, always protracts the disease. 

7. To commit an act which is felt in itself to be prejudicial, hoping that some 
how or other it may be done in your case with impunity. 

8. To advise another to take a remedy which you have not tried on yourself, or 
without making special inquiry whether all the conditions are alike. 

9. To eat without an appetite, or continue to eat after it has been satiated, 
merely to gratify the taste. 

10. To eat a hearty supper for the pleasure experienced during the brief time it 
is passing down the throat, at the expense of a whole night of disturbed sleep, and 
a weary waking in the morning. 

11. To remove a portion of the clothing immediately after exercise, when the 
most stupid drayman in New-York knows that if he does not put a cover on his 
horse the moment he ceases work irr winter, he will lose him in a few days by 

12. To contend that because the dirtiest children in the street, or on the high- 
way, are hearty and healthy, that, therefore, it is healthy to be dirty ; forgetting 
that continuous daily exposure to the pure out-door air, in joyous, unrestrained 
activities, is such a powerful agency for health that those who live thus are well, in 
spite of rags and filth. 

13. To presume to repeat, later in life, without injury, the indiscretions, expo- 
sures, and intemperances which in the flush of youth were practiced with impunity. 

14. To believe that warm air is necessarily impure, or that pure, cool air is ne- 
cessarily more healthy than the confined air of a close and crowded vehicle ; the 
latter, at most, can only cause fainting or nausea; while entering a conveyance after 
walking briskly, lowering a window, thus while still, exposed to a draught, will 
give a cold infallibly, or an attack of pleurisy or pneumonia, which will cause weeks 
and months of suffering, if not actual death within four days. 

15. To " Remember the Sabbath-day " by working harder and later on Saturday 
than on any other day in the week, with a view to sleeping late next morning, and 
staying at home all day to rest, conscience being quieted by the plea of not " feel- 
ing very well." 


From Rail's Journal of Health, 42 Irving Place. $1 a year. 


Many persons, while apparently recovering from sickness, suddenly become 
worse and die, in consequence of eating some improper article of food, or of eating 
too much or too often ; others have perished in eating against their inclination, 
merely to please their friends, or to get rid of their solicitations. 

If persons are able to be out of bed, or on their feet, the intervals of eating 
should be about four hours during day-light. Only those confined to bed should 
eat oftener, or during the night. As a general rule, that is best for the patient for 
which there is the greatest craving. But a lady recovering from an attack of 
typhod fever had a strong desire to eat a sweet potato. She did so, and died next 
day. Hence, a very small amount of what is craved should be taken at a time ; 
and if no discomfort follows within four hours, a little more may be ventured. 

If a patient wakes up in the morning thirsty, or the mouth is dry, no solid 
aliment should be taken, however great the hunger. Liquid food only can be safely 
used, at least until near noon. 

The very best restorative an invalid can swallow, when thirsty or " faint," is the 
very best green or black tea that money can purchase, made in the best manner ; 
the strength to be adapted to the circumstances. If feeble, the patient should 
have the food as soon as possible after it is called for. If there is no appetite, re- 
move it instantly ; instead of letting it remain, in the hope of its being soon wanted. 
Never, under any circumstances, give one single spoonful more than the patient 
can take with a relish, with satisfaction. A teaspoonful every twenty minutes, 
taken with a will, does more good than a dozen times the amount every hour or 
two, when such an amount can not be taken without distaste. 

Beef-Tea. Liebig's. — Chop a pound of lean meat as fine as for sausage ; mix 
it with a pint of cold water ; put it over a slow fire ; when it has boiled five minutes, 
strain through a coarse cloth ; salt to suit. 

Broth, quickly made. — Take a bone of loin or neck of mutton; remove skin and 
fat ; beat or cut fine the meat ; cover it with water in a sauce-pan, with a cover ; 
season it ; boil quickly for half an hour. 

Panada, in five minutes. — To water and white wine, seasoned with sugar, nut- 
meg, and lemon-pell, grate in some bread ,as soon as it boils ; boil fast until thick 
enough to drink. 

Sweet Buttermilk. — In ten minutes after milking, churn until flakes of butter 
swim about thickly. Good to drink while eating crackers, rusk, ripe or dried fruits. 

Flour Caudle. — Rub a tablespoonful of fine flour into six of water ; add this to 
five spoonfuls of milk, while boiling ; stir twenty minutes over a slow fire. A 
nourishing astringent for weak bowels. 

Wine-Whey. — While a pint of milk is boiling, stir in eight tablespoonfuls of 
wine ; boil a minute ; when curd has settled, turn off the whey, which sweeten 
and drink, cold or warm. 

Toast- Water. — Toast slowly, until brown, a thin slice of the soft of stale bread ; 
put in a pitcher ; pour on boiling water, and set it to cool, covered. 

Water-Gruel. — Make two tablespoonfuls of Indian, or corn-meal, and one of 
flour, into a thick batter, with cold water ; stir in boiling water till suitably thick ; 
season with salt, and stir while boiling for six or eight minutes ; add a little butter, 
and pour it over toasted bread, cut in small pieces. 

Toasted Bread. — Hold a thin slice to the fire until it turns slowly of a straw 
color on both sides. 

Flaxseed-Tea. — Boil whole flaxseed in water to a thick syrup. A dessert-spoon- 
ful to a glass of water ; strain, and add sugar and lemon-juice to suit. 



Not the young gentleman who dresses with finished elegance, 
and sports on Broadway the killing moustache, the white kid 
and the cigar ; who can bow with exquisite grace ; whose white 
teeth and dark hair and self-possessed mien, would turn the 
head of any boarding-school girl in the city. He was a Quaker 
youth, as plain in person and in dress as the plainest of his 
class. He was the son of a man who was rich by inheritance, 
but losing every thing, this son, raised to the expectation of 
a fortune, promptly resolved to learn a trade, and apprenticed 
himself to a bricklayer. As soon as he became master of his 
calling, he made his way to New-York, and might have been 
seen any day on one of its Broadway buildings, at twelve dol- 
lars a week, or about four hundred a year, as he had to lose 
bad weather. He found a good boarding-house with a class 
above him, socially. How these Quakers always manage to 
have the best things and the best places in their sphere ! There 
were clerks there who were receiving twelve hundred dollars a 
year, with this difference, he never went in debt, always paid 
his bills and always had money, while his companions were al- 
ways "short," always in arrears, always hard run. He was 
never in a hurry ; was always at his post before the hour of 
work, and was among the very last to " knock off" at the signal 
stroke. He took no drives to the Park on Sundays, and al- 
ways gave the negro minstrels and the theater a wide birth. 
After the day's work was done, he took a bath, put on his best 
clothing, took his tea, then made his way to that noble institu- 
tion, the Free Eeading-room of the Cooper Union. A speci- 
men of manly vigor and moral beauty, he soon became " fore- 
man," at increased wages, and, as might be expected, attracted 
the special notice of his employer, worth hundreds of thousands 
literally, with an only daughter, etc. 

What was he working for ? What was his ambition ? To 
secure by his earnings the old homestead for his mother ! This 
is being a "nice young man" in the noblest sense. Let the 
many youths of the country, whose fathers, so recently wealthy, 
are now worse than penniless, learn a useful lesson from this 
narration, and "go and do likewise," instead of lounging 
about in idleness, waiting for something to turn up, or selling 
manhood and self-respect in soliciting recommendations to some 


office, with a pitiful salary. Failing in this attempt, as fail they 
must in multitudes of cases, it is but a short step to despera- 
tion ; then come the theater, the cigar, the saloon, the mid- 
night revel, and those evil associations, which end in degrading 
diseases, with a blighted, blasted, useless life, and an early, un- 
wept death. 

LIFE ON THE RAIL.— The voluble Yankee would rather 
use a dozen words than one ; the dignified, pompous and taci- 
turn Englishman employs the smallest number of syllables pos- 
sible when he wishes to express himself; still, he takes good 
care that the words he does use shall tell his whole story un- 
mistakably and full. To him u bus " tells as much as an omnibus, 
a saving of sixty -six and two thirds per cent. He travels by 
" rail," never by railroad. But, perhaps, if John Bull talked 
more, he would be kept wider awake, and thus be a gainer in 
the long run. For example, a Liverpool paper reported recently 
that fifty-one lives were lost by a railwa}^ accident near Lon- 
don, and a later packet brings the news that " another" acci- 
dent occurred on a suburban train, by which thirteen more 
lives were lost, and fifty-one persons wounded. These calamities 
were traced to a drowsy flagman and a sleepy switch-tender. 
Our transatlantic cousins had better deputize half a dozen rail- 
way directors to visit our country and inquire into the manage- 
ment of the New-Jersey Eailroad Co., under the Presidency 
of J. S. Darcy, Esq., and J. P. Jackson. They would learn the 
extraordinary fact, that since its organization, thirty -six millions 
of persons have ridden in their cars without the loss of life 
or limb, while occupying their proper seats. Such fidelity 
to duty on the part of the managers and employes of the road 
certainly merits public appreciation and patronage. The above 
results were obtained chiefly by two plans of conduct : first, 
the windows are so constructed that a passenger can not put out 
his arm or his head without maintaining a most uncomfortable 
position of body. Second, a liberal " bonus " is paid every 
three months to every employe on whose " route " no accident 
has happened, with a fine or dismission if any thing goes wrong 
for want of diligence. Let every railway president and direc- 
tor make a note of this ; and emulate the carefulness of this, one 
of the very oldest railroad companies in the nation. And it 
may be worth the life of the reader to remember, while he keeps 

262 hall's journal of health. 

his seat in the cars, he has ninety-nine chances in a hundred of 
escaping injury altogether. 

WHO ARE HAPPIEST.— " Well, Mary, you have had 
large experience of life ; you began early in the families of the 
poor, and by fidelity to your duties and an ambition to perform 
them well, you have passed upward, and for years have spent 
your whole time as monthly nurse in families of wealth, posi- 
tion, and refinement. Now, according to your observation, who 
are the happiest people ?" 

" Mechanics' families, ma'am, who are a little fore-handed." 

The answer was given with such promptness, and so unhesi- 
tatingly, that the mind of the worthy woman must have been 
made up on mature reflection, and with easy decision. 

The answer merits the profound attention of every intelligent 
parent, and is exceedingly suggestive. The dialogue took place 
under the circumstances narrated, and without assent or denial, 
strong reasons may be given for the correctness of the old wo- 
man's reply. A lady said to us, just about twenty years ago, 
that her husband, then deceased, allowed her twenty thousand 
dollars a year to spend in Paris, while he pulled the political 
wires at Washington as a senator. " But I was not happy, be- 
cause politics was an idol before me. I never could be induced 
to marry a public man again." 

The returns of the registrar-general of France show that the 
middle classes live an average of eleven years longer than day- 
laborers and the poor. 

Our own observation tells us that the sons and daughters of 
the wealthiest seldom leave heirs to reach maturity, unless those 
heirs, by reverses, had to begin at the bottom of the ladder, and 
shove the plane or wield the axe or speed the plow. Mechanics 
usually begin life poor, and when both husband and wife have 
a good share of common-sense, they soon unite in their aims, 
ambitions, industries, and economies, with the result of a gradual 
increment of their substance. They live in a plain, unostenta- 
tious and inexpensive way. The high are so high above them, 
that they are saved the expense of aping them in style of liv- 
ing, and saved, too, the eating anxieties and cutting mortifications 
of that most unwise and most unfortunate class of persons who 
make their whole existence an extended torture, in the weary 
effort to climb into a sphere in which they have never moved ; 


the frequent, frequent cause of the sad wreck of family happi- 

The class above noticed, instead of wasting their attention 
and their energies in this direction, expend them on the further- 
ance of their fortune, in the improvement of their pecuniary con- 
dition, by curbing immoderate desires. They are not disturbed 
by any envy toward neighbors who seem to be getting along 
faster than they are ; they derive a quiet happiness in knowing 
that all they have is paid for ; that they have gone nobody's 
security. Now and then when they see something which would 
greatly add to their substantial comfort, or would save labor, or 
protect furniture or clothing, and they have not the means of 
paying for it, there is a sweetness to them in saving and even in 
practicing self-denials, until the money is not only earned but 
in hand, ready to purchase on " the best terms for cash." And the 
very fact that they have gotten it for less than those who did 
not pay in hand, gives additional satisfaction ; for the difference 
in price is that much money got without having to work for it. 
They bring the article home, and talk about its price, and look 
at it, and turn it over and over again, and appropriate it to its 
uses with a quiet enjoyment which of itself is worth money ; 
and that is the last of it ; while the neighbor who bought on 
credit, begins, after a short time, to count the days when it is to 
be paid for, and as the period comes nearer, the uneasiness be- 
comes greater, and with it, actual disquietude. Later on, bills 
receivable are not met as was expected, then come irritation 
and anxiety. The children see it ; the wife sees it ; all know 
the cause, and peace and happiness and quiet do not dwell in 
that household ; and long before the purchased article is paid 
for, the pleasure of possession or display has been eaten up, 
while there is more bitterness in store. 

The "fore-handed mechanic," who has the decision to resist 
the purchase of any coveted article until he has the money to 
pay for it, finds no trouble, when business reverses come upon 
a community, in deciding to take in sail while the storm is yet 
in the distance. He begins to economize, and has got used to 
it before his neighbors have been able to bring their minds to 
a decision that it must be done ; for few people like to come 
down, and rather protract the struggle to keep up appearances, 
in the hope that the times will get better, and they need not 
make any change. But oh ! how wearily the days pass away, 


when one is waiting for the hard times to go by, when the mean- 
while is spent in painful make-shifts, subterfuges, temporary ex- 
pedients, and heart-aching sacrifices ! 

Incomputable are the drawn-out agonies of merchants and 
bankers and brokers, of clerks, and all salaried persons, in hard 
times, or even in momentary shocks, which may occur in any 
week of any year. During these, all domestic happiness, peace, 
and comfort must be eaten out, and they live a year's suffering 
in a week. Not so with the " fore-handed mechanic." He bows 
before the storm of crises with the facility of the reed, and while 
the angry elements rage above, lies in quiet composure, with the 
sweet consciousness of perfect safety. There is another element 
of happiness in our " fore-handed mechanic :" while he and his 
wife worked into each other's hands, they grew to love each 
other more in their mutual efforts for bettering their condition. 
It was a happiness to them to help one another, to save labor 
and trouble to each other, and their children gradually grew up 
imbibing the same spirit and temper and feelings ; nothing was 
a trouble to them which in the least saved trouble or money to 
father and mother ; on the contrary, it was a pride and a plea- 
sure and an ambition to save, to help, and to practice self- 
denial, in the hope of an easier future, which to all was becom- 
ing more apparent every day. Hence the happiness ! 

We see a man every Sunday, who said to his newly-married 
daughter last year : " My child, go and get you a house for fifteen 
thousand dollars, and I will furnish it for you." After travers- 
ing the city for a month, she said : " Father, I can't find any 
house that will make us comfortable for less than twenty thou- 
sand ; can't you get it for us 7" 

He gave her the title-deed ; ordered Sloan to put down the 
carpets, and Meeks to supply the furniture ; Hough wout made 
the china, Tiffany the silver, Mercier the upholstery, and Berrian 
the etceteras of kitchen, pantry, laundry, etc. In short, every 
thing was procured to her hand, without even the trouble of 

But think you, reader, that this young woman, at the moment 
of her taking possession of it all, and in any month later, ex- 
perienced as sweet a satisfaction as does any wife who has 
helped her husband to earn the money to purchase their first 
Brussels carpet for their " best room?" Not a bit of it ! To 
get a thing as a gift is pleasant, is gratifying, but to obtain it by 

APPLES. 265 

mutual individual effort, especially if it has cost some self-denial, 
is a sweet delight, to which the pampered child of fortune must 
be forever a stranger. The editor will feel rewarded for writing 
this, if it shall persuade one subscriber to determine to give 
each son a good trade ; and that each daughter shall feel it her 
duty to wait upon her mother, to learn to keep house economi- 
cally, to prepare a sumptuous meal, to spread an appetizing 
table, to cut and make her own garments, and thus be worthy 
of a good husband, and be able to help him. 

APPLES.— The apple is perhaps more useful than all the 
other fruits in nature. Beyond them all, it is durable, prolific, 
easy of culture, and capable of such a variety, in its mode of 
preparation for the table, that a small volume might be written 
about it. The time required to digest a piece of roasted pork 
is five hours and a half; about equal to a piece of boiled 
tendon, (white leather,) which is almost leathery, or a lump of 
boiled beef-suet ; while a sweet, mellow, raw apple is digested, 
passed out of the stomach, and enters the circulation to nourish 
and strengthen, in an hour and a half, being exceeded in easi- 
ness of digestion only by boiled rice, pigs' feet or tripe soused, 
and whipped eggs, all of which are digested in one hour. 
Sweet apples are not valued as they ought to be, because they 
do not u cook well ;" but to be eaten raw, there is scarcely any 
thing more " delicate," that is, so easily received into the sys- 
tem, requiring so little stomach power in appropriating it to 
the nourishment of the body. One good method of cooking 
apples, is to peel them and take out the core, without dividing 
the fruit ; put them in a dish, pour over them a few table- 
spoonfuls of water ; bake until delicately brown, and eat with 
cream and sugar, as a dessert, for dinner. This is incomparably 
preferable to the sodden dumpling or the greasy pie. Mrs. F. 
D. Gage, one of the most notable housewives in the nation, 
says : " Pare the apples and quarter them, placing them in a 
tin plate with the core side up ; if dried apples, a little water is 
added ; they are then set in the oven, which is always hot at 
meal-time, and roasted ; when done, they are slid on a common 
plate, and sprinkled with sugar ; to be eaten warm, with, bread 
and butter and cakes. It would require canned fruit of extra 
flavor to tempt me from the apple-dish, if thus prepared. 
Strawberries or half-ripe peaches are not to be talked of the 
same day." 

266 hall's journal of health. 

For lunches at school or at home, for convenience and clean- 
liness to put in the pocket while traveling, or on an excursion, 
or when expecting to be absent from home over a meal, the 
apple is without an equal ; while as a dessert it might well 
supersede all the cakes, pies, jellies, dumplings, and "tarts" 
ever invented. If a tithe of the money expended in easily- 
dispensable articles of apparel, or mere personal gratifications 
in the shape of snuff, cigars, chewing- tobacco, home-made 
wines and cordials, or of useless trinkets of jewelry, or unsub- 
stantial, unremunerative amusements, was devoted to the pur. 
chase of a bountiful supply of apples in the fall, for family use, 
without stint, there would be found a most welcome increment 
in family health in the spring, and a diminution of doctors' 
bills, especially gratifying to all prudent and calculating "pater- 
familias." To every householder we say, wear an old coat 
another year, do with one silk dress less, skimp yourself in 
pork, ham, bacon, and even roast beef, rather than fail to put 
half a dozen barrels of prime apples in your cellar this fall. 

THINKING BRAG.— "It don't do for me even to think 
brag," said a worthy matron of the Society of Friends, whose 
long experience of the uncertain tenure of earthly goods had 
deeply engraven on her mind the pertinent expression of the 
sacred volume, that we "know not what a day may bring 
forth." Every year of her long and serene pilgrimage had but 
added a new demonstration of the wisdom of the same blessed 
book, in its injunction upon all to "walk softly;" to avoid 
being "puffed up" by any amount of worldly prosperity ; to 
feel ready, at a moment's warning, to go down into the valley 
of humility without a murmur, whenever the providences of a 
loving heavenly Father seemed to point that way. This it is to 
"walk humbly," and to possess that "lowliness" of heart, 
which secures the "promise of the life that now is, and of that 
which is to come." Such a humility begets trust and that 
habit of serenity which so generally characterizes that excel- 
lent people, and which will soon become the ruling element in 
the character of any individual who, under all prosperities, 
fears "even to think brag;" a serenity which softens ecstasy, 
which " eases up " the calamities of life, and so regulates its 
pulses, that, beating uniformly, the human machine works with- 
out a shock or a jar, and runs healthfully to a calm old age. 

^0t\m f etc 


A well-dressed gentleman called the other day to sell some patriotic music 
adapted to the Piano, and seeing the instrument open, he offered to play one of the 
pieces, and thus give an idea of its beauty. The instant he touched the keys, he 
turned round, and with a mingled expression of intelligence and gratification, ex- 
claimed, "This must be one of Worcester's ;" and so it was. But the story does 
not end here. The chords were so perfect, and the tones so clear and distinct, that 
he seemed to forget himself, and played half a dozen pieces, one running into the 
other, so that we began to fear he was like the man with the cork leg, which worked 
so well he couldn't stop. Why this maker's instruments maintain their superiority 
was lately explained in our office by one of the very first piano-workmen in the 
city — not in Mr. W.'s employ. " There is no shop known to me where such extra- 
ordinary pains are taken to make every part of the instrument as perfect as possible 
as in the old and extensive establishment of Horatio Worcester in Fourteenth 
street.' 1 


Not many editors advertise a man without being asked ; but our notices are in- 
tended to benefit our subscribers, by placing before them items of intelligence 
which will either promote their comfort or save money, and oftentimes both at 
once. Painfully earnest inquiries are made, from time to time, by parents from the 
country, in limited circumstances, as to where their children could obtain a good 
education at a moderate cost. The private schools of Mr. Abbott, in Fifth Avenue, 
and of Miss Hains, on Gramercy Park, are of a high order, and need no com- 
mendation. But only a favored few can afford to pay from four to seven hundred 
dollars a year for the education of a single child. It is a welcome task, under 
these circumstances, to notice an advertisement in that excellent and favorite family 
paper, the Home Journal, ($2 a year,) of the Grammar School of Madison Uni- 
versity, at Hamilton, N. Y. Classical, to prepare for college ; and English, to pre- 
pare for business. Three terms, opening October 19th, January 17th, and May 
23d. Ninety-five dollars pays for board, tuition, room-rent, washing, lodging, 
and incidentals, for one year, not including, we presume, the recesses. It is most 
ravishingly refreshing to know that there is one educational establishment in the 
universe where there are no "extras." Why, nine tenths of the private schools 
have a list of "incidentals," in their bills a mile long, "more or less." We per- 
sonally know nothing about the merits of the above school, but it is doubtless quite 
as good as others. One thing looks well ; it don't brag. It don't parade an inter- 
minable column of honorable and reverend referees, three fourths of whom have 
given their sign-manual merely to be accommodating, or for the purpose of being 
found in good company. 

One of the best private boy-schools in New-York is kept by Mrs. Dr. Steele, at 
70 Irving Place. Those who want a thorough teacher for their little girls will find 
such at 58 East Twenty-fifth street, in the person of Mrs. McMillin, the wife of a 
returned and disabled foreign missionary. 


Says the Baltimore True Union of the 12th of September: "We have had 
occasion frequently to commend the good common-sense and judicious counsels of 
Dr. W. W. Hall, of New-York, contained in this Journal. The September num- 
ber is not an exception. Its advice is invaluable to clergymen and heads of families. 
By following it we doubt not many times the cost of the Journal (only $1 per an- 
num) would be saved from the apothecary's bill in a year. By the way, the Doctor 


gives us a rap for copying extracts from his paper without credit. We need not 
assure him that we have never done so knowingly. We have doubtless cut the ex- 
tracts complained of from other papers, where they were first inserted without 
credit. We owe Dr. Hall too much for his good advice many years ago to do him 
wrong. When we had been laid aside from the pulpit for years by a bronchial 
affection, and were rapidly sinking into a state of confirmed invalidism, we con- 
sulted him, and are largely indebted to his advice for the improved health we have 
since enjoyed, and for more than one hundred and fifty sermons we have been per- 
mitted to preach since we had abandoned the pulpit, as we then feared, forever." 


We have a hope and a wish. The hope is, that the writer in the Home Journal^ 
on "Matrimonial Infelicities," has a few more articles of the same sort left. And 
the wish, that they may be embodied in a dollar volume. They are so full of 
human nature, so full of fun at the expense of water-weak husbands, there is no 
doubt of its making a good "Doctor-Book." Besides the laughter and the mirth 
generated, there is a spice of deep comfort in these papers. Every paragraph, al- 
most, goes right home to the consciousness of the individual, giving " aid and com- 
fort" in the direction indicated by that spiteful old French curmudgeon, who first 
enunciated the sentiment, that the misfortunes of our best friends were not without 
a mite of pleasurableness to the very best of us. To make it apply : Suppose a 
lady has a husband who is everlastingly growling ; there is some pleasure in the 
intelligence that some other woman has a similar contemptibility. " Supposing," 
on the other hand, the husband has ordinary prudence ; has a wholesome fear of 
debts, difficulties, and due-bills, and spies hobgoblins dire in an unruled household — 
hence to be master of " the situation," exercises a quiet, steady, and firm control 
over the whole domain, exacting regularity, system, promptitude, economies, and 
healthful observances, requiring in all cases that actual possession must precede 
disbursements — it is not a wonder, that when once in a decade a woman is found to 
be the owner of such a husband, number one feels " glad of it," on the ground that 
" misery loves company," albeit that said misery is in Betty Martin's eye. There 
is one difficulty in reading the Matrimonial Arenas, each party will look over the 
other side of the fence instead of at itself. The wife exclaims, when the husband 
gets a "dig," that's "him" exactly; and the husband, when the "poor, oppressed, 
suffering" wife comes off second best, asseverates, with an almost savage delight, 
" That's my wife to a T. Thank my stars, I'm not alone in my misfortunes." We 
will venture the assertion that no series of articles domestic, since the Caudle Lec- 
tures and Sparrowgrass Papers, have been read with such a peculiar gusto as the 
"Matrimonial Infelicities," in the Home Journal of Morris & Willis — two dollars a 
year only. Why, one of the Infelicities is worth two dollars ; for example, when 
Hubby forgot to kiss his wife until he had taken his seat in the omnibus, and then 
went back and got a dozen. 


Kidd, the gardener of the Marquis of Broadalbane, who sends fruits and flowers 
from the garden, near Hampton Court, England, to the Highland residence of the 
Marquis, subject to five hundred miles' carriage, is so successful in packing, that he can 
send fully ripe peaches " without losing a fruit," and bouquets, that when received 
will be as fresh as when first picked. A layer of bran is put at the bottom of a 
box or cask ; then each bunch of grapes is held by the hand over the center of a sheet 
of paper ; the four corners of the paper are brought up to the stalk and nicely se- 
cured ; then laid on its side in the box, and so on until the first layer is finished. 
Then fill the whole over with bran, and give the box a gentle shake as you proceed. 
Begin the second layer as the first, and so on, until the box is completed. Thus, 
with neat hands, the bloom is preserved, and may be sent to any distance. He has 
invariably packed from sixty to eighty bunches of grapes, and fifty or sixty dozen 
of peaches or apricots, in one box, and received letters from employers, to say that 
they had arrived as safe as if they had been taken from the trees that morning. 


Our Legitimate Scope is almost boundless : for whatever begets pleasurable 
and harmless feelings, promotes Health ; and whatever induces 
disagreeable sensations, engenders Disease. 


Vol. VIII.] DECEMBER, 1861. [No. 12. 


It would save trouble and annoyance, if all who read news- 
papers and magazines would arrange to have their subscriptions 
end with December of each year ; then they could not " forget " 
that their subscription had " run out." And let all remember 
that there is no season of the year wherein publishers most 
need what is due them, and most need the price of renewals, 
than the month including the Christmas holidays ; for then it is 
that their hard-working employes want every cent due them 
to be paid, in order " to make merry " with their families and 
friends. If they are not thus paid, their holiday-time is cloud- 
ed, and that of their wives and children. Hence no person 
from the country can imagine the aggregate of gladness pro- 
duced, or the sum-total of disquietude and unhappiness caused 
by the neglect to send the one, two, three, or more dollars 
owing to publishers, from individuals scattered here and there 
all over the land. It may be said that almost every dollar sent 
to publishers between this and the first day of January, will 
cause a smile of pleasure or a throb of joy to those, or their 
children, who help to set the type, or print the paper, or fold 
and stitch the very magazine which you, reader, will be read- 
ing and enjoying around your Christmas-fire ; to say nothing 
of that quiet satisfaction which never fails to well up in the 
bosom of every honest man or woman, boy or girl, on the pay- 
ment of an honest debt. 

We recommend to our readers the policy, wisdom, and justice 
of subscribing to the paper, of the class they wish to patronize, 

270 hall's journal of health. 

which is published nearest their dwelling, even if you are not 
altogether pleased with it. You thus aid, as it were, in improv- 
ing your own property ; and the better any paper of good gen- 
eral principles is supported, the better it becomes, and the more 
wholesome the influence it exercises in the community amid 
which it is issued. 

Each denomination of Christians should patronize the paper 
of their faith, in their own State, in preference to any religious 
paper elsewhere, although many times cheaper, larger, and 
better. Then, if you have more money to spare, take a paper 
published in one of the larger cities. 

He only is consistent with his profession who is " firmly per- 
suaded in his own mind " that his own sect, his own religious 
faith, is the nearest right of any other ; hence the " liberality " 
which leads a man to neglect the paper of his own church, and 
subscribe for that advocating another " faith," is the liberality of* 
ignorance, indifference, or hypocrisy. Such a man is worse than 
nobody in any church, and ought to be "spewed out" of his 
society as a mere " cumberer," that some more worthy may 
occupy his place. 

Inquiries are made of us, from time to time, as to what paper 
or magazine we would recommend. We consider The American 
Agriculturist, New- York, monthly, one dollar a year — German 
edition the same — to be, by all odds, the best, cheapest, and 
most ably edited of any agricultural magazine in the United 
States. Of the agricultural newspapers, the New-England 
Farmer, Boston, two dollars a year, and that time-honored and 
general favorite, The Country Gentleman, Albany, N. Y., same 
price, are at the head of their class, and have such a start that 
no doubt they will continue their supremacy. 

For the region south of New-York State, The American 
Former, monthly, two dollars a year, Baltimore, Md. For 
the north-west, we commend The Prairie Farmer, Chicago, and 
The Farmer, at Detroit, Michigan. Besides, these last two con- 
tain general reading well adapted to all farmers' families ; the 
articles being uniformly selected with taste and judgment. 

Of the very best Baptist newspapers in the nation are The 
Examiner, of New- York, and The Christian Watchman and Re- 
flector, Boston. Either of these papers can be safely and in- 
structively patronized by any orthodox family. The Examiner 


seems always to feel itself to be a gentleman, as well as a 
Christian, while The Watchman, true to its name, is more faith- 
fully on the look-out against " heresy, infidelity, and schism," 
than any religious rewspaper we receive ; and what is more, on 
the look-out for these things in places where they might not be 
suspicioned to exist, and would otherwise be allowed to lurk, 
and corrupt and poison to a most hurtful extent. It has found 
bad doctrine and pernicious sentiments in weeklies, monthlies, 
and quarterlies, and in bound volumes too, which so keen an 
eye as the veteran New- York Observer has allowed oversightedly 
to pass muster ; and for its fidelity, able as well as fearless, all 
orthodoxy owes patronage to the Christian Watchman and 
Reflector of Boston, Mass. 

No good Old School Presbyterian in all the Mississippi Val- 
ley, will send a single dollar east for a religious newspaper, until 
he has first subscribed and paid for Th,e Presbyterian Herald, of 
Louisville, Kentucky, a paper we used to write for when we 
were a medical student, so many years ago — we do not like to 
state the figures of the same, beyond that it is over a quarter of 
a century — and some of these same pieces we have seen within 
a year come up to the surface again, with a lost paternity. 
The editorials of the Herald have, within the last year, been 
more frequently copied into the secular as well as religious pa- 
pers of various denominations, at least as far as our exchanges 
are concerned, than'those of almost any other paper. This fact 
should show Dr. Hill that his pen is wanted ; and that while 
he has the ability he ought to keep it going, for none can know 
how soon the moment may come with the call to "go up 
higher!" The Presbyterian Banner, of the olden faith, well 
merits the patronage of its Church, at Pittsburgh, and many a 
league round about. As for the other paper of the same senti- 
ments, or more so — between the Banner and the Herald — 
namely the Presbyter, of Cincinnati, we can't say that we like it 
so well. It is so unbending, so John Knoxy, that it leans over 
on the other side. Perhaps, after all, these fellows of ice and 
steel, straight-lined and right-angled, have a useful niche to fill 
in these accommodating and time-serving ages, when the loaves 
and the fishes are u gods." We rather think, on the whole, that 
if Paul had been an editor, he would have been a "Presbyter" 
too, at least on a good number of points theologic. Of The 


Presbyterian, the father of the faithful, and of all Presbyterian 
paperdom, we need say nothing ; it has been a faithful servant 
of that Church, and a powerful champion for its rights and its 
purity ; and no good Presbyterian ought to take any other re- 
ligious paper out of his own church, to the exclusion of The 
Presbyterian, of Philadelphia. A baby in years is the Standard, 
of the Old School, at the same place and price. There was no 
use in starting it, in the first place. There are altogether too 
many religious newspapers for the real good of the churches- 
Orthodoxy would be largely the gainer, if. four out of five of 
the whole of them were abolished beyond the power of resur- 
rection. One well-sustained and ably-edited paper, as the or- 
gan of any sect, is worth a regiment of puling, wishy-washy 
things, only born to live in death-struggles, and finally go out 
in debt, dishonor, and disgrace. But we must say of the 
Standard, as many a mother has said lovingly of her new-born 
babe : " I didn't want you to come, but now you are here, bless 
your dear little heart, I love you all to 'pieces." The Standard 
has, up to this time, been edited with a steady ability, judg- 
ment, and discrimination, and has thus shown itself worthy of 
a liberally-sustained patronage, which we hope it will secure. 

The American Presbyterian, of Philadelphia, and the Central 
Christian Herald, of Cincinnati, are the organs of the New 
School Presbyterian Church. They both have been faithful in 
their day and generation, and sphere, and deserve that every 
subscriber should not only pay every cent owing before 
Christmas, but should send up another new name, for the " good 
of the cause." He who befriends these papers thus, in these 
" troublous times," is a true friend. Those who do nothing, 
even scarcely paying their balances, ought to be placed within 
leg-distance of that obese individual named in Deuteronomy, 
32 : 15. 

There are two papers published at Dayton, Ohio. We 
always, always open them with interest, because they seem to 
be edited with ability, conscientiousness, and discrimination. 
We have been reading them for years, and when we don't scissor 
them up totally, we send them to our country cousins all about ; 
they are too good to be destroyed. A dowager Presbyterian 
lady, who has had the run of our exchanges, and is just going 
into her new mansion on Murray Hill, said to us yesterday: "I 


must take the New- York Observer, of course, but I am going to 
order the Western Missionary, of Dayton, Ohio." It is only a 
dollar a year, and its neighbor, The Religious Telescope, some- 
what larger, (either is large enough,) is one dollar and fifty cents. 
We really do not know of what denomination or society these 
papers are, but they are Christ's, and surely that is enough. 
They are on his side all the time, and that is saying a good deal. 
In fact it is much more than can be said of quite a number of 
so-called religious newspapers, too many of which are given to 
gouging each other's eyes, faith, and character. Wonder if it's 
because the " Old Boy " is among them at such times, a gym- 
nasticizing them, giving them Zouave lessons in theological 
fisticuffs, somersets, and the like ? 

The New- York Evangelist has been so long known, and so 
many of its subscribers are readers of our own journal, that we 
need only remind them that the very least each one of them 
ought to do, after settling arrearages and paying up for 1862, 
should be to go around among friends, and get up two or three 
names a piece, as a deserved and substantial testimonial of your 
appreciation of what that paper has ably and faithfully done. 

The Christian Intelligencer of New- York is the organ of the 
Eeformed Dutch Church. It has been so conducted for many 
years, that it has not only gained the appreciation of its own 
people, but has secured the respect and confidence of the reli- 
gious press throughout the land ; and any Eeformed Dutch 
family which does not take and punctually pay for this old 
friend of the true and pure doctrines of the Bible, is not doing 
its duty, and ought to be ashamed of itself. There is one 
paper whose name has been familiar to us from early child- 
hood ; it was the first religious newspaper we ever saw — the 
first we ever read. It was a familiar sight on grandmothers 
knee, a long time ago, away out yonder in the wild woods of 
the West, when merchants used to pass by our door, coming 
"East "for goods; driving "pack-horses" before them laden 
with Spanish dollars, which had made their long and weary 
way from Mexico to " Nu-orleenes," as it was then called, 
up the Mississippi, or via Santa Fe and St. Louis. It was 
then a poor, little, coarse, yellow quarto, but always contain- 
ed so many good things, so much missionary news, so much 
pure, Christian counsel, admonition, and encouragement, that 

274 hall's journal of health. 

it was read and lent, and brought home and read again, then 
saved and bound, and cherished, long years after, as a treasure 
and a friend. This paper "still lives" by its old and time- 
honored name of Boston Recorder ; and if its subscription-list 
of long time ago could be found, the name of Hannah Pyke, 
with " nary red " ever found against it, would be seen running 
through many successive years, until the Master called her 

" To be an angel too." 

There are two other papers which we have not by any 
means forgotten: the New- York Chronicle, Baptist, and The 
Banner of the Gross, Philadelphia, Episcopalian. We trust 
they both receive, as they well deserve, a liberal patronage. 
The Banner comes about as near being what a religious news- 
paper ought to be, as most that come to our table. It is 
about half the size of a common newspaper, and in this is one 
foundation of its merit. The needed variety requires pith and 
condensation ; excluding altogether, and remorselessly, that 
immense mass of hybrid, mongrel matter, neither "civil " nor 
religious ; a compound that coalesces and makes neither the 
one nor the other, and whose effect on the mind is very " evil." 
Just look at the long columns of " foreign correspondence," 
hosannas of patent-medicines, and of the very " patent " men 
who lie so vigorously about their merits. Don't seem to us 
that there is much religious reading in these things — in " sooth 
ing syrup " made out of opium, and can not be made of any 
thing else, as every intelligent, honest druggist will confess ; 
still less in Bourbon whisky diluted with cream ; and bitters, 
always made of alcohol, it being the agent that must be em- 
ployed to extract the bitter principle. And yet these same 
papers would be horrified at being asked to insert an advertise- 
ment as to where opium would be sold, to cure every pain, and 
where a glass of egg-nog, brandy-toddy, or sangaree could be 
always had at a " moment's notice," "warranted," in every in- 
stance, to make one feel better, with the advantage of there be- 
ing no lie in the last assertion, at least according to our experi- 
ence lang syne. We vote, then, that all the religious newspa- 
pers reduce their size to that of the True Union of Baltimore, 
and, like it, be always readable, always awake, always on the 
side of a true and earnest piety. And Sir Oracle saith further : 


Keep up your prices, and never trust another dollar for a sin- 
gle hour. If the churches do not sustain you, let theirs be the 
responsibility : you have done your duty ; and there are other 
fields in which the same ability, the sameindustry, and the same 
mental power will return a much more abundant pecuniary 

There are two papers which we can not say are good, better, 
or best, for they are alone in their glory ; and, consequently, 
peerless in their sphere. Both of them are so neat in their ex- 
terior, that the very fact of a man's having one of them in his 
hand is prima facie evidence that he is a person of refinement, 
or of superior education in his line. The Home Journal and The 
Scientific American, issued weekly in New- York, at two dollars 
a year. These papers are so well adapted to the spheres they 
were intended to fill, and so completely fill them, that they 
have no rivals ; there is no room for rivalry, and it would be 
no use to attempt it. There is but one Morris and "Willis on 
this or any other continent, and Munn & Co. will, as they have 
done, stand alone for many a long year ; and in ability, too, as 
well as in prosperity. Every admirer of the good John Wes- 
ley — the fearless and indefatigable worker — who lays any 
claim to culture, elevation, and breadth of view, will find The 
Methodist of New- York, two dollars a year, the most ably edited 
weekly in that large denomination, whether in this country or 
any where else. So much for the batch of our old newspaper ex- 
changes received last Saturday ', except two; and yet, with "one 
consent," all the names mentioned, except the Home and the 
Scientific, who would not be taken as very pious, by any crowd, 
had "rather not" have them mentioned. But we beg leave 
to mention them without meaning to "offend one of" the 
" little ones." If any of our readers should be offended, and 
pout a little, and determine not to take our Journal any more, 
we can only say, pout on until you are tired, and get a little 
more sense. We say this defiantly, because we know you can't 
well do without us, and like any other infant, you will come 
around after a while, and do the very thing you resolved you 
wouldn't do. The first is a Universalist paper at Boston, Mass., 
two dollars a year, called The Trumpet. We do not believe 
that Calvin, or John Knox, or "Bob Breckinridge," their suc- 
cessor in a direct line, and of the pure blood unadulterated, un- 

276 hall's journal of health. 

diluted, and -undeteriorated, even under the influence of a dys- 
peptic dinner, could rind it in their hearts to erase one line in a 
month from its fourth page of general reading matter; and 
there is not a family paper in the land that would not be im- 
proved, in our opinion, by copying weekly this same fourth 
page of reading matter. The first page is doctrinal. The inner 
pages are devoted to advertisements and their home matters. 
The other paper is The Catholic Herald of Philadelphia. As to 
its peculiar tenets, we say nothing ; but we have a high respect 
for the talents and industry of the man who can, every week, sift 
out so much general intelligence for his readers, in connection 
with a large assortment of useful and unexceptionable general 
reading. Notwithstanding we have taken up so much space 
for the benefit of our confreres, we must take up still more ; for 
the reading of families is a moral medicine of great value, and 
this Journal has long since assumed the province of medicat- 
ing the mind and morals, as well as the brain and body. The 
fashions of the times are such, that every family having any 
pretension to intelligence, respectability, or position, feels a de- 
sire not only to have a daily or weekly newspaper, but also to 
take some magazine. To the higher classes, who have both 
means and cultivation, we say, with the utmost confidence, that 
ten dollars can not be spent to greater advantage in this direc- 
tion, than in the procurement of the republications of Leonard 
Scott & Co., of 79 Fulton street, New- York, to wit : 

Blackwood's Magazine, monthly, $2.00 

London Quarterly, (Conservative,) 3.00 

Edinburgh Eeview, (Whig,) 3.00 

North British Keview, (Free Church,) 3.00 

Westminster Keview, (Liberal,) 3.00 

Or the whole for ten dollars a year, delivered free of postage in 
all the principal cities and towns. These are written for by 
the best scholars and strongest minds in Great Britain ; and 
the educated have a feast in reading them, although there 
may not be coincidence of opinion at all times. The West- 
minster Review is so often infidel in its sentiments, that a good 
many of its numbers would serve a better purpose, as to so- 
ciety's best good, by being thrown into the fire. 

For monthly reading of a religious cast, always safe, The 


Home Monthly, Boston, two dollars a year, is the very best 5 
Eev. William M. Thayer, chief editor. Those who want lighter 
reading, that which is not specially religious, will find it in T. 
S. Arthur's Home Magazine, Philadelphia, two dollars a year. 
For purity of style and subject, Mr. Arthur has made for him- 
self an enviable reputation. He never printed a line that any 
one, however religious or refined, need hesitate to read at 
any family fireside, of "wife, children, and friends." Godey's 
Ladies' Booh maintains its popularity with the multitudes who 
have patronized it for so many years, and is so firmly estab- 
lished in their partialities, that they will take care of it "any 

The gentle Woodworth is no more, but the boys and girls 
will, for his sake as well as their own, continue to " take " 
Merry's Museum until they are boys and girls no more. 

There is no mother in the land who could possibly fail to 
derive most important assistance, in the discharge of her respon- 
sible and momentous duties, by taking some magazine designed 
to give hints, aids, and instruction as to the moral training of 
the family. One of the very oldest and best of this class is the 
Mother's Journal, New- York, one dollar a year, edited so long, 
so industriously, so conscientiously, and well, by Mrs. Caroline 
E. Hiscox. It is quite a mistake to suppose, that with our 
schoolboy days we are to cease learning orthography, etymol- 
ogy, syntax, and prosody. Language is changing; words are 
changing ; grammatical rules and constructions are changing ; 
and we ourselves must change with them, or to a dead-fire 
certainty we will become old fogies before we are forty. It is 
a very pleasant sight to see gray-headed people up to the times, 
instead of being put in the background, as is too often done. 
We were thinking last night, as the fire beamed and burned so 
brightly and cheerily in our low-down grate, and the children 
all quite as busy as any minister of state, although ten thou- 
sand times happier, as dimpled cheeks, snatches of song, and 
the loud laugh very conclusively proved — we repeat, while wo 
contemplated the happy scene, and remembered that the "gray- 
hair " who would have enjoyed it too, to the full, as much as 
we did, had taken up her returnless journey since a year ago, 
that old age added to the beauty and happiness of the family- 
fireside ; and we were on the point of laying a plan by which 

278 hall's jouenal of health. 

we could get some nice, cheery, kind-hearted old person to 
supply the vacancy, when we remembered sadly, that but too 
soon there would be two others to fill the niche without going 
from under our own roof. But " to return to the sheep." 
There is a class of monthly publications called " Teachers,' 7 
designed primarily for those who teach school, to impart every 
variety of information calculated to aid in governing and edu- 
cating children. These monthlies abound in valuable and sug- 
gestive hints, which can well be appropriated by parents, and 
would be of inestimable service to them, in enabling them the 
better to manage their own children ; to lead out their capabil- 
ities ; to mold their characters ; to control their passions and 
propensities; and to cherish the germs of goodness in the 
heart, of excellence in the character, of power in the mind ; 
for much of what these publications contain, is the interchange 
of teachers' experience, observation, and practice. Another 
every-day practical good to be derived from these issues is, that 
important suggestions and rules are laid down as to words and 
phrases ; as to pronunciation and grammar, so that there is not 
a household in the land that would not find amusement and 
profit in reading these " Teachers " in the family circle, and in 
following them up in polite, kindly, and courteous criticisms, 
as to each other's lapsus linguae, and delinquencies of speech, 
pronunciation, and grammar. The u Teachers " are only a dol- 
lar a year, and we are fully persuaded that a dollar could not 
be spent to greater advantage, in the direction of the improve- 
ment and elevation of a family in these regards. Send, then, 
a dollar, "on receipt of this," to The Teacher, at Albany, N. Y., 
or Boston, Mass., or Portland, Me., or Home and School Journal, 
Chicago, 111., or Journal of Education, Ann Arbor, Mich. 

SUBURBAN HOME SCHOOL — under the superintend- 
ence and proprietorship of Eev. Alonzo Shears, M.A., Eector, 
who may be addressed at New-Haven, Connecticut, for circu- 
lars containing terms, references, etc., who receives into his 
family a limited number of boys, so as to make this a strictly 
family school, with ample play-grounds and all the conveni- 
ences for the preservation and promotion of the health of the 
students. We cordially commend this conscientiously con- 
ducted and favorably known institution to the patronage of 
our subscribers. 

THE WAR. 279 

THE WAR. — The only sermon we have listened to, read, or 
heard of, since the war began, which expresses our two hading 
ideas on the subject, has been published, "■ by request," by W. 
S. Dorr, 101 Nassau street, New-York, and was preached on 
the day of the National Fast, Sept. 26th, 1861, at the Spring- 
street Church, by its pastor, Kev. Kobert Davidson, D.D., who 
is at once an elegant writer, a cultivated scholar, and a Christ- 
ian gentleman. If any one will take the pains to run over the 
headings of the fast-day sermons, so elaborately reported by 
the enterprise of the New- York dailies, it will be perceived 
that, " with one consent," they make the nation out a culprit, 
under the bastinado, for about every national crime under the 
sun. Our own minister prayed for " this wretched nation." 
As soon as we got home, we horrified our family by an out- 
and-out disclaimer of the whole thing, and told them we didn't 
believe a word of it, that the nation was " wretched," or a sin- 
ner above all others — that the Almighty was angry with it ; 
on the contrary, it was nearer being a Christian nation than any 
other on the face of the earth, and enumerated its " works," 
the only solid sign of a true faith ; its missionary, tract, and 
Bible operations ; the millions expended voluntarily every year 
for objects wholly benevolent and religious ; the very fact that 
a national fast was appointed and observed with great uniform- 
ity throughout the land showed that this was a government 
which looked through clouds, up to the Maker of the universe, 
to lead it aright. We contended that there was not only no 
evidence of the Divine displeasure, but the strongest that could 
be given of his smiles, in that the earth had never yielded a 
larger increase ; never before was there such a call from abroad 
for every pound or bushel of produce our people could spare ; 
and never, in our memory, had there been a year more free 
from epidemic diseases, than this same of eighteen hundred and 
sixty-one. The very cost of war was a blessing ; for the rich, 
who had more than they could use, had to pay for it into the 
hands of the poor and industrious, and that thus would the 
land be flooded with money ; and never since we have been a 
nation, has there been as much gold and silver in the country 
as at this hour. We said further, that the war was not to be 
regretted, and that Grod would bring a national good out of it, 
that would open up a more glorious future to it than could 
otherwise have been done. But fearing that we might be con 


sidered as getting up an opposition meeting to our honored and 
beloved minister, we broke short off, and began to talk about 
something else. Although, if we could have had our say out, 
we would have enunciated further, what Dr. Davidson, with 
great frankness, (and who, like the Doctor, could have lived for 
many years a near neighbor to the "Great Commoner," and not 
be frank and fearless too ?) tells as a truth which multitudes only 
dare whisper, and which the magnates disclaim with particular 
pains, that in this war, " Slavery is the cause and object;" that 
the South intended thereby to extend its area, and to perpetuate 
it ; and that the North intends, as the war has been forced on 
her, that Slavery shall not be extended, and that it shall cease 
on this continent. The Doctor argues that, if Slavery be a crime, 
and the North is seeking to cut it up by the roots, there is no 
reason why God should be angry with the North ; but reason 
for the reverse ; hence, with a wise and admirable sententious- 
ness, he entitles his discourse: "A Nation's Discipline; or, 
Trials not Judgments." 

Looking up, then, to God, as the Arbiter of nations ; regarding 
him, as he truly is, more a merciful Father, toward both sides, 
than as a vindictive Judge, what are we to hope for ? Simply 
that this war, to the whole people, is the entire " nation's dis- 
cipline ;" its " trial, not its judgment ;" and we sincerely thank 
Dr. Davidson for embodying so grand an idea so tersely. And 
further, we are as certain of it as that the sun will rise to- 
morrow, that the United States, one and undivided, will come 
out of this war in such a way, that both North and South will 
feel at a future day, as the Editor has unwaveringly felt, since 
Sumter fell, that this war is the grandest event of the century — 
to be made the grandest by the overruling of that Merciful 
One who is the embodiment of " Love" to North and South 
also. What will be the exact manner of its solution, or how 
we would like it solved, would be but a mere opinion, but we 
have no fears of the result ; on the contrary, we have had an 
abiding faith that the issue will be for God's glory and the 
whole nation's highest good. That there are evils connected 
with war, and that, as a nation, we have come short of our 
duty to Divinity, we unhesitatingly admit ; but we cordially 
agree with Dr. D. in these two propositions, that as to North 
and South, this is a war of Slavery, and that it is a war of dis 
cipline and trial, not of judgment. 


WORDS OF CHEER.— It is a grand, good tiling in times like 
these, not only to know that the Journal is not losing money, 
but that it is actually doing good, making converts to common- 
sense and a rational mode of living. A stranger writes : " I 
am a reader of the Journal of Health. I don't think I ever 
saw so much common-sense wrapped up in a few pages. Your 
work on 'Health and Disease' is an excellent one, but 
your book on ' Sleep ' caps the whole. "What next ? In my 
sleeping apartment I have adjusted a cord and two pulleys to 
the top sash, so that I can lower or raise it at pleasure ; at the 
bottom one I have a piece of wood with notches cut in, so that 
I can raise or lower it in like manner, as occasion may require. 
I write not to flatter, but to let you know that there is one soul 
enjoying to its fullest capacity what thousands of human beings 
are daily depriving themselves of, namely, a pure atmosphere. 
May the instruction from the pages of this your book on 
' Sleep,' make many a faint pulse beat with a more healthful 
and vigorous vitality, and the sickly visage just budding now 
and waning, may blossom as the rose." 

While speaking of our book on " Sleep," sent post paid for 
$1.37, we take occasion to commend it anew to those of our 
subscribers who have not purchased it. To those who can not 
spare the price, we say, send four new subscribers to the Jour- 
nal of Health, and we will send the book free of charge. 
Its first object is to show, by well-authenticated facts, the im- 
portant influence had over the health of any one, in spending 
one third of the whole existence, as is done in sleeping, in a 
pure atmosphere. We next show how this may be safely se- 
cured. The various sources of impurity in our sleeping apart- 
ments are pointed out ; as also the baleful effects of crowding 
in sleeping ; the certain ill results of the young sleeping with 
the old ; the sick with the well ; also the social relations of 
sleep, as to children sleeping with children ; the habits some- 
times induced ; the results of those habits in after-life ; the 
consequences of those habits ; the very certain, safe, and cost- 
less mode, of correcting them ; the importance of control ; of 
securing sound, uninterrupted sleep; how mothers may nurse 
and train their infants and small children, so as not to interrupt 
the sleep at night ; and the important benefits arising to the 
children, to the mother, and to the father, in securing these re- 

282 hall's journal of health. 

suits. There is much in the book of absorbing interest to all 
cultivated minds, whether young or old. A due attention to 
its general suggestions would very greatly add to the health, 
the happiness, the life and purity of any community. 

CRACKING SHINS.— We remember well in the days of 
our childhood of hearing our grandmother's kinky-headed little 
contrabands boasting that it "felt so good," to have their shins 
cracked with a hard stick. The little monkeys could not ex- 
actly explain the thing, that it was the contrasted absence of 
pain with the immediate, momentary, acute suffering of the 
stroke. We didn't experiment as we do in later years, as to 
the doctoring business. We were abundantly content with the 
" faith" without the "works." Matthew Yasar, the great 
Poughkeepsie philanthropist, said the other day to a friend, 
that he "felt like a new man; as if a mountain- weight were 
lifted from his shoulders," on the occasion of his putting his 
name to a document which relieved him of the four hundred 
and eight thousand dollars which he had appropriated to the 
building, establishment, and support of an Institution in his 
neighborhood, for the improvement and elevation of the young, 
and which is in such rapid process of completion, under the 
energetic, systematic, and judicious management of his old 
neighbor and friend, Mr. Dubois. 

Now, we haven't the least mite of a doubt that a great many 
of our readers would, at this moment, experience a more be- 
atific sense of "relief" than ever Mr. Yasar did, in being in- 
vested with one tenth part of the number of dollars aforesaid, 
as a free gift. But we are anxious to open up to every honest- 
hearted reader a source of pleasure quite as soul-delighting as 
in Mr. Yasar' s case; far more ennobling than in the latter; 
and equally as " striking" as in the matter of shin-bones. It is 
simply this: take every dollar you can "rake and «o.rape" 
without borrowing; do it on the instant; and pay as, many 
debts as it is possible for you to do, beginning with the smallest ; 
and if you get home with every " hole stopped," although you 
may not have a single mill left, the deliciousness of your hap- 
piness, by reason of the contrast between suffering innumera- 
ble and distressing duns, and perfect exemption therefrom, will 
be in exact proportion to the justness, honesty, and goodness 
of your heart. 


any thing to do, do it. What an inconceivable number of un- 
pleasant mental conditions and endurances might be avoided 
daily, if this homely rule were put in practice ! When a thing 
has to be done, be decided and courageous enough to do it on 
the spot, and have it off your mind. Procrastination is cow- 
ardice — the pulling of a tooth for example ; as also the taking 
a whole dollar out of pocket on the instant, and sending it for 
the Journal for next year. It has to be done, reader ; and 
you are determined to do it. What is the use, then, of putting 
it off, it may be for a month, or more, and then sending it 
along with an excuse, that you "intended" etc. etc. We know 
very well that you can't well do without it, hence we feel a 
little independence in the premises. And while you are at it, 
send an extra dollar for your minister, as a New- Year's gift. 

OBSTETRICS.— The Messrs. Wood, the great medical pub- 
lishers of the United States, have, with commendable and 
courageous enterprise, issued a beautiful octavo volume of 7 61 
pages, on " The Principles and Practice of Obstetrics, by Gun- 
ning S. Bedford, A.M., M.D., author of ' Clinical Lectures on 
the Diseases of Women and Children,' " and the distinguished 
Professor of Obstetrics, etc., in the University of New-York. 
It is printed in handsome style, and illustrated by four colored 
lithograph plates, and ninety -nine engravings. It is a complete 
and able exposition of the science and practice of midwifery, 
and is destined to be a text-book and a standard volume in 
American medical literature. But Professor Bedford's name 
alone would sell the book, so that the Messrs. Wood, after all, 
were not quite so brave as at first sight might have seemed, in 
bringing out so costly a work in times like these, when so 
many publishers would be but too happy to sell what they 
hav't i hand. They keep in their large establishment the 
fullesHmd most complete assortment of medical works of real 
value in America, both English and French, and at very low 

PHYSICAL EDUCATION— Dr. Lewis's Normal Institute, 
for Physical Education, will open its second course on January 
2d, 1862, at 20 Essex street, Boston, where circulars can be 

284 hall's jouknal of health. 

PESTILENCE AND PLAGUE have destroyed millions of 
lives. In long ages past, they have half- depopulated cities, 
and decimated empires. Whence came they ? From human 
dereliction, as all other curses and calamities come, and not 
from the Almighty's hand, because he promised Noah, "I 
will not again curse the ground any more for man's sake," and, 
as we paraphrase the assertion, " let him be ever so bad." 
Plague is from a Greek word meaning " to blow," as if it 
came on the wings of the wind. Pestilence is the Latin 
word which means the same thing. The " Great Plague " 
visited London in 1665, and the next year a terrible fire laid a 
very large portion of it in ashes, since when it has not re- 
appeared there. Erasmus wrote of England three hundred 
and fifty years ago, in the days of " King Hal:" " The floors 
of their dwellings are strewn with green rushes, which are 
allowed to increase, layer upon layer, for twenty years together, 
covering up bones, crumbs from the table, and other filth ; and 
to this, and the general dirty and slovenly habits amongst the 
people, may be ascribed the frequent plagues in England." 
And this in Henry the Eighth's day ! What a disgusting idea ! 
Yet, in our own time, filthy cellars, dirty kitchens, and foul, 
dark closets, are the unsuspected sources of habitual sickness to 
whole households. 

A SAD, SAD CASE. — A young lady, just budding into 
womanhood, died lately, after a ten days' illness, from pneumo- 
nia—that is, inflammation of the lungs, sometimes called lung 
fever or congestion of the lungs — induced by standing on the 
damp ground, in thin shoes, at the Central Park, having alighted 
from her father's carriage to look at some object of interest. 
It is scarcely possible that she had not been warned many 
times as to the danger of standing still on the damp earth, 
especially at certain seasons. Is there no way of leading 
children to heed parental advice on these and other subjects ? 
It can not be doubted that a better result could be secured if 
parental counsels were followed up and corroborated by seeing 
them read in some journal like our own — and thus a dollar be 
the means of averting evils which no amount of money can 
remedy when once induced. Parents, think of this ! 


COOKERY AND HEALTH.— Next in importance to hav- 
ing something to eat, is the proper preparation of it for the 
table. Bad cookery kills multitudes outright, and robs other 
multitudes of half the pleasure of life. Soyer was considered 
the most accomplished cook that ever lived in London ; his 
experiences are embodied in the twenty pages, which are a 
part of our little volume on " Soldier Health," sent for twenty- 
five cents, a book which we think every person who has a 
relative or near friend in the army ought to send to the same, 
even if its price had to be procured by the loss of a dinner. 
Of this book an unknown correspondent writes : " A young 
brother has just gone into camp ; but before he started, a God- 
send came — your book on ' Soldier- Health.' My father has 
presented one to each mess of a company, and sent one to the 
Colonel, recommending its introduction through the regiment." 
A sick soldier is worse than nobody, for he throws a burden on 
a well one ; hence, to keep him well is a matter of prime con- 

A NATURAL WISH.— It is very natural that we should 
wish the circulation of this Jouenal largely extended. Has it 
ever occurred to our subscribers that it is their duty to do some- 
thing toward this extension? If you have derived benefit 
from it, would it not be a kindly and neighborly act to induce 
your nearest friends to take it a year on trial ? for it is very 
certain that by following its counsels, their health and happi- 
ness would be promoted and their lives extended for years. 

Have you childeen ? You know how indifferent they are 
to your advice in too many cases ; you know also that more 
importance is attached to what they see in print than to what 
you might say in regard to health. Would not the chances of 
their being benefited be greatly increased if you were to order 
the Jouenal for each one of them ? Their illness would be 
your greatest trouble, their death an irremediable grief; and 
yet thousands of lives are lost every year from inatten- 
tion to the suggestions of one single article, to wit — about 
cooling off slowly after exercise. Many who have taken the 
Jouenal, entire strangers to us, have written letters, or called 
in person, to express their obligations for the important and 
beneficial counsels found in our pages ; and it is reasonable to 
infer that others taking it next year for the first time would 


derive similar benefits, both for themselves and for their child- 
ren. We have no axes to grind, no medicines to sell, no pa- 
tent contrivances to put in the market; but we do have a desire 
to promote the health and happiness of our kind, by the cir- 
culation of plain, practical truths in connection with human 
health ; and we are no more under obligation to do this than 
you, reader ! But it is too true that the friends of truth move 
with the snail, while the advocates of error vie with the hart 
and the hind in their efforts to circulate what is specious, false, 
and ruinous. He who lives wholly to himself and for himself 
is among the most contemptible of his kind, and never can be 
happy, never can be blest. They only are God-like, and akin 
to angels, who work for the good of others, and who delight 
in that work. 


Send your letter to the simple address of Dr. "W. W. Hall, 
New-York. But before you send it, attach a dollar bill with a 
pin to the top of your letter-sheet ; then under that write your 
name in full, with the name of State, county, and post-ofhce ; 
seal the letter with a wafer, and put it in the post-office your- 
self without saying any thing to any body. By so doing, you 
will not have to write another letter to say that you had forgot- 
ten to inclose the all-important dollar. It is quite certain that 
the troublous times have made some of our subscribers too 
poor to take our Jouknal longer ; to such we will continue to 
send it, if they forward the names of two new subscribers, and 
two dollars. To any clergyman who will send us two new 
subscribers with two dollars, we will send a third number for 
their trouble. This is done because, in too many cases, their 
already scant salaries have been scaled down to a point so low 
as to shame the churches. To any person who will send three 
dollars, with three new subscribers' names, the fourth copy will 
be sent for their trouble. 

We have never offered to pay persons for taking the Jour- 
nal, in portraits, paintings, chances, or any thing else, nor will 
we " club 1 ' with any other publication, nor do we want any 
one to take it who does not consider it worth a dollar. We 
know there are some who value it far above the subscription- 
price, but who do not feel as if they could spare the money, 


and yet not only want the Journal for next year, but would 
like very much to have one or more of our other publications ; 
to such and to all others we offer any of our dollar volumes 
for three new subscribers, and any one of our dollar and a 
quarter volumes for four new subscribers, or " Soldier Health" 
for one new subscriber. If any of these volumes are requested 
to be sent by mail, sixteen cents must be sent to pay postage. 

To any one who will send twenty new subscribers at one 
time, we will give, at our office, the eight bound volumes of 
Hall's Journal of Health. To any one sending thirty- 
four new subscribers, we will give a copy of each one of our 
publications, which are as follows : 

Eight bound vols. Hall's Jour. Health, each $1.25 

Yols. 1 and 2 Fireside Monthly, each . 1.25 

Bronchitis and Kindred Diseases, . 1.00 

Consumption, . . . ' . . r 1.00 

Health and Disease, . . . . 1.00 

Sleep, 1.25 

Soldier Health, ...... 25 

Or seventeen dollars' worth of books for thirty- four new sub- 
scribers. In other words, we offer half a dollar's worth of 
books for the trouble of getting one new subscriber. In a 


An active young person could earn the whole set. Gould two 
or three 


spend a bright, bracing winter's morning in a better way, than 
by turning out with a resolve to obtain subscribers enough to 
enable them to present to their minister the whole fifteen vol- 
umes ? In fact, we so heartily admire a kindly feeling toward 
a minister, on the part of the young of his charge, and so truly 
delight to see activity, energy, and enterprise in youth, that we 


to give the whole fifteen volumes, and five dollars in money 
besides, to any 


who, on or before Christmas-day next, shall send us thirty- 
four new subscribers, for the purpose of presenting the books 
to a clergyman. 

In all cases, sums under one dollar should be sent in postage- 
stamps, and over five dollars in a draft payable to our order. 



Is one of the most exhilarating of all pastimes, whether on the ice, or 
over our parlor or hall floors, with roller-skates. In the days of " Queen 
Bess," some three hundred years ago, it was a favorite amusement with 
the Londoners, whose facilities for the same were limited to pieces of bone 
attached to the shoes. As lives have been lost in connection with skating, 
the following suggestions are made : 

1. Avoid skates which are strapped on the feet, as they prevent the 
circulation, and the foot becomes frozen before the skater is aware of it, 
because the tight strapping benumbs the foot and deprives it of feeling. 
A young lady at Boston lost a foot in this way ; another in New-York, 
her life, by endeavoring to thaw her feet in warm water, after taking off 
her skates. The safest kind are those which receive the fore-part of the 
foot in a kind of toe, and stout leather around the heel, buckling in front 
of the ankle only, thus keeping the heel in place without spikes or screws, 
and aiding greatly in supporting the ankle. 

2. It is not the object so much to skate fast, as to skate gracefully ; and 
this is sooner and more easily learned by skating with deliberation ; while 
it prevents overheating, and diminishes the chances of taking cold by cool- 
ing off too soon afterward. 

3. If the wind is blowing, a vail should be worn over the face, at least 
of ladies and children ; otherwise, fatal inflammatioji of the lungs, " pneu- 
monia," may take place. 

4. Do not sit down to rest a single half-minute ; nor stand still, if there 
is any wind ; nor stop a moment after the skates are taken off ; but walk 
about, so as to restore the circulation about the feet and toes, and to pre- 
vent being chilled. 

5. It is safer to walk home than to ride ; the latter is almost certain to 
give a cold. 

6. Never carry any thing in the mouth while skating, nor any hard 
substance in the hand ; nor throw any thing on the ice ; none but a care- 
less, reckless ignoramus, would thus endanger a fellow -skater a fall. 

7. If the thermometer is below thirty, and the wind is blowing, no lady 
or child should be skating. 

8. Always keep your eyes about you, looking ahead and upward, not on 
the ice, that you may not run against some lady, child, or learner. 

9. Arrange to have an extra garment, thick and heavy, to throw over 
your shoulders, the moment you cease skating, and then walk home, or at 
least half a mile, with your mouth closed, so that the lungs may not be 
quickly chilled, by the cold air dashing upon them, through the open 
mouth ; if it passes through the nose and head, it is warmed before it gets to 
the lungs. 

10. It would be a safe rule for no child or lady to be on skates longer 
than an hour at a time. 

11. The grace, exercise, and healthfulness of skating on the ice, can 
be had, without any of its dangers, by the use of skates with rollers at- 
tached, on common floors ; better if covered with oil-cloth. Lessons are 
given in this pleasant and exhilarating exercise at Mr. Disbrow's on Fifth 
Avenue, whose spacious and well-conducted establishment ought to be well 



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